Environmental Impact Assessment of Landless Monogastric Livestock Production Systems

J.F.F.P. Bos
J. de Wit
International Agriculture Centre
Wageningen, The Netherlands
January, 1996















    Table of Contents

Study Sponsors

Commission of the European Union
Denmark
France (Ministère de la Coopération)
Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit - GTZ)
Netherlands
United Kingdom (Overseas Development Administration)
United States (Environmental Protection Agency)

Study Coordination by:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
United States (U.S. Agency for International Development)
World Bank

Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative

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Table of Contents


PREFACE

ABBREVIATIONS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. INTRODUCTION

2. DESCRIPTION OF LLM SYSTEMS

2.1. General description
2.2. Pork production within LLM systems
2.3. Poultry meat and egg production within LLM systems
2.4. Classification of LLM systems
2.5. Trends, causes, motives

3. LIVESTOCK - ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS

3.1. General description and concepts
3.2. Relevance and magnitude

3.2.1. Introduction and methodology
3.2.2. N and P excretion by pigs and poultry in LLM systems
3.2.3. Manure management systems
3.2.4. Emissions from stables and during storage of manure
3.2.5. Emissions after manure application to land
3.2.6. Fossil energy consumption
3.2.7. Heavy metals in LLM systems
3.2.8. Methane emission from LLM systems
3.2.9. Wastes from animal processing
3.2.10. Competition between food and feed
3.2.11. Food safety
3.2.12. Animal genetic resources and LLM systems
3.2.13. Associated problems: Animal welfare and high consumption levels of livestock products

4. OPTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT AND POSSIBLE IMPACT

4.1. A framework for the design of technological and policy options
4.2. Technological options
4.3. Policy options

4.3.1. Overview of current environmental policies
4.3.2. Policy options to mitigate negative environmental impact

5. CONCLUSIONS

6. REFERENCES

ANNEXES

1. Conversion factors for the calculation of Livestock Units per pig, laying hen and broiler
2. Accuracy of the calculation method to estimate the share of LLM systems in total pork production
3. Key indicators and their parameters
4. Feed rations, N and P content, digestibilities and excretion for pigs, broilers and laying hens in the Netherlands, Canada and the tropics
5. Some consequences of internalization of externalities