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IV. Data and Surveys

4.1 Sample Location and Its Characteristics

4.1.1 Central Luzon

Central Luzon, or Region 3, is a major industrial and agricultural center just north of Metro-Manila. It is strategically located between the commercial center of Manila and the industrial and trading centers of Northern Luzon. Central Luzon is also known as the 'central plains' of Luzon. It is the traditional rice granary of the Philippines. It consists of six provinces: Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac, Bataan and Zambales.

Region 3 is bounded on the north by the Ilocos region (Region 1) and Cagayan Valley (Region 2), on the east by the provinces of Aurora and Quezon (part of Region 4), on the south by Manila Bay and Metro-Manila, and on the west by the China Sea.

The climate is dry from November to April and wet from July to October. Typhoons also frequent the region.

Central Luzon occupies a total land area of 18,231 sq km, a vast expanse of which consists of plains. Its alluvial soil is quite suitable for farming, which is the main occupation of the inhabitants. The region produces three-fourths of the country's total rice harvest, with the province of Nueva Ecija topping the list. Aside from rice, the region also produces sugarcane (mainly in the provinces of Tarlac and Pampanga) and corn (Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, and Tarlac). A high concentration of commercial hog and broiler producers are found in the region. Fishing and mining are other major sources of income, particularly for inhabitants of Bataan and Zambales provinces.

Central Luzon's population numbered more than 8 million in 2000, making it the country's third most populous region (after Southern Tagalog/Luzon and Metro-Manila), accounting for about 11 percent of the Philippine population. In 1997, it had the second highest average annual family income: at 106,803 Philippine pesos (1994 constant prices), second only to Metro-Manila. Central Luzon is one of only three regions that posted an annual family income higher than the national average of 98,811 pesos (NSCB, 2002).

Central Luzon has become the Philippines' leading hog producer, having overtaken Southern Tagalog/Luzon. With an annual average of 216.4 thousand metric tons of output from 1996 to 2000, it accounted for 15 percent of the national total (BAS, 2002). The commercial scale of hog production is also among the highest in the country. In terms of the number of registered commercial hog farms, Central Luzon accounts for about 26 percent of the national total (BAS, 2001).

Central Luzon is a top producer of broilers as well, with an annual average output of 259.1 thousand metric tons from 1996 to 2000, accounting for 28 percent of national broiler production (BAS, 2002). In terms of the number of registered commercial broiler farms, Central Luzon accounts for 32 percent of all commercial farms in the country (BAS, 2001).

As of 2000, the distribution of commercial hog farms among the three major producing provinces of Central Luzon was as follows: Nueva Ecija, 43 percent; Bulacan, 24 percent; Pampanga, 19 percent; and Tarlac, 9 percent. These provinces are home to some 94 percent of all the commercial farms in the region (BAS, 2000). Profiles of these four provinces follow in the sections below. Bulacan[43]

Location. Bulacan is a major industrial province. It is bounded on the north by Nueva Ecija, on the east by Manila Bay, on the west by Pampanga, and on the south by Metro-Manila. Bulacan is the fourth largest of Central Luzon's six provinces. Its total land area is 262,500 hectares, most of which is gently sloping.

The province has 24 municipalities and 568 barangays. Its capital, Malolos, is located about 30 km from Metro-Manila.

Climate. Bulacan province is generally warm with average annual temperatures registering a low of 23 degrees Celsius and a high of 32 degrees. Climatic conditions do vary however, due to the influence of the mountains in Northern Luzon.

Demography. The official census in 2000 registered 2.23 million inhabitants in Bulacan, amounting to close to 30 percent of the region's population. Further, there were 463,886 households, representing 28 percent of the total number of families in the region. Households had an average of five members, which is about the same as for the region as a whole.

Bulacan is Central Luzon's most densely populated province with 850 persons per sq km. It also has the region's fastest growing population, with an annual growth rate of 4.9 percent from 1995 to 2000. This rate of growth is higher than that of the entire region (3.2%) and much higher than that of the country as a whole (2.4%). In 1995, the ratio of men to women was almost even at 50.1 percent and 49.9 percent, respectively.

Main sources of income. According to the 1997 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES) of the National Statistics Office (NSO), close to half (49.6%) of the families in Bulacan earned annual incomes of more than 100,000 pesos, or some 8,300 pesos per month. Average family income was 142,923 pesos per year, or some 11,900 monthly.

Incomes for about 63 percent of all households in 1997 came from wages and salaries earned in non-agricultural endeavors. The remaining households earned their income by either entrepreneurial activities (25%), most of which were non-agricultural in nature, or by other means (12%) such as remittances from abroad.

Labor force and employment. In 2000, Bulacan's labor force, which totaled 807,000 persons, accounted for some 26 percent of the total for Central Luzon. The employment rate of 92 percent for the same year was relatively higher than the regional average of 90 percent.

The service sector-encompassing wholesale and retail trade; transportation and storage; communications; and community, social, and personal services-provided employment for half of the labor force in 1999. One-fourth were employed by agrifishery-related firms and another fourth were absorbed by industry.

Infrastructure and facilities. Bulacan is easily accessible by bus or private vehicle owing to its dense network of national and provincial roads, which totaled 338 km in 2000. Some 85 percent of these roads is either cemented or asphalted. Municipal and barangay roads are also extensive.

Some 99 percent of households in Bulacan province had access to electricity in 2000, provided by the Manila Electric Company (MERALCO).

Communication facilities, which are provided by both private and public telecommunication companies, are also readily available, as is print media mainly in the form of local and national circulation newspapers.

Irrigation facilities are in place as well and cover as much as three-quarters of the total irrigable area.

Land use and agriculture. Of the province's total land area of 262,500 hectares, about 36 percent (94,000 ha) is devoted to agriculture, 7 percent is devoted to fishponds, and 6 percent is built-up areas for industrial and service establishments. The rest is basically left unutilized due to inherent limitations in potential usage.

In terms of contribution to gross value added and employment, the industry and service sectors have surpassed agriculture. Yet the province's economy remains largely agricultural, with palay production topping the list of products. In 2000, the average yield of palay was 3.3 metric tons per hectare while average corn yield was 1.1 metric tons per hectare.

Livestock and poultry production are other prominent agricultural activities. Specifically, hogs and chickens raised on both commercial and backyard farms, dominate the province's animal inventory. In 2000, the commercial hog population was 184,546 heads, which is some 86 percent the province's total. The chicken inventory was 578,453 heads, accounting for some 63 percent of poultry in the province. Nueva Ecija[44]

Location. Nueva Ecija lies at the eastern part of Central Luzon. It is completely enclosed by the provinces of Pangasinan and Nueva Vizcaya on the north, Pampanga and Bulacan on the south, Aurora and Quezon on the east, and Tarlac on the west.

Thirty-two municipalities, four cities and 849 barangays comprise the province. Palayan City, the provincial capital, is about 130 km north of Metro-Manila.

The exact measurement of the province's total land area is uncertain because several studies have made varying estimates based on different survey methods. These estimates range from a low of 528,443 hectares (DENR Land Classification) to a high of 634,808 hectares (City and Municipality estimates). The 2001 Nueva Ecija Profile put the province's total land area at 550,718 hectares. This is about 30 percent of the region's total, which makes Nueva Ecija the largest province with respect to land area.

Low-lying alluvial plains and rolling uplands characterize the topography of the province.

Climate. Temperatures in Nueva Ecija range from a minimum average of 22 degrees Celsius during the cooler months of November to March to a maximum average of about 32 degrees, occurring between April and July.

Three climatic types are found in the province: Type I, with two pronounced seasons; Type 3, with seasons not very pronounced; and Type IV, with rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year.

Demography. The official census in 2000 registered Nueva Ecija's population at 1.66 million inhabitants (21% of region's total), with the population growing at an annual rate of 2.1 percent. This rate is lower than both the national population growth rate of 2.4 percent and the regional population growth rate of 3.2 percent. The population density, placed at 302 persons per sq km, is also relatively lower than the national (255 persons per sq km) and the regional (441 persons per sq km) figures.

The total number of households in 2000 was 340,158, meaning that the province accounts for some 21 percent of the total number of families in Central Luzon. Similar to Bulacan, each household had five members on average. Men slightly outnumbered women at a ratio of 103:100.

Main sources of income. According to the 1997 FIES, the average annual income for a family in Nueva Ecija was 103,791 pesos, which roughly translates to 8,650 pesos per month. The major source of income in the province is still agriculture.

Labor force and employment. The labor force in the province numbered 1,065,000 in 2000. Of this total, only 674,000, or an estimated 63 percent, were employed. Of these, 42 percent were employed in agricultural activities, 38 percent were engaged in the service sector, and 10 percent were employed in industry.

Infrastructure and facilities. Nueva Ecija is easily accessible by bus or private vehicle. The total length of the road network is 5,384 km, the bulk of which (70%) is comprised of barangay roads. Further, 13 percent is accounted for by provincial roads, 9 percent by national roads, and another 9 percent by municipal roads.

Three electric cooperatives and one private franchise power firm supply electricity in the province. Ninety-three percent-or 706 of the total of 757 barangays covered by the electric cooperatives-had power supply as of 2000. All of the 89 barangays serviced by the private firm were energized.

Mail services are deemed satisfactory in the province with 39 postal offices serving the 28 municipalities. As for telephone services, these are basically provided by PLDT and other private telephone companies.

Land use and agriculture. Using the total land area of 550,718 hectares estimated in the 2001 Nueva Ecija Profile as reference point, about 330,985 hectares, or 63 percent is classified as alienable and disposable, with the rest classified as forest lands. About 300,000 hectares are devoted to agriculture. Only some 94,454 hectares of the 197,448 hectares of forest lands are still forested, with dipterocarps predominant.

Rice production is the main agricultural activity, boosted by a vast network of irrigation facilities and appurtenant structures. Average rice yield in 2000 was 4.2 metric tons per hectare. The province is also known for onion, garlic, and corn production as well as the production of fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes, squash, and eggplant.

Livestock and poultry production are also prevalent and are considered economically important. In the second quarter of 2000, hog production reached 200,330 heads with some 87 percent of the animals being raised in backyard farms. Nueva Ecija was the region's top hog producer, surpassing Bulacan, the erstwhile top. Chicken production stood at 2,839,056 heads. Pampanga[45]

Location. Pampanga is located in the middle portion of Central Luzon. It is bounded on the north by Tarlac and Nueva Ecija, on the east by Bulacan, on the west by Zambales, and on the southwest by Bataan.

It has a relatively flat terrain and only one distinct mountain, Mount Arayat. The mountainous areas are near the Pampanga-Zambales border.

Pampanga has a total land area of 218,068 hectares. There are 20 municipalities, two cities, and 538 barangays.

Climate. The province has two pronounced seasons: dry from November to April and wet from May to October. The heaviest rains come in July and sometimes last until October. These rains bring severe flooding to several municipalities.

Average temperatures range from an average minimum of 24 degrees Celsius, usually in January, to a maximum of 30 degrees, occurring in May.

Demography. The population of the province reached 1.9 million in 2000 and is growing at an average rate of 3.0 percent annually. The population density stood at 863 persons per sq km.

Main sources of income. The available information on the province's main sources of income are presented in the section on occupations below.

Labor and employment. In 2000, Pampanga's labor force was recorded at 737,000 persons. The employment rate was 90 percent. The bulk (58%) worked in the service sector, 13 percent (83,000) were engaged in agricultural activities, and 30 percent (197,000) were employed in industry.

Infrastructure and facilities. Pampanga is easily accessible by land. It is a focal point for interprovincial routes owing to its strategic location.

The extensive road network spans 2,436 km. Most are barangay roads (65%), with national roads comprising 12 percent of the total, provincial roads comprising 13 percent, and municipal roads making up the remaining 10 percent. Half of the national roads are concrete, 38 percent are asphalt, and 12 percent are unpaved.

Two airports - the Clark International Airport and the Basa Air Base Airport, distinguish Pampanga from the rest of the provinces in Central Luzon. Other infrastructure and utilities include postal services, telephone services provided largely by PLDT and four smaller companies, telegraph and telex stations, and cable television network and radio stations.

The Pampanga Electric Cooperative is the province's major provider of electricity. Of the 538 barangays, only five are still without electrical service due primarily to their geographical remoteness.

The potential irrigable area of the province is some 83,354 hectares or 59 percent of the total agricultural land. Only about 62 percent of this is actually irrigated due to the destruction brought to previously irrigated farms by lahar (lava flows associated with the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991).

Land use and agriculture. Of the total land area of 218,068 hectares, some 65 percent, or 140,925 hectares, is devoted to agriculture. In 1991, some 10,000 hectares of this agricultural land was buried by lahar. An estimated 11 percent of the total land area, or 45,704 hectares, is considered forest lands. Built-up areas-for residential, residential-commercial, or a combination of commercial-industrial-residential uses-constitute about 14 percent, equivalent to 31,439 hectares.

Pampanga basically is an agricultural province, with rice, root crops, and fruits and vegetables being the major products. Rice production was estimated at 34,772 metric tons in 2000. The province also has 9,387 hectares of fishponds composed of brackishwater and freshwater ponds. Further, livestock and poultry abound in the province. Hogs and chickens are mostly raised on commercial farms. Tarlac[46]

Location. Like Pampanga, Tarlac is located in the central part of Central Luzon. It is landlocked and bounded on the north by Pangasian, by Nueva Ecija on the east, Zambales on the west, and Pampanga on the south.

The province's total land area is 305,345 hectares. It thus occupies about 17 percent of the region as a whole. Its terrain is generally level to gently sloping. Its topography is 75 percent plains with the rest hilly to mountainous.

Tarlac is also known as the 'melting pot of Central Luzon' since its residents speak several dialects. Tarlac has 18 municipalities and 510 barangays.

Climate. There are two distinct seasons in the province: wet and dry. The coldest period is from December to February and the warmest is from March to May.

Demography. The latest population statistics available for Terlac are for 1995. At that time, the population was recorded at 945,810. The annual population growth rate was estimated at 1.9 percent between 1990 and 1995, below the region-wide growth rate. In terms of population size, Tarlac ranks only fourth in Central Luzon. Some of its municipalities have experienced rapid population growth due to the in-migration of resettlers displaced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo. On the other hand, those municipalities hardest hit by lahar flows experienced negative growth rates due to the out-migration of residents to safer towns and relocation centers outside the province.

Main sources of income. As of 1998, the main sources of income for households in the province were the service sector (44%), the agricultural sector (36%), and industry (20%).

Labor and employment. As of 1998, the province was home to 615,000 people aged 15 years and older. The labor force numbered some 427,000. The employment rate was around 81 percent that same year.

Detailed employment data cover only 1990 to 1995. In 1995, the number of employed people was 299,115. Of these, about 130,400 persons were employed in the service sector, with public and private firms absorbing more than half (78,380) and the rest engaged in trade, transportation, and finance/real estate. The agricultural sector employed about 124,955 persons and continues to provide the more stable employment. Manufacturing, construction, and mining/quarrying employed 43,514 people.

Infrastructure and facilities. Tarlac's road network reached 3,203 km in 1998. It consists of 212 km of national roads (7%), 553 km of provincial roads (17%), 237 km of municipal roads (7%) and 2,200 km of barangay roads (69%).

Power is supplied by electric cooperatives and a private franchisee. These firms serve 497 of the 510 barangays, leaving 13 barangays still without electricity. Other utilities available are postal services, telephone and cellular phone services, and telegraph and telegram companies. Radio stations and cable television networks are also in place.

Land use and agriculture. Sixty percent of the total provincial land area of 305,345 hectares was classified as alienable and disposable in 1998, with the rest categorized as forest lands.

The province is predominantly an agricultural area. About 141,252 hectares, or 46 percent of the total land area, is devoted to agricultural purposes. Almost all of this (137,723 hectares or 98%) is croplands with the remainder used for fisheries. Grasslands and shrub lands occupy 16 percent of the total, woodlands cover 19 percent, and wetlands comprise three percent. Built-up areas for residential, commercial, and industrial purposes occupy some seven percent while the rest (8%) serves as pyroclastic deposits.

The main crops grown are rice, fruits, and sugarcane. The average yield of irrigated rice fields was 4.7 metric tons per hectare in 1997, with rainfed rice fields averaging 4.0 metric tons per hectare. Fruit trees generated an average of 3,148 metric tons per hectare for the same year, while the average yield of legumes was 838.9 metric tons per hectare.

Hog production was registered at 851,020 heads in 1998, and broiler chicken production was some 2.9 million heads. The province also produced native chickens, estimated at 1.2 million for the same year.

4.1.2 Southern Tagalog/Luzon

Southern Luzon, or Region 4, is the major industrial and agricultural center just south of Metro-Manila. It is the largest region in the country, consisting of 11 provinces: Aurora, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna, Marinduque, Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, Palawan, Quezon, Rizal, and Romblon. It occupies a total land area of 46,924 sq km. The terrain is generally mountainous and hilly. The province of Laguna is the only one with a vast expanse of rice fields.

Climate varies across the provinces. Aurora, Quezon, Marinduque, and the southeast portion of Batangas and Eastern Mindoro are wet throughout the year. The southeast portion of Palawan and Romblon has three months of dry season and is wet during the rest of the year. The rest of the provinces experience the wet and dry climate usual in the country.

Southern Tagalog is a highly urbanized. It ranks with Metro-Manila as a progressive locality. Its population stood at 11.8 million in 2000, accounting for 15 percent of the country's total population, more than any other region in the country including Metro-Manila (which has a population of 10 million).

The region's average household income in 1997 was 106,803 pesos (1994 constant prices). It is one of only three regions that posted a higher income figure than the national average.

Southern Tagalog/Luzon also has a very high concentration of hogs and broiler producers. It almost equaled the production performance of Central Luzon in hogs for the 1996 to 2000 period, posting an average annual output of 211.6 thousand metric tons and thus accounting for 15 percent of national output. Further, Southern Tagalog/Luzon had the highest concentration of registered commercial hog farms (numbering 738) as of 2000, accounting for 27 percent of the national total (BAS, 2001).

The region is the country's second leading broiler chicken producer. From 1996 to 2000, it posted an average broiler chicken output of some 248.2 thousand metric tons, about 27 percent of the national total (BAS, 2002). In terms of registered commercial broiler farms, the region had the second highest number (531 farms) in 2000, accounting for about 20 percent of all registered commercial broiler farms in the country (BAS, 2001).

Southern Tagalog/Luzon has three major hog-producing provinces: Batangas, Laguna, and Rizal. Batangas had the highest number of registered commercial hog farms, with 335 farms (45%), Laguna had 141 such farms (19%), and Rizal 97 (13%). Jointly these provinces account for 78 percent of the total number of commercial hog farms in Southern Tagalog/Luzon (BAS, 2001).

The region also boasts various agricultural products. It ranks first in coconut production and the province of Laguna tops the list of regional rice producers. Coffee, banana, pineapple, citrus, and lanzones are also grown in the area. The presence of a large number of industrial estates, especially in the CALABARZON (Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal Industrial Zone) area, contributes significantly to the region's robust economic activity.

The following sections provide brief overviews of Batangas, Laguna, and Rizal provinces. Batangas[47]

Location. Batangas is one of the 11 provinces of Southern Luzon. It has a rolling terrain, with about half its land area having a slope of 15 degrees or less. Total land area is estimated at 316,581 hectares.

Batangas is located about 40 km from Metro-Manila. There are 31 municipalities, three cities, and 1,078 barangays in the province.

Climate. The climate is dry but cool from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. The hottest month is May and the coldest is February. The climate varies depending on the topography of the locality.

Demography. As of 2000, the total population in Batangas, growing at an annual average of 3.0 percent, stood at 1.9 million people. There were 372,896 households with five members each on average. The population density was 602 persons per sq km in that same year.

Main sources of income. Based on the 1997 FIES, the average annual income of 248,398 families in the province was 139,072 pesos, or about 11,589 pesos per month. More than half of households earn their income from salaries and wages. Twenty-eight percent earn their income from entrepreneurial activities while the rest (21%) depend on remittances from abroad.

Labor force and employment. The province's labor force numbered 812,000 as of 2002. An estimated 712,000 of these, or 88 percent, were employed, with most absorbed by the service sector (48%) and the rest involved in agriculture (29%) and industrial activities (23%).

Infrastructure and facilities. Batangas is easily accessible by land owing to its extensive road network. National roads span a length of 519 km. Some 40 percent are cement, 30 percent are asphalt, and the rest gravel.

Of the total 1,078 barangays, 1,001 or 93 percent had electricity as of 2001. Electrical power is supplied by both electric cooperatives and private power firms.

Irrigation facilities are also in place, although as of 2001, only about 44 percent of the potential area (8,222 hectares) had been developed for irrigation. Irrigation facilities are mostly pumps and services provided by the Communal Irrigation System and National Irrigation System.

Communication facilities take the form of telegraph and telephone services as well as telegram and postal offices.

Land use and agriculture. In 2000, more than half of the total land area of 316,581 hectares was devoted to agriculture or were cultivated lands. Forest occupies 36 percent; built-up areas for residential, commercial, and institutional uses constitute eight percent and less than two percent is for industrial uses. The rest of the land area is used for roads, fishponds, tourism, and pasture.

The main crop grown is sugarcane, which is the province's main cash and export crop, alongside rice, corn, coconut, coffee, and fruits and vegetables. Sugarcane has an effective crop area of 21,501 hectares and an average yield of 52.6 metric tons per hectare. Rice has effective crop area of 18,279 hectares with an average yield of 3.3 metric tons per hectare. Fruit trees are planted on 31,748 hectares with an average production of 12.8 metric tons per hectare.

In 2000, of the total provincial livestock inventory of 1,049,015 heads, 78 percent was made up by hogs raised on both commercial and backyard farms. As for poultry, 23,227,872 heads were raised in 2000, with broiler chickens accounting for 64 percent. Laguna[48]

Location. The province of Laguna is about 30 km from Metro-Manila. It is bounded on the north by Rizal, on the east by the Sierra Madre Range, on the west by the provinces of Batangas and Cavite, and on the south by Quezon province.

Narrow plains that extend along the shores of Laguna Lake (except for the northern part) characterize the terrain. A few elevated portions are situated on the northwestern part. The legendary Mount Makiling is located in the southwestern portion of the province.

Laguna is the third largest province in Southern Tagalog/Luzon and covers 4 percent of the region's total land area, equivalent to about 175,973 hectares. It has 29 municipalities, 18 of which belong to the coastal zone. The province's total coastal length is estimated at 109 km. Laguna has two cities and 674 barangays.

Climate. The southern portion of Laguna is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year. The other parts have no distinct seasons, with rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year.

Demography. The total population of Laguna was placed at 2.0 million in 2000 and was growing at an annual rate of 4.1 percent. Given the total land area of 1,760 sq km, the population density for the same year was 1,082 persons per sq km. Thus, Laguna is a relatively densely populated area.

Laguna was home to 417,886 households in 2000 with five member each on average. Men slightly outnumbered women at a ratio of 1:1.009. There were 978,340 men compared to 987,532 women.

Main sources of income. The latest available data on household incomes is provided by a survey done in 1994. At that time, an estimated 257,096 families earned an annual average of 109,152 pesos each, roughly equivalent to 9,096 pesos per month. Compared to Batangas, households in Laguna earned much lower incomes.

The majority of households (60%) earned their income from wages and salaries in 2000. About one-third of households earned their income from entrepreneurial activities.

Labor and employment. In 2000, province's population aged 15 years and older was 224,380, 61 percent of which were in the labor force. The employment rate was relatively high for that year, at 90 percent, translating to 124,040 people.

Most of the employed (25%) were absorbed by agriculture, fishery, and forestry followed by the community, social and personal services sector (222%). The rest were employed in wholesale and retail trade (17%), manufacturing (9%), transportation, storage and communication (7%), and others.

Infrastructure facilities. Like Batangas, Laguna is easily accessible by land. It has 528 km of national roads, of which 58 percent are unpaved, 23 percent are asphalt and 19 percent concrete. Provincial road length is 252 km, 83 percent of which are asphalt, 11 percent are unpaved, and 6 percent concrete.

Land use and agriculture. About 72 percent, or 126,662 of the province's 175,973 hectares of land area, is classified as alienable and disposable, while 28 percent is forest lands. Agricultural lands occupy around 86,062 hectares, or 49 percent of the total, with built-up areas for residential, commercial, and industrial uses comprising about 24 percent.

Sugarcane used to top the list of temporary crops produced in Laguna, accounting for 95 percent of total volume in 1999. However, in 2000, sugarcane production plunged to a mere 0.04 percent of total production. The share of tomatoes in total temporary crop production drastically increased from only 2 percent in 1999 to 63 percent in 2000. A similar pattern was exhibited by the share of cassava/sweet potatoes, which soared from 2 percent in 1999 to 35 percent in 2000.

Permanent crop production is still dominated by coconut, with a 91 percent share in 2000. The rest consists of fruits and coffee.

Swine and chickens have historically dominated livestock and poultry raised on backyard farms. In 2001, Laguna produced 101,856 hogs, constituting 72 percent of the province's total livestock population. That same year, 971,139 chickens were produced, accounting for 64 percent of total poultry.

With Laguna Lake providing a vast resource base, fishing is also an important agricultural activity, with tilapia fishpond production a common activity in 16 of Laguna's 28 municipalities. A total of 149 hectares were utilized for this endeavor in 1999, yielding 2,488 metric tons of tilapia.

However, over time pollution has reduced the quality and productivity of the water bodies. Due to the lack of waste treatment facilities, massive industrial and livestock wastes are dumped indiscriminately directly into creeks, rivers, and other tributaries of the Laguna Lake along with the wastes coming from households in the surrounding municipalities. This has exerted severe environmental pressures on the waters (Catelo et al., 2001). The water quality in the lake has now been classified Class C.[49]

The Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) has now been created to regulate economic activities in and around the lake and its watersheds. Among LLDA mandates is the regulation of activities that pollute the lake. Aside from regulations on pollution emissions by industries surrounding the lake, the LLDA also regulates crop and livestock agriculture, including hog and poultry production. Since 1997, the LLDA has used market-based instruments to regulate and impose sanctions on commercial-scale livestock production. In particular, the environmental user fees (EUFs) system was adopted to complement the traditional command and control approach to prevent and abate pollution. In 2001, the LLDA began the design of pollution regulations for small-scale backyard hog producers as well. Rizal[50]

Location. The province of Rizal has a total land area of 130,383 hectares. It consists of 14 towns and 189 barangays.

Climate. No specific information is available on the climate of Rizal.

Demography. Rizal's population stood at 1.7 million in 2000, with an annual growth rate of 5.8 percent. Population density for the same year was 1,371 persons per sq km. The total number of households in 2000 was 356,578, with an average household size of five members. Numbers of men (869,559) and women (870,340) were almost equal. The literacy rate in the province is quite high, at 99 percent. The working-age population (15 to 64 years old) is fairly large at 59 percent, equivalent to some 1 million persons.

Main sources of income. The garment industry is the top income producer in the province, and Rizal has come to be known as the seat of garment making in the Southern Tagalog region. The electronics industry is also growing fast, since the country's largest manufacturer of electronics products is located in the province.

Average annual family income among the 133,209 households surveyed (no date) is relatively high at 144,730 pesos. This is roughly equivalent to 12,060 pesos per month per household. The surveyed families were clustered in the 100,000-149,999 peso and the 150,000-249,999 peso income brackets, at 24 percent and 23 percent, respectively. A relatively small proportion of households (11%) earned an annual income of less than 50,000 pesos.

Labor and employment. In 2001, the population aged 15 years and older was estimated at 1,095,000. Of this number, 61 percent were in the labor force and the employment rate was 87 percent. The detailed breakdown of employment was as follows: 27 percent were absorbed by the manufacturing sector; 19 percent worked in community, socia1 and personal services; 12 percent were in the construction sector; 12 percent were in wholesale and retail trade; 11 percent were in agriculture, fishing and forestry; 10 percent were in transportation and communication; and 5 percent were in finance, real estate and business services.

The supply of skilled labor is not deemed to be a problem, due to the proximity of Metro-Manila's educational institutions as well as the existence of local institutions that offer technical-vocational and tertiary education.

Infrastructure and facilities. Rizal is easily accessible by land. Its road network stretches 1,368 km. Communication, power, and water facilities are also in place. Telephone services are provided to 92 percent of households. All city and municipality electricity needs are provided by MERALCO.

Land use and agriculture. The breakdown of the province's 80,171 hectares is as follows: 50,617 hectares (63%) is forests and open grasslands; 19,288 hectares (24%) is agricultural land; 9,968 hectares (12%) is built-up areas; and 298 hectares (less than 0.5%) is used for mining and quarrying.

No specific information is available on the agricultural crops grown, levels of production, and other related activities.

4.1.3 Northern Mindanao

Northern Mindanao, also known as Region 10, is a major agricultural center. Government has designated the area surrounding the major city of Cagayan de Oro as a regional industrial center (RIC). Northern Mindanao consists of five provinces: Bukidnon, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, and Misamis Occidental. The region is bounded on the north by the Bohol Sea, on the south by Lanao del Sur and North Cotabato, on the east by Agusan and Davao, and on the west by Zamboanga. Its topography is characterized by plains, plateaus, and mountains.

Northern Mindanao is the third most populous region in Mindanao, with the population estimated at some 2.8 million in 2000. Of all the regions in Mindanao, Region 10 had the highest average family income as of 1997: 79,812 pesos at 1994 constant prices. Nonetheless, this figure is 19 percent below the national average for the same year.

Northern Mindanao is not the livestock production center of the whole island of Mindanao. Of the six regions on the southern island, it ranks second to Region 11 in volume of broiler chicken output and third in terms of hog output volume (BAS, 2002). In terms of numbers of farms, Northern Mindanao is second to Region 11 in the number of commercial hog farms and third in the number of commercial broiler farms.

Northern Mindanao's importance in livestock production lies in the future potential of one of its provinces, Bukidnon, in hog and poultry production. Bukidnon is one of the few regions in the Philippines to be declared FMD-free by the BAI of the Department of Agriculture, and recognized by the OIE as such. Thus Bukidnon has become the center of livestock breeding by integrators and commercial farms in both hogs and poultry. The province has the greatest concentration of hog and poultry production of the whole of Northern Mindanao. Of the 54 registered commercial hog farms in the region, 67 percent are found in Bukidnon (BAS, 2001). The section below profiles this economically important province. Bukidnon[51]

Bukidnon, a landlocked province of Northern Mindanao, is bounded on the north and northeast by the province of Misamis Oriental, by Agusan province on the east, by Davao province on the south and southeast, and by Lanao and Cotabato provinces on the southwest and west. The capital city is Malaybalay, which is 850 km by air from Manila and 90 km by land from the city of Cagayan de Oro.

The province is made up of the extensive plateau of Mindanao, a 'rolling tableland of grass' at an average elevation of 915 m. Further, its terrain is characterized by low plains alternating with rolling uplands, deep canyons, and valleys. The total land area of the province is 829,378 hectares, which is less than 3 percent of the total land area of the Philippines and 59 percent of the region's. Bukidnon is the largest province of Northern Mindanao and the country's eighth largest in terms of land area.

There were three congressional districts, 21 municipalities, one component city, and 464 barangays in the province in 1999.

Climate. The climate in Bukidnon is relatively cool and moist throughout the year primarily due to its elevation and mountainous topography. Two types of climate prevail in the northern and southern sections. The northern part is characterized by no pronounced maximum rain period with a short dry season that lasts only one to three months. The southern part has no pronounced maximum rain period and no dry season; thus, rains occur almost daily throughout the year.

Mean temperatures are around 24 degrees Celsius, reaching a maximum of 30 and a minimum of 18 degrees.

Demography. The National Statistics Office (NSO) recorded the population of Bukidnon in 2000 at 1.1 million people with a density of 128 persons per sq km. This population figure was up from the 1995 statistic of 940,403 meaning that the population grew at an annual rate of 2.4 percent in the said period. In 1999, there were 177,249 households in the province.

According to the 1995 census, men and women numbered 484,873 (51.6%) and 455,530 (48.4%), respectively, or a ratio 106:100. Classified by age groups, 44 percent were younger than 15 years old while 2 percent were 65 years or older. The rest (54%) belonged to the more productive group, or the labor force population.

The literacy rate was 90 percent in 1995, with men posting a slightly higher rate. Households give education high priority. In that same year, 55 percent of people had finished elementary school, 22 percent had high school diplomas, 3 percent were college graduates and less than 1 percent had a post-baccalaureate degree.

The 1995 census revealed that almost three-quarters of the population (71%) live in the rural areas, with only 29 percent residing in towns. Most urban dwellers are in the city of Malaybalay and the municipalities of Valencia, Don Carlos, Quezon, Maramag, Sumilao, and Impasugong.

Main sources of income. Some 165,500 families were registered in the province in 1994. The average annual income per household for the year was estimated at only 52,627 pesos-4,386 pesos per month. By income brackets, the distribution was as follows: 11 percent of households had an average annual income of less than 20,000 pesos; 28 percent fell into the 20,000-29,999 peso bracket; those earning 30,000-59,999 pesos accounted for about 34 percent; and 16 percent of families fell into the 60,000-99,999 peso bracket. Only 0.1 percent had an annual income greater than 100,000 pesos.

Most households earned their income from agriculture, hunting, and forestry activities, specifically, from farming, fishing, and forestry. In fact, 65 percent of the province's labor force derived their income from crops and livestock. Other sources of income were listed as 'non-gainful'.

Labor and employment. In 1995, the population 15 years of age and older numbered 593,000. Of this total, 478,000 were in the labor force, constituting a participation rate of more than 80 percent. The employment rate for the same year was relatively high at 95 percent, corresponding to 455,000 workers.

Of the people employed in 1995, most (78%) worked in agriculture, hunting, and forestry. Only 13 percent were employed in services, while a mere 6 percent were engaged in the trade sector. By major occupation group, 40 percent were in 'non-gainful' occupations, 31 percent were either farmers, fishers, or forestry workers and 12 percent were in elementary occupations. A mere 4 percent were professionals or worked in government offices and related organizations.

Infrastructure and facilities. The road network in Bukidnon totaled 8,005 km in 2000, with national roads comprising 723 km (9%) and provincial roads 682 km (8%). Municipal roads made up 603 km, while barangay roads, which are mostly gravel and earth-paved, spanned about 6,000 km (75%).

On the whole, only 354 of the province's 464 barangays (76%) are serviced with electricity. Two electric cooperatives serve 343 barangays, with a third cooperative providing power to 11 barangays. The first cooperative, FIBECO, services 273 barangays and the status of electrification in these was 73 percent in 2000. The second cooperative, BUSECO, claims 89 percent energization covering 34,233 households. MORESCO II, the third cooperative, provides electricity to 11 barangays.

Communication facilities available in the province include local radio and television stations and telegraph and telephone companies.

Land use and agriculture. Based on the Land Resource Evaluation Project (LREP), 37 percent, or 305,822 hectares, of the province's total land area is grasslands; 33 percent is woodlands; and 30 percent is agricultural areas. The built-up areas in Bukidnon constitute a mere 0.2 percent, or about 2,018 hectares.

The province is basically agricultural. There is a dominance of subsistence farmers, most of whom own small farm holdings that range from two to seven hectares. About 38 percent, or 313,257 hectares, of the total land area of Bukidnon is devoted to agriculture and subdivided into croplands and livestock uses. Rice, corn, and vegetables are the three crops most grown in the province. In 1999, an estimated 68,864 hectares were planted to rice, with production posting an annual average of 229,031 metric tons over the last five years. The average yield for 1999 was 3.7 metric tons per hectare.

Bukidnon is the country's largest producer of yellow corn and also has one of the highest yields (Costales, 2001). In 1999, 175,792 hectares were devoted to this crop yielding an average of 2.55 metric tons per hectare and producing 448,925 metric tons of corn. The Del Monte Pineapple plantation in the province is one of the largest in East Asia (Department of Tourism, 2001). Total area planted to pineapple in 1999 was estimated at 15,780 hectares, yielding an average of 49.5 metric tons per hectare for a total production level of 780,256 metric tons. The other major crops grown are sugarcane, coconut, and abaca. The total area planted to sugarcane in 1999 was 30,000 hectares, yielding an average of 62.8 metric tons per hectare. Total sugarcane production reached 1.9 metric tons. The area planted to coconut totaled 7,302 hectares and production was at 24,932 metric tons. The total area devoted to abaca in combination with cacao was 3,147 hectares.

High-value crops such as coffee, tomato, cabbage, onions, and peanuts are also grown. In 1999, the total area planted to coffee was 23,643 hectares with an average yield of 0.7 metric tons per hectare. Total coffee production reached 15,912 metric tons in 1999. Tomato was planted on 1,182 hectares that same year, with tomato production totaling 15,334 metric tons.

Bukidnon is a top livestock-producing province of Northern Mindanao, and the center of livestock breeding activity for integrators and large companies in Mindanao. The OIE has declared the province a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-free zone.

In 1999, the total hog inventory reached 236,933 heads, with 79 percent being produced on a backyard basis. There were 69 commercial production units in the province engaged in hog breeding and raising. Chicken production was posted at 2,016,624 birds. More than half of this total were produced on backyard farms. Commercial farms raised 44 percent of the total provincial chicken inventory with broilers accounting for 27 percent and layers 17 percent.

Several factors give the region unique potential in terms of growth and development of the livestock industry: one of the major feed ingredients is produced within the province; the region has established the reputation of being FMD-free; and a conglomeration of livestock breeding companies have located within the province. Bukidnon thus has a huge potential for producing high-quality meat that meets the stringent food safety standards demanded for exports. Together with this potential, however, is also the danger of its losing its unique position if vigilance is not maintained by public and private companies to preserve the status as an OIE-recognized FMD-free zone.

[43] Bulacan Socio-economic Profile, Provincial Planning and Development Office.
[44] Nueva Ecija Socio-Economic Profile 2001.
[45] Pampanga Provincial Profile
[46] Tarlac Provincial Profile
[47] Batangas Provincial Profile
[48] Laguna Provincial Profile
[49] Class C waters are fresh surface waters whose beneficial uses include a) Fishery water for propagation and growth of fish and other aquatic resources; b) Recreational Water Class II for boating and other activities not entailing personal contact with the water; and c) Industrial Water Supply Class I (for manufacturing processes after treatment).
[50] Source: Information about the province is quite limited.
[51] Bukidnon Socio-Economic Profile 2000;

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