5.1.1 Sample Selection of Study Sites in Thailand
Selection of study sites for each country was based on volume of livestock production. In Thailand, a cluster of six provinces was chosen that represents the largest production of broilers, layers, and dairy products. These six provinces were Chachoengsao, Cholburi, and Srakaew in the east; Saraburi and Lopburi in the center; and Korat in the northeast (see Figure 5.1 in Poapongsakorn et.al., 2003). Chachoengsao is the largest producer of broilers and layers, and is the second largest swine producer behind Ratchaburi in the west. The provinces of Korat and Saraburi are the main dairy-producing provinces. In recent years, dairy farms have expanded in Korat and farther east to Srakaew and Lopburi. New farms for layers, broilers, and swine can be found in the connecting provinces of Saraburi and Lopburi. This cluster was also chosen in order to economize survey time and expenses. All of these provinces are less than 250 kilometers from Bangkok, making it very convenient to effectively manage the survey.
5.1.2 Sample Selection of Study Sites in the Philippines
The team in the Philippines selected three regions: Central Luzon (Region III), Southern Tagalog (Region IV), and Northern Mindanao (Region X). Two of these (Regions III and IV) have a very high concentration of commercial hog and broiler producers. Central Luzon has become the leading hog producer in the Philippines, with an annual average of 216,000 MT of output from 1996-2000, accounting for 15 percent of the national total (BAS, 2002). Central Luzon accounts for 26.4 percent of the national total of registered commercial hog farms (BAS, 2001). It is also the top broiler producer in the country, with an annual average output of 259,000 MT from 1996-2000, accounting for 28 percent of national broiler output (BAS, 2002). Four major hog-producing provinces in the region were selected: Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Pampanga, and Tarlac, accounting for 94 percent of all commercial farms in the region (BAS, 2000).
Southern Tagalog also has a very high concentration of hogs and broiler producers. It almost equaled the production performance of Central Luzon in hogs for the period 1996-2000, posting an average annual output of 212,000 MT and accounting for 15 percent of national average output. The region had the greatest number of registered commercial hog farms (738) in 2000, accounting for 27 percent of the national total (BAS, 2001). It is the second leading broiler producer of the country, posting an average of about 248,000 MT from 1996-2000, representing 27 percent of the national total (BAS, 2002). The region ranked second in the number of registered commercial broiler farms in 2000, accounting for about 20 percent of the national total (BAS, 2001). Three major hog producing provinces in Southern Tagalog were included in the sample: Batangas, Laguna, and Rizal, accounting for 78 percent of the commercial hog farms in the region (BAS, 2001).
Northern Mindanao (Region X), on a southern island in the Philippines, is not particularly dominant in its livestock output volume. It ranked second in terms of volume of broiler output, and third in hog output (BAS, 2002). Northern Mindanao is second in the number of commercial hog farms, and third in the number of commercial broiler farms.
The importance of Northern Mindanao in livestock production in Mindanao is not its position in terms of output volume, but rather in the potential for growth in one of its provinces, Bukidnon. This province has the potential to produce high-quality meat that could meet the highest level of food safety standards demanded for exports. It is the top livestock producing province in Northern Mindanao, and one of the main centers for integrators and large companies in Mindanao. The OIE (World Animal Health Organization) has declared the province a FMD (foot-and-mouth-disease)-free zone.
5.1.3 Sample Selection of Study Sites in India
The India dairy team conducted its survey in six districts of three leading milk-producing states of the country: Gujarat in the West region, and Punjab and Haryana in the North region. These states are well-developed milk producers, representing the traditional cooperative milk sheds in the west and the dynamic newer milk sheds in the north (see Figure 4.1 in Sharma et.al., 2003). In Gujarat, a dairy development program has been achieved largely through milk cooperatives, and is considered one of the most successful models of dairy development. As of 1997, the population of cattle and buffaloes totaled 13 million heads. Two of the highest milk producing districts from Gujarat, Mehsana and Kheda, were selected for the survey.
On the other hand, Punjab and Haryana are dominated by the private sector; the presence of cooperatives is limited to a few areas. The livestock population in Haryana was 7.2 million heads (of cattle and buffaloes) in 1997, whereas Punjab contained nearly 10 million heads. Two districts with potential for milk production growth, Ludhiana and Moga, were also chosen within Punjab. The dairy cooperative sector has a strong presence in Ludhiana, while Moga is largely a Nestle (a private sector dairy plant) milk-shed area. From Haryana, where the cooperative movement is weak but the dairy sector is well-developed, two leading districts (Karnal and Jind) were selected for the present study.
The India poultry team decided to conduct an intensive survey in the two states of India (Andhra Pradesh and Haryana) where poultry has grown rapidly during the last three decades (see Figure 4.1 in Mehta et.al., 2003). Andhra Pradesh ranks first among Indian states in egg and broiler production (5.8 billion eggs and 140 million broilers in 1997-98). The total poultry population in 1999 was 65.5 million birds.
Haryana ranked 10th in egg production (637 million eggs in 1997-98). The districts sampled from this state represent both high-concentration and low-concentration areas.
5.1.4 Sample Selection of Study Sites in Brazil
The Brazil team selected three regions: South, Southeast, and Center West (see Figure 6.1 in Camargo Barros et.al., 2003). The South region includes the states of Rio Grande de Sul (RS), Santa Catarina (SC), and Paraná (PR), representing a large share of meat and milk areas, and including both small- and medium-sized livestock farms.
The Southeast region includes São Paulo (SP), Minas Gerais (MG), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), and Espírito Santo (ES). It is the wealthiest and most industrialized region of the country, but milk, beef, and eggs are still produced in the sampled states. The Center West region includes the states of Mato Grosso (MT), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) and Goiás (GO). Grain production and cattle ranching predominates in this region, and it is considered to have considerable potential for the expansion of crops and animal production.