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6.2 Profile of Swine Survey Sample


Swine growers can be classified as independent, integrated and cooperatives. See Table 6.14. The last two follow similar rules and may present similar performances as well. Independent swine growers often operate in complete cycle system. Integrated and cooperative farmers may operate either as piglets producers or finishers. In the new projects in the center west this type of separation is more frequently observed.

Industry meat type of swine tend to have a mean weight of 100kg or more. See Table 6.15. Animals designed to fresh meat market hardly reach 110kg. With the exception of Mato Grosso where independent production is directed to industry, in other states farmers are divided into two distinct groups: light weight animals produced by independent farmers for the fresh meat market and heavy weight animal produced by integrated farmers for the processing industry. It is possible that production of heavy weight animals by integrated farmers is related to more efficiency (lower per kilo cost)

Table 6.14 Coordination and production systems by farm size

State

Finished Class

Cooperatives

Complete Independent

Integrated

Complete

Independent

Finisher Cooperatives

Integrated

Finisher

Total

GO

< 100










101 -1000










> 1000


100,0%


100,0%



100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

GO Total



100,0%


100,0%



100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

< 100










MG

101 -1000


4,8%


4,8%



0,0%

0,0%

3,6%

> 1000


95,2%


95,2%



100,0%

100,0%

96,4%

MG Total



100,0%


100,0%



100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

< 100










MS

101 -1000

10,0%



9,1%





3,6%

> 1000

90,0%

100,0%


90,9%



100,0%

100,0%

96,4%

MS Total


100,0%

100,0%


100,0%



100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

< 100










MT

101 -1000










> 1000

100,0%

100,0%


100,0%


100,0%


100,0%

100,0%

MT Total


100,0%

100,0%


100,0%


100,0%


100,0%

100,0%

< 100










PR

101 -1000

33,3%



16,7%





16,7%

> 1000

66,7%

100,0%


83,3%





83,3%

PR Total


100,0%

100,0%


100,0%





100,0%

< 100










RS

101 -1000


33,3%


23,1%





20,0%

> 1000

100,0%

66,7%

100,0%

76,9%



100,0%

100,0%

80,0%

RS Total


100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%



100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

< 100










SC

101 -1000

40,0%


52,6%

42,9%



40,0%

36,4%

41,0%

> 1000

60,0%

100,0%

47,4%

57,1%


100,0%

60,0%

63,6%

59,0%

SC Total


100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%


100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

Source: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.15 Average weight per animal by farm size

State

Class

Cooperatives

Complete Independent

Integrated

Mean Complete

Cooperatives

Finisher Independent

Integrated

Mean Finisher

Mean General

GO

< 100










100 - 1000










GO Total

> 1000


93,60


93,60



114,33

114,33

104,91



93,60


93,60



114,33

114,33

104,91

MG

< 100










100 - 1000


120,00


120,00





120,00

MG Total

> 1000


103,95


103,95



114,86

114,86

106,78



104,71


104,71



114,86

114,86

107,25

MS

< 100










100 - 1000

110,00



110,00





110,00

MS Total

> 1000

109,28

105,00


108,85



121,00

121,00

116,50


109,35

105,00


108,95



121,00

121,00

116,27

MT

< 100










100 - 1000










MT Total

> 1000

115,00

128,33


125,00

113,83



113,83

118,30


115,00

128,33


125,00

113,83



113,83

118,30

PR

< 100










100 - 1000

100,00



100,00





100,00

PR Total

> 1000

92,42

99,92


96,92





96,92


93,93

99,92


97,20





97,20

RS

< 100










100 - 1000


98,33


98,33





98,33

RS Total

> 1000

102,80

103,00

115,00

105,36



117,00

117,00

107,30


102,80

101,44

115,00

103,74



117,00

117,00

105,51

SC

< 100










100 - 1000

114,00


118,30

117,58



105,00

105,00

114,44

SC Total

> 1000

109,33

108,75

112,33

110,88

120,00


105,83

107,86

109,96


111,20

108,75

115,47

113,75

120,00


105,50

106,82

111,79

Total


106,08

104,17

115,43

107,19

114,71


115,14

115,08

109,91

Source: Cepea/FAO

The higher conversion rate by integrated farmers shown in Table 6.16. is possibly related to higher feed quality, technical assistance, and genetic factors provided by integrators. The case of Goiás is important to be emphasized because modern integrators provide much better conditions. Specialized independent finishers also present better conversion rates.

Apparently mortality rates are related to the mean age of buildings and facilities. This would be why newer and modern farms in the center west present lower mortality indexes than in the south, as indicated by Table 6.17.

Tables 6.18 to 6.20 suggest that integrated farmers and cooperatives tend to take better care of the disposing of dead animals and manure. This may be a result of the action of contractors and cooperatives, which are interested in preventing possible exporting difficulties related to environmental matters.

Tables 6.21 show that swine farmers operate in a diversified fashion, possibly as a means to reduce risk. The swine activity is in general quite risky particularly because of price volatility. Integrated farmers, however, face a lower price volatility and can operate with lower diversification.

As Table 6.22 indicates, rural credit is mainly provided (around 53%) by public commercial banks. Own saving resources are also relevant (21%). Credit cooperatives also play a relevant role for medium size farmrs.

The quantity of manure spread over the farm lies within the limits of 54 m3/ha/year recommended by EMBRAPA. See Table 6.23.

Table 6.24. indicates that the farmer is the major responsible actor to proceed to the cleaning of the manure produced in the farm.

As Table 6.25 shows the distance from the farm to the slaughter house is longer in the center west than in the south, what should be related to farm size. Integrated farms apparently tend to concentrate in the neighborhood of slaughter houses, as the contractor seeks to reduce transportation costs. Table 6.26 reports the distances form the farms to the nearest regional urban center. No clear relationship can be observed in this case.

Table 6.16 Average conversion ratio per animal by farm size.

State

Class

Cooperatives

Complete Independent

Integrated

Mean Complete

Cooperatives

Finisher Independent

Integrated

Mean Finisher

Mean General

GO

< 100










100 - 1000










GO Total

> 1000


3,02


3,02



2,28

2,28

2,62



3,02


3,02



2,28

2,28

2,62

MG

< 100










100 - 1000


2,47


2,47





2,47

MG Total

> 1000


2,35


2,35



2,18

2,18

2,30



2,35


2,35



2,18

2,18

2,31

MS

< 100










100 - 1000

2,14



2,14





2,14

MS Total

> 1000

2,25

2,77


2,30



2,25

2,25

2,27


2,24

2,77


2,29



2,25

2,25

2,26

MT

< 100










100 - 1000










MT Total

> 1000

2,12

2,26


2,22

2,09



2,09

2,14


2,12

2,26


2,22

2,09



2,09

2,14

PR

< 100










100 - 1000

2,65



2,65





2,65

PR Total

> 1000

2,45

2,58


2,52





2,52


2,49

2,58


2,54





2,54

RS

< 100










100 - 1000


2,19


2,19





2,19

RS Total

> 1000

2,68

2,65

2,31

2,59



1,92

1,92

2,48


2,68

2,50

2,31

2,50



1,92

1,92

2,42

SC

< 100










100 - 1000

2,10


2,14

2,13



2,36

2,36

2,19

SC Total

> 1000

2,16

2,38

2,16

2,21

2,29


2,22

2,23

2,22


2,14

2,38

2,15

2,18

2,29


2,28

2,28

2,21

Total


2,30

2,48

2,16

2,37

2,12


2,23

2,22

2,31

Source: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.17 Average mortality proportion by size classification

State

Class

Cooperatives

Complete Independent

Integrated

Mean Complete

Cooperatives

Finisher Independent

Integrated

Mean Finisher

Mean General

GO

< 100










100 - 1000










GO Total

> 1000


0,09


0,09



0,01

0,01

0,05



0,09


0,09



0,01

0,01

0,05

MG

< 100










100 - 1000


0,08


0,08





0,08

MG Total

> 1000


0,07


0,07



0,02

0,02

0,06



0,07


0,07



0,02

0,02

0,06

MS Total

< 100










100 - 1000

0,10



0,10





0,10

MS Total

> 1000

0,10

0,13


0,10



0,02

0,02

0,05


0,10

0,13


0,10



0,02

0,02

0,05

MT

< 100










100 - 1000










MT Total

> 1000

0,07

0,05


0,06

0,017



0,02

0,03


0,07

0,05


0,06

0,017



0,02

0,03

PR

< 100










100 - 1000

0,05



0,05





0,05

PR Total

> 1000

0,10

0,07


0,08





0,08


0,09

0,07


0,08





0,08

RS

< 100










100 - 1000


0,05


0,05





0,05

RS Total

> 1000

0,14

0,09

0,09

0,10



0,01

0,01

0,08


0,14

0,07

0,09

0,09



0,01

0,01

0,07

SC

< 100










100 - 1000

0,22


0,12

0,14



0,01

0,01

0,11

SC Total

> 1000

0,12

0,08

0,11

0,11

0,003


0,02

0,01

0,08


0,16

0,08

0,12

0,12

0,003


0,01

0,01

0,09

Total


0,11

0,08

0,11

0,09

0,015


0,02

0,02

0,07

Source: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.18 Disposal of dead animals by farm classes and production system


< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Composting





66,7%


50,0%

44%

28,1%

24,5%

66,0%

41,8%

42,1%

Burying





16,7%

80,0%

42,9%

44%

18,8%

18,4%

7,5%

14,2%

18,9%

Cesspit





16,7%

20,0%

7,1%

12%

43,8%

55,1%

15,1%

36,6%

32,7%

Others









9,4%

2,0%

11,3%

7,5%

6,3%

Total





100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

Source: Cepea/Fao

Table 6.19 Manure treatment systems by farm class and production system


< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Manure treatment





67%

50%

100%

81%

30%

32%

35%

33%

40%

Lagoon with canvas





17%

33%

0%

12%

20%

16%

36%

27%

25%

Lagoon no canvas





17%

17%

0%

8%

43%

44%

26%

35%

31%

Decanter





0%

0%

0%

0%

7%

8%

3%

5%

4%

Total





100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

100%

Source: Cepea/Fao

Table 6.20 Responsibility for manure transporting


< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Buyer





0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

8,0%

16,3%

8,0%

11,3%

9,5%

Farmer





100,0%

100,0%

78,6%

87,5%

92,0%

77,6%

72,0%

78,2%

79,7%

Other





0,0%

0,0%

21,4%

12,5%

0,0%

6,1%

20,0%

10,5%

10,8%

Total





100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

Source: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.21 Farm activities by farm size and production system

Activity

< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coope-ratives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Bovine





7,7%

0,0%

0,0%

1,7%

3,8%

7,4%

8,1%

7,0%

6,1%

Poultry





0,0%

0,0%

8,8%

5,2%

0,0%

1,1%

13,8%

6,7%

6,4%

Crops





38,5%

9,1%

23,5%

24,1%

37,7%

22,3%

15,4%

22,2%

22,6%

Dairy





0,0%

18,2%

20,6%

15,5%

0,0%

3,2%

10,6%

5,9%

7,6%

Others





15,4%

27,3%

5,9%

12,1%

9,4%

18,1%

12,2%

13,7%

13,4%

Swine





38,5%

45,5%

41,2%

41,4%

49,1%

47,9%

39,8%

44,4%

43,9%

Total





100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

Source: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.22 Sources of rural credit by size of farms and production systems

Source

< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Private bank





0,0%

0,0%

6,3%

4,0%

0,0%

16,9%

7,0%

9,7%

8,9%

Public bank





50,0%

0,0%

50,0%

44,0%

54,5%

46,2%

63,2%

54,2%

52,8%

BNDES





0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

6,2%

0,0%

2,6%

2,2%

Credit Coop.





16,7%

66,7%

6,3%

16,0%

12,1%

6,2%

5,3%

7,1%

8,3%

Integrator





0,0%

0,0%

6,3%

4,0%

0,0%

0,0%

1,8%

0,6%

1,1%

Others





16,7%

33,3%

6,3%

12,0%

0,0%

7,7%

3,5%

4,5%

5,6%

Own savings





16,7%

0,0%

25,0%

20,0%

33,3%

16,9%

19,3%

21,3%

21,1%

Total





100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

Source: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.23 Mean quantity of manure spread on the farm by type of crop and production systems.(m3 / ha/year)

Crop

< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Mean

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Cotton














Rice







10,0

10,0





10,0

Black oat









23,0



23,0

23,0

Sugar cane









50,0

25,0


37,5

37,5

Edible beans







30,0

30,0

40,0

4,0


22,0

26,0

Corn





29,3

45,0

52,7

45,4

28,0

42,2

34,1

35,5

38,1

Pasture














Soybeans





20,0



20,0

26,6

35,0

22,8

27,2

26,2

Sorghum









30,0



30,0

30,0

Wheat






15,0


15,0

22,0

44,0

14,0

23,0

21,9

Triticale









40,0

40,0


40,0

40,0

Mean





25,3

37,5

45,3

37,9

28,4

38,5

29,3

31,9

33,2

Fonte: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.24 Responsibility for manure cleaning by farm size and production system


< 100

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Buyer





0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

0,0%

8,0%

16,3%

8,0%

11,3%

9,5%

Farmer





100,0%

100,0%

78,6%

87,5%

92,0%

77,6%

72,0%

78,2%

79,7%

Other





0,0%

0,0%

21,4%

12,5%

0,0%

6,1%

20,0%

10,5%

10,8%

Total





100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

100,0%

Fonte: Cepea/FAO

Table 6.25 Distance from farm to slaughter houses by farm size and production systems

State

Data

101 - 1000

> 1000

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

Coopera-tives

Indepen-dent

Integra-ted

Total

GO

Max






100,0

70,0

100,0

100,0

Avg






50,2

49,5

49,8

49,8

Min






5,0

35,0

5,0

5,0

MG

Max


7,0


7,0


270,0

90,0

270,0

270,0

Avg


7,0


7,0


67,6

50,1

62,9

60,9

Min


7,0


7,0


6,0

13,0

6,0

6,0

MS

Max

8,0



8,0

185,0

200,0

70,0

200,0

200,0

Avg

8,0



8,0

33,3

200,0

48,6

49,1

47,6

Min

8,0



8,0

3,0

200,0

6,0

3,0

3,0

MT

Max





100,0

520,0


520,0

520,0

Avg





60,4

320,0


138,3

138,3

Min





12,0

140,0


12,0

12,0

PR

Max

12,0



12,0

250,0

60,0


250,0

250,0

Avg

12,0



12,0

137,5

30,0


77,8

65,8

Min

12,0



12,0

60,0

5,0


5,0

5,0

RS

Max


35,0


35,0

36,0

70,0

20,0

70,0

70,0

Avg


15,0


15,0

28,0

24,2

16,8

22,2

20,7

Min


0,1


0,1

20,0

5,0

14,0

5,0

0,1

SC

Max

15,0


47,0

47,0

9,0

50,0

45,0

50,0

50,0

Avg

11,0


29,5

27,0

6,0

19,5

21,6

18,5

21,9

Min

7,0


6,0

6,0

4,0

4,0

6,0

4,0

4,0

Total

Max

15,0

35,0

47,0

47,0

250,0

520,0

90,0

520,0

520,0

Avg

10,8

13,0

29,5

22,2

52,0

72,5

38,1

53,5

48,6

Min

7,0

0,1

6,0

0,1

3,0

4,0

6,0

3,0

0,1

Source: Cepea/FAO


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