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7.3 Manure Disposal for Survey Households

Tables 7.1 to 7.4 summarize how households in the study countries chose to dispose of the manure generated form their livestock operations. For broiler manure the majority of the households chose to get rid of the manure through the market. A slightly lower percentage of small scale producers across the households surveyed in all the countries sold the broiler and layer manure, mainly because it appears that there were using it on their own farms. This is not unexpected as many small-scale farmers are mixed-product farmers and can readily utilize the manure as an organic fertilizer.

In India, 79 percent of the small-scale broiler producers and 95 percent of the large-scale producers sold manure in the market place. Most of the manure was piled in either open sheds or closed sheds. When used on farm poultry manure is used primarily as an organic fertilizer. When it was used off farm poultry manure is used either as a fertilizer, for brick building, fuel bricks, or mushroom substrate.

In the Philippines, the most common scenario among the farms surveyed was disposal of manure either by selling it to chicken manure traders, spreading it on their own farms, or some combination of both. Other observed means of disposing waste were containing the manure in closed pits, throwing the waste into a river or canal, or just leaving this by-product on the ground to decompose. In the Philippines, a larger percentage of the contract small producers sold the manure on the market place than the independents (Table 7.5). This may reflect that they may have limited land and reliance on all inputs provided from outside and thus though than can intensely produce poultry, they don't need the land to grow the necessary feed. If they did they may not be selling the manure, but using it as a sources of nutrients for growing feed.

Figure 7.2 Pathways for disposal of poultry manure and dead birds

Source: N. Poapongsakorn, Annex IV.

Figure 7.3 Pathways for disposal of swine manure and dead piglets

Source: N. Poapongsakorn, Annex IV.

Figure 7.4 Pathways for disposal of dairy manure and dead animals

Source: N. Poapongsakorn, Annex IV.

In Thailand, a high percentage of larger size layer producers sold their manure than did smaller operators. This may reflect the fact that the larger farms have gotten so big relative to the limited land they have for disposal of the manure. For instance, 91 percent of the large-scale layer operations in Thailand sold manure, compared to only around 30 percent of the small-scale producers.

In Brazil, a lower share of manure was sold off farm than in the Asian cases and the price of manure differed by state. Table 7.6 shows that in the south, an area with highly concentrated poultry and swine operations, manure is cheaper due to its relative abundance. In the center-west and Minas Gerais, the value of manure is almost 10 times the price in Rio Grande do Sul, an area with heavy concentrations of poultry and swine. For the most part, over 50 percent of broiler manure was sold off-farm. The exception to this was the smallholders, where use on-farm and off-farm was about evenly divided. Most of the manure was sold directly to other farmers, but a small percentage was sold to wholesale traders, with the share going to wholesale trader increasing from 5 percent for the small to 19 percent for large.

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