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7.2 Current Pathways of Nutrient Use From Manure and Dead Animals

Figures 7.2 to 7.4 summarize the various pathways for nutrient management for poultry, swine, and dairy operations currently in use in parts of the four countries. It should be noted that these methods do not represent all of the possible management options available to farmers, rather those in use by many of the households surveyed. Poultry operations tend to use the manure for either crops or fish feed, and dead animals tend to be buried, incinerated, consumed or used as fish feed. After it is cleaned out poultry manure in most of the study countries tends to be dried and sold to be used on crops or fish feed in the Asian countries. If it is not sold, it remains on the livestock farm and used for the same purposes. The utilization of swine manure differs by whether it is in a wet or dry form. Wet manure may be used to create household and farm energy such as biogas for cooking or power for farm use, such as Thailand. Dry manure is either applied to fields as a fertilizer or used as a feed in fish farming in the Asian countries studied. In Brazil, though the use of manure as fish food has been reported in the past, it currently is not used due to the impression that it results in a lower feed conversion than palletized feed. The manure and wastewater created on dairy farms will typically be left on the grass where it falls, given to employees, or dried. If dried, it may be sold to a neighbor, put on the farmers' own land, or burned for fuel.

Dead animals for all types of livestock in India, Thailand, and the Philippines may be sold to a secondary market for either human or feed consumption, given away, buried or incinerated. The use of dead animals is not reported in the Brazil case, which has banned their use over fear of BSE and potentially lost markets in countries that prohibit the use of rendered products.

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