| J. De Wit
International Agriculture Center
Wageningen, the Netherlands
Commission of the European Union
France (Ministère de la Coopération)
Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit - GTZ)
United Kingdom (Overseas Development Administration)
United States (Environmental Protection Agency)
Study Coordination by:
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
United States (U.S. Agency for International Development)
Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative
This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.
2. The Landless Livestock Ruminant Production Systems
2.1. Definition of LLR systems
2.2. Description of the subsystems.
2.2.1. Beef fattening in feedlots
2.2.2. Veal production
2.2.3. Sheep fattening
2.2.4. Large-scale beef production in EE and CIS.
2.2.5. Urban dairy farming
2.3. Statistics on LLR systems and production trends.
2.3.1. Beef fattening in feedlots in the USA.
2.3.2. Veal production
2.3.3. Sheep fattening in WANA.
2.3.4. Large-scale beef production in EE and CIS
2.3.5. Urban dairy farming
2.4. Causes and motives
3. Livestock - Environment Interactions (LEI)
3.1. General description and concepts
3.2. Relevance and magnitude of interactions
3.2.2. Nutrient excretion and manure management
184.108.40.206. Nutrient excretion.
220.127.116.11. Manure management
18.104.22.168. Heavy metals
3.2.3. Methane production
22.214.171.124. Methane emission from the digestive process of ruminants
126.96.36.199. Methane emission from manure
188.8.131.52. Effect of landless ruminants on global warming
3.2.4. Concentrate demand
3.2.6. Animal genetic resources
3.2.7. Contaminations of LLR-products and food safety
3.2.8. Demand for fossil energy
3.2.9. Waste from processing of animal products
184.108.40.206. Waste from the slaughter process
220.127.116.11. Waste from tanneries
18.104.22.168. Waste from dairy plants
4. Options for Improvement
4.1. Technological options
4.2. Policy options
Annex 1: Manure excretion in the LLR-system
Annex 2: Concentrate feeding in LLR systems