Environmental Impact Assessment of Landless Livestock Ruminant Production Systems

J. De Wit
P.T. Westra
A.J. Nell
International Agriculture Center
Wageningen, the Netherlands
January, 1996

    Table of Contents

Study Sponsors

Commission of the European Union
France (Ministère de la Coopération)
Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit - GTZ)
United Kingdom (Overseas Development Administration)
United States (Environmental Protection Agency)

Study Coordination by:

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
United States (U.S. Agency for International Development)
World Bank

Livestock, Environment and Development (LEAD) Initiative

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Table of Contents



1. Introduction

2. The Landless Livestock Ruminant Production Systems

2.1. Definition of LLR systems
2.2. Description of the subsystems.

2.2.1. Beef fattening in feedlots
2.2.2. Veal production
2.2.3. Sheep fattening
2.2.4. Large-scale beef production in EE and CIS.
2.2.5. Urban dairy farming

2.3. Statistics on LLR systems and production trends.

2.3.1. Beef fattening in feedlots in the USA.
2.3.2. Veal production
2.3.3. Sheep fattening in WANA.
2.3.4. Large-scale beef production in EE and CIS
2.3.5. Urban dairy farming

2.4. Causes and motives

3. Livestock - Environment Interactions (LEI)

3.1. General description and concepts
3.2. Relevance and magnitude of interactions

3.2.1. Introduction
3.2.2. Nutrient excretion and manure management Nutrient excretion. Manure management Heavy metals

3.2.3. Methane production Methane emission from the digestive process of ruminants Methane emission from manure Effect of landless ruminants on global warming

3.2.4. Concentrate demand
3.2.5. Rangelands
3.2.6. Animal genetic resources
3.2.7. Contaminations of LLR-products and food safety
3.2.8. Demand for fossil energy
3.2.9. Waste from processing of animal products Waste from the slaughter process Waste from tanneries Waste from dairy plants

3.2.10. Biodiversity

4. Options for Improvement

4.1. Technological options
4.2. Policy options

5. Conclusions

6. References

Annex 1: Manure excretion in the LLR-system

Annex 2: Concentrate feeding in LLR systems