COVER LEAD Livestock, Environment and Development initiative





Livestock and the Environment

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Livestock and the Environment
International Conference

International Agricultural Centre
P.O. Box 88,
6700 AB Wageningen,
The Netherlands
Telephone: +31-317-490111
Fax: +31-317-418552
E-mail: IAC@IAC.AGRO.NL

Coverphoto's:Grazing livestock - FAO photo
 Intensive poultry production - FAO photo
 Land cultivation with draught animals - FAO photo

ISBN: 90-70785-14-5

Keywords: Livestock production, Environment.

Published with the financial assistance of:

Livestock and the Environment
International Conference

Proceedings of the International Conference on
Livestock and the Environment
held in Ede/Wageningen, the Netherlands
16 – 20 June 1997, organized by
World Bank
Food and Agriculture Organization
International Agricultural Centre

Edited by: Arend J. Nell

Published by:International Agricultural Centre, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

February 1998

Committees

The Steering Committee for the Livestock - Environment Initiative

 D. Peden (IDRC - Canada)
F. Winther Olsen (DANIDA - Denmark)
M. Dale (EU)
H. Steinfeld (FAO - coordination)
J.L. Francois (Ministère de la Coopération - France)
A. von Lossau (GTZ - Germany)
A. Sidahmed (IFAD)
H. Jorritsma (Ministry of Foreign Affairs - the Netherlands)
G Freeland (DFID - UK)
J. Turk (USAID - USA)
C. de Haan (World Bank - chair)

Organizing committee for the conference:

Co - Chairs:C. de HaanWorld Bank,
 H SteinfeldFood and Agriculture Organization
Secretary/treasurerA.J.NellInternational Agriculture Centre
Conference organizationJ. KentieInternational Agriculture Centre
 A.A. GreevenInternational Agriculture Centre

Preface

One of the greatest challenges faced by mankind is to satisfy the needs of the fast growing global population and at the same time preserve land, water, air and biodiversity resources. Livestock are a crucial element in this balancing process. Demand for livestock products is growing fast, especially in the developing world. Livestock, through their multiple functions, are a cornerstone of the livelihood of most of the rural population in the developing world. On the other hand, livestock use around 60 percent of the world's land area, including one fifth of the world's crop lands, and therefore interact directly and indirectly with a large part of the world's natural resources. Positioning livestock in such a way that it can satisfy future demands, while preserving the natural resource base, is therefore a critical element of sustainable agricultural development.

With this challenge in mind, a group of bilateral and multilateral development agencies requested FAO, the World Bank and USAID to lead the preparation of a major study on livestock - environment interactions. With the help of the international scientific community a state - of - the - art review on livestock - environment interactions has been prepared. The International Conference on Livestock and the Environment was held to share this information with a much broader audience and to translate the information into concrete guidelines for regional and national policies. The International Conference further aimed at formulating follow - up actions and identifying pilot activities to test innovative approaches.

The proceedings of this conference contain the papers presented, and the conclusions and recommendations of the conference workshops. The recommendations will serve as a guideline for the Steering Committee of the Livestock - Environment Initiative to initiate follow - up action. A translation of the recommendations into Spanish and French is included in the proceedings.

The conference organizers wish to acknowledge the financial support from the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the organization of the conference. We also wish to thank CIPAV in Colombia for the translation into Spanish of the recommendations of the workshops. We furthermore wish to thank the many donor agencies who provided financial support for the participants of the conference. The assistance of Ms Rianne Hermus for the English corrections of the papers and of Ms Irmgard Liem - de Neef for the preparation of the typescript has been highly appreciated.

The conference organizers express their gratitude to the participants and thank all the authors of the papers for their contribution.

Arend J. Nell
Editor
February 1998


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface

Contents

Welcome and keynote addresses

Welcome and conference objectives.
Arend Jan Nell

A food security perspective to livestock and the environment
Louise O. Fresco, Henning Steinfeld

An international trade perspective on livestock and the environment
Alexander McCalla, Cees de Haan

Netherlands agricultural environmental policy; lessons to be learned
Johan de Leeuw

Introduction to the study livestock - environment interactions

Livestock and global change
Henning Steinfeld

Balancing livestock and environment; the study framework
Cees de Haan

Global consultation on balancing livestock, environment and human needs
Hugo Li Pun, E.J. Mwendera, V. Mares, B. Hart, H. Steinfeld, D. Peden, C. Sere, C. de Haan

Livestock grazing systems and the environment

Balancing livestock and environment; the grazing system
Cees de Haan

Price adjustments and the cattle sub-sector in central West-Africa
Henk A.J. Moll, Nico B.M. Heerink

Livestock-deforestation links: policy issues in the western Brazilian Amazon
Merle D. Faminow, Stephen A. Vosti

Livestock and wildlife in the environment - diversity in pastoral ecosystems of East Africa
R. Aveling, E. Barron, P. Bergin, M. Infield

Mixed farming systems and the environment

Livestock production, the environment and mixed farming systems
Harvey Blackburn

Sustainable agriculture and environmental cooperatives in the Netherlands
Gert van Dijk

The role of livestock in mitigating land degradation, poverty and child malnutrition in mixed farming systems: the case of coffee-growing midlands of Sidama - Ethiopia
Mauro Ghirotti

The influence of government policies on livestock production and the environment in West Asia and North Africa (WANA)
Peter Oram

Industrial farming systems and the environment

Livestock environment interactions in industrial production systems
Henning Steinfield

Industrial livestock production, concentrate feed demand and natural resource requirements in China
Ke Bingsheng

Environmental programmes for the restructuring of animal husbandry in Lithuania
Arûnas Svitojus, Almonas Gutkauskas

Cross-cutting issues

Livestock geography and land use
J. Slingenbergh, W. Wint

Assessing and monitoring environmental impact and sustainability of animal production
E. Fleischhauer, W. Bayer, A. V. Lossau

Agro-eco-system health management and livestock
D. Waltner-Toews, N.O. Nielsen

Reports of the working groups

Comments and recommendations of the conference working groups

Observations et recommendations de groups de travail de conférences

Comentarios y recomendaciones de los grupos de trabajo de la conferencia

Closing Session

Livestock and environment, Closing remarks on a work in progress
Cees de Haan

Closing address: Livestock and development
J.A. Boer,

Posters presented during the conference

Desertification in Patagonia-Argentina
Hugo Mendez Casariego,

Air pollution from large livestock farms in Bulgaria
Georgi Petkov, Gergana Kostadinova

Utilization of crop residues in mixed crop-livestock systems in China: a sustainable farming model
Zhang Xiwu, Ma Yeng

Cattle cross-breeding for environmental protection
B.R. Mangurkar

Application of the LDPS2 to livestock production in China; assessing demand, production and resource requirements
Takuo Sukigara, Henning Steinfeld

Application of organic fertilizers and nutrient balance in r. Graisupis watershed in Lithuania
Angelija Buciene, Sigitas-Antanas Sileika

Cereal-legume rotations and their effect on soil, crop and animal parameters
L. Reynolds, E.F. Thomson, M. Pala, J. Ryan, M. Bounejmate, F. Bahhady, T. Nordblom, A. Termanini, N. Nersoyan, A.V. Goodchild, S. Christiansen

Approaches for the estimation of carrying capacity for livestock in marginal areas
Fritz Schneider, Jürg Von Niederhäusern, Christian Vögeli

Refining priority-setting methods by improving estimates of technology adoption for livestock research
International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)

Ten years of participatory research to solve the environmental and social crisis of livestock production in the tropics
Enrique Murgueitio R., Mauricio Rosales M. 279

Poster presentation on the livestock industry in Zimbabwe
N. Zitsanza,

Livestock and the environment: a case of Swaziland government's current and future interventions
Robert S. Thwala

List of participants