In order to quantify the impact of technological change, market forces, externalities, and government policies on the scale of livestock production, a survey must cover the major livestock-producing areas. In the case of Thailand, the sample was representative of both old and new major livestock-producing areas from the last 15 to 20 years. The coverage of the new areas was chosen for the purpose of assessing the impact of expansion of modern livestock production on the smallholders who practice traditional technology. The areas covered were the key areas of broiler, swine, layer, and dairy farms, and were also the largest livestock producers in the country. The farms sampled represented the types of activities per livestock commodity. For example, in swine, the types of activities considered were growing piglets, raising fatteners, or a combination of both activities. In the case of layers, representative samples for farms growing chicks for hens or feeding hens for laying eggs, or a combination of both were well taken. Contract farming is dominant in Thai poultry production, and different types of contractual arrangement were also represented in the samples taken.
In India poultry, the sample represents the two states of India where industrialization of poultry has been expanding its scale of operation. These two states cover the spectrum of poultry development and scales of activity, and both have considerable potential for future development. The regions covered in for dairy production are well-developed milk-producing regions in India that reflect significant differences in organizational structure.
In the Philippines, the dominant practice in broiler production is through commercial contracts with the large integrators. There are still, however, smaller-sized contracts with the smaller integrators (with 6,000-10,000 birds), while smallholder independent broiler production is disappearing. Independent commercial broiler operation is also becoming scarce. In hog production, smallholder independent operations are still present in the regions chosen, but the level of commercial hog production activities is high (except for Northern Mindanao). Smallholder contracts were not found in Central Luzon, but are present in Southern Tagalog (Luzon), where few feedmills engaging in contract production with smallholders exist. Commercial-sized contract production arrangements exist, but there is great difficulty in obtaining production and marketing information. Large independent commercial hog production farms also exist in all three regions, and are mostly managed by Chinese businessmen who were generally unwilling to be interviewed. The type of activities engaged in by hog producers was well represented by the samples taken-namely, farrow-to-wean (piglet production) operations, farrow-to-finish activities, grow-to-finish, or a combination of farrow-to-wean and farrow-to-finish operations.
The farm samples in Brazil represented the main producing states in livestock industry. Some study sites chosen, which are not highly industrialized, have great potential for expansion in animal production. For instance, samples for dairy farms (mostly large-scale farms) were taken from Minas Gerais for the reason that it is a main milk-producing state, other samples from Rio Grande de Sul because of the high proportion of small-scale farms, and some from Goias because of the presence of milk production based on mixed herds (producing both milk and beef).
The types of activities such as complete cycle, piglet growers, and finishers in swine were considered in the selection of the sample. Distribution of samples was also based on production arrangements, such as independent, integrated with companies, or integrated with cooperatives.