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Chapter 3 - Description of trypanotolerant livestock


3.1 The N'Dama cattle group
3.2 The West African Shorthorn
3.3 The Zebu x humpless cattle groups
3.4 Sheep and goats
3.5 Conclusions


3.1 The N'Dama cattle group


3.1.1 Numbers and distribution
3.1.2 The environment
3.1.3 Breed characters
3.1.4 Husbandry systems
3.1.5 Performance


N'Dama is the most widely Used name for the group of humpless longhorn cattle which includes the N'Dama breed and its varieties. The Fouta Djallon region of Guinea is said to be the area of origin of these cattle; Diallo (1965) mentions that the term N'Dama comes from the name of a Kadé village in the Gaoual area in the northern part of Fouta Djallon.

The original cattle in Africa were humpless longhorns which first appeared in Egypt. By the third millenium B.C. this type was apparently found throughout northern Africa, but was then replaced by a shorthorned humpless type. In northern Africa, the longhorns disappeared completely, but in West Africa they remained in the N'Dama area to the west and the Kuri area to the east. More recently, Zebu have exerted pressure on the northern boundary of the N'Dama zone.

3.1.1 Numbers and distribution

The N'Dama, with about 3400000 head in West and Central Africa, is numerically the most important trypanotolerant breed. It is represented in all 18 countries covered by the study, as indicated in Table 3.1, In this table the original breeding area (Guinea and neighbouring countries) and the areas of more recent introduction are listed separately.

Table 3.1 Distribution of the N'Dama group.

Country

N'Dama population in study area

Percentage of total N'Dama population

Total cattle population of study area

Percentage of N'Dama in total cattle population of study area

(' 000)

(' 000)

Original Areas





Guinea

1154

33.7

1215

95.0

Senegal

746

21.8

1310

57.0

Mali

465

13.6

1810

25.7

The Gambia

296

8.7

296

100.0

Sierra Leone

207

6.0

207

100.0

Guinea Bissau

166

4.9

166

100.0

Ivory Coast

70

2.0

516

13.6

Liberia

11

0.3

26

41.2

Sub-total

3115

91.0

5546

56,2

Areas of Introduction





Zaire

240

7.0

281

79.0

Congo

33

1.0

43

75.0

Ghana

17

0.5

777

2.2

Nigeria

15

0.4

766

2. 0

Gabon

2

-

3

59.4

Cameroon

1

-

2917

-

Central African Republic

1

-

1115

-

Benin

< 1

-

726

-

Togo

< 1

-

214

-

Upper Volta

< 1

-

1534

-

Sub-total

308

9.0

5902

5.2

Total

3423

100.0

11448

29.9

Source: Information from country visits.

The eight countries forming the primary breeding area of the N'Dama can be divided into three groups:

a. Countries with virtually only N'Dama, including Guinea (except for a few N'Dama crosses in the northeast near Siguiri), Guinea Bissau, The Gambia (with a little crossbreeding in the east) and Sierra Leone;

b. Sudano-Sahelian countries forming the transition zone between N'Dama and Zebu. This includes Senegal, with N'Dama in the south (Casamance and Senegal Oriental) but with more Zebu than N'Dama overall and an inter mediate belt with crossbreds (Djakoré), and Mali, with a similar distribution of Zebu, N'Dama and crossbreds (Bambara);

c. Guinean countries forming the transition zone between N'Dama and Shorthorn, including Ivory Coast, where only the northwest is predominantly N'Dama and the humpless Baoulé and the Zebu are more numerous overall, and Liberia, with N'Dama in the north and Shorthorn (Muturu) in the south, both in small numbers.

The ten other countries included in the study have all imported N'Dama cattle. While numbers have increased considerably in some countries, in others N'Dama are rarely found outside the breeding stations or other government centres. Ivory Coast is In an intermediate position in that there are some original N'Dama areas but the breed has also been introduced in other parts of the country. Only in Guinea, the country with the largest N'Dama population, do numbers seem to be decreasing. The reasons for this trend are complex and are touched on in Volume 2. Apparently there is a migration of animals to neighbouring countries. In all the other original N'Dama areas the total number of cattle is rising fairly rapidly, partly due to improvements in disease control and meat marketing. However, as extensive crossbreeding is taking place in Senegal and Mali, the rise in total numbers is to some extent occurring at the expense of the pure breeds.

Turning to the countries where N'Dama have been introduced, the breed has increased rapidly in Zaire and Congo, especially on commercial and government ranches. In Ghana and Nigeria, the numbers continue to rise on government farms and ranches, but in the villages N'Dama sires are used mainly for crossbreeding with the local cattle. In the other countries studied, the total numbers of N'Dama cattle appear static at very low levels.

3.1.2 The environment

In their original breeding area, N'Dama are generally found in the Guinean and Sudano-Guinean bioclimatic zones, covering a considerable range of environments. Their original home, the Fouta Djallon massif, consists of Sudano-Guinean highland savanna. From there, N'Dama have spread to the Guinean zone and in upper Guinea, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone and, to a lesser extent, Liberia they are found in the forest area. At the other extreme, they are found in much more arid zones - southern Sine Saloum and Senegal Oriental in Senegal and in Mali. In the areas where they have been introduced, N'Dama have adapted to diverse conditions, including forest environments in Congo, Ghana and Liberia and palm, cocoa and rubber plantations (see Figures 3.18 and 3. 23).

3.1.3 Breed characters

The standard descriptions of the Guinean N'Dama have been given by Doutressoulle (1947) and Coulomb (1976). The N'Dama breed has a medium-sized body, harmonious proportions and a straight facial profile. They are relatively compact animals with a fairly light skeleton, good for meat production. The head is large and strong. The muzzle varies in colour, but is usually pale in the typical type. The horns are rather variable from average length to long and from crescent to lyre shape, though the lyre shape is considered the norm. The horns are amber with black tips. The back is straight and slightly sloping, especially among the females, and the rump is short, well muscled and more horizontal than among the Zebus. The coat is usually self-coloured in various shades of fawn to brown. Pied or mainly black coats also occur in the breeding areas, and particularly in the original breeding area of Fouta Djallon. The skin is thin and supple, the hair fine. There is a moderately developed dewlap, more apparent on the bull. Sexual dimorphism is marked. The bull is thick set and appears heavy, with a short, strong neck. The female is more slender with a lighter appearance and the udder is of medium size, the teats thin.

Typical Guinean N'Dama are found in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali and Ivory Coast (see Figures 3.1 and 3.2). N'Dama in the new breeding areas are usually of the typical variety because imported animals have been carefully selected and atypical animals avoided. On the other hand, in their original breeding area N'Dama are surprisingly variable and rather small. In Senegal, the typical variety is called N'Dama Petite.

Two variations rather different from the Guinean type were observed in the field, one in Casamance (Senegal) and Guinea Bissau, the other in The Gambia and Senegal Oriental. The most common colour of Guinea Bissau N'Dama is not fawn, but white with black extremities. They are called N'Gabou or Boenca (see Figure 3.6). The same type predominates in Kolda and Velingara in Middle and Upper Casamance (see Figures 3.8 and 3.11). Black markings, especially on ears and muzzle, accompany a pale, often white, coat. Body and horns are of medium size. This colour pattern is particularly common around Velingara and is reminiscent of the Borgou of Benin. It is difficult to explain this special colour pattern, so different from the majority of N'Dama. There may have been absorption of West African Shorthorns which were previously found in this region but it seems more likely that this variety has arisen from a mixture with Zebu.

A Gambian N'Dama type is also found on the northern limits of the N'Dama area, in The Gambia, Senegal and Mali (see Figure 3.7). This population is continuous with the Zebu x N'Dama crossbreds (Djakoré, Bambara) and shows a similarity to them which must be due to a mixture with Zebu. Pale coat colours, especially fawn or white, predominate. These animals are fairly large, and their horns are usually long and strong. They appear less compact and thick set than the classical type. This variety used to he called N'Dama Grande in Senegal. It is found particularly in southern Sine Saloum and Senegal Oriental except in the Kedougou region where the animals are the typical Guinean N'Dama.

A type called the N'Dama of Kaarta or the crossbred of Kaarta is found in Mali. Its appearance is similar to that of the Gambian type, with uniform, light fawn coats.

3.1.4 Husbandry systems


3.1.4.1 Traditional
3.1.4.2 Metayage
3.1.4.3 Ranching


3.1.4.1 Traditional

N'Dama are usually owned by Fulani (or Foula) people in The Gambia, Guinea and Sierra Leone. In these areas they are managed along similar lines in spite of the very different environments. However, there are many differences in detail which are noted in the country studies of Volume 2.

In general, cattle production under traditional management is becoming increasingly sedentary (see Figure 3.3) though transhumance is still practised in some areas. During the cropping season the animals are grazed on fallows and areas of natural vegetation (see Figure 3.9). In the dry season, they are brought back to the cultivated areas where they are fed crop residues (see Figure 3.15) and also graze in swamps, rice fields and various other areas which they cannot use during the wet season. Herding is continuous during the rains but much more casual in the dry season. The herds are gathered every evening and are either penned (Sierra Leone, see Figure 3.4) or tethered (The Gambia, see Figure 3.5), and sometimes the cows are tethered inside the pens. The unweaned calves are separated from their mothers, both in the pens and out in the pastures.

Under this system, cows are milked regularly, generally in the morning and evening (see Figure 3.14). Milk is important as a component in the family's diet and is also sold, often in curdled form. When the herdsman is paid a salary, milk is always part of his remuneration. The importance-of milk in Fulani society justifies the special care given to young cows. It also explains the late weaning of calves because milking only takes place when calves are suckling, though this practice may have a detrimental effect on fertility. In some eases (e. g. in the western part of The Gambia) the herds do not belong to the Fulani, but herdsmen are recruited from this tribe. The same management practices are found. N'Dama herds under Fulani management can be quite large - from 50 to 150 head. In the Fouta Djallon however, the herds are generally much smaller.

A characteristic of the composition of Fulani N'Dama herds is the large proportion of cows. In The Gambia, 70% of the herd may be females, with 45% adult cows. The proportion of males varies according to the importance of ox ploughing; there can be 10% more oxen in areas where draught animals are commonly used, as in upper Guinea. Towards the forest area where N'Dama have been introduced fairly recently, such as in the Guinean zone of Sierra Leone and Liberia, management is often rather different because the herds are looked after by other groups. Cattle are less carefully herded and milking is rare or incidental.

Better management and more favourable conditions for fodder production generally produce heavier animals. This is the case in Guinea, where the animals tend to be more solid and heavier in the forest region (Beyla) than in Fouta Djallon (Labé). In West Africa, calving takes place during the first part of the dry season, and mating occurs during the second part when it is cooler. The calving season is from November to February in Sierra Leone and from October to January in Ivory Coast.

3.1.4.2 Metayage

The metayage system is used to introduce cattle husbandry at the village level in regions where this has not been a traditional activity. The metayage is based on the provision of a basic breeding herd (5 to 10 heifers and a bull) to an individual or a small group by a commercial, governmental or religious organization which maintains central breeding herds (see Figure 3.21). The individual or group has a 5- to 10-year contract with the central organization which provides technical and veterinary assistance and veterinary-products such as acaricides and minerals. Also, if losses in the basic breeding herd occur due to natural causes, the animals are replaced without charge.

The farmer, on his part, must provide basic facilities such as spraying equipment, a night pen or fenced pasture and a watering point. At the end of the contract, he must reimburse the organization for the breeding stock, sometimes plus interest, in the form of young animals. Assistance is still provided after the end of the contract if the farmer wishes, but the terms may be changed.

The most important metayage operations are carried out in Central African Republic, Gabon, Congo and Zaire. Dwarf and Savanna Shorthorn were originally preferred because of their smaller size and more docile temperament, hut more recently large operations in Zaire and Congo have been based on N'Dama. These operations have achieved varying degrees of success, but altogether they have introduced about 100000 head of cattle at the village level and have accomplished their main objective of interesting local farmers in cattle husbandry.

3.1.4.3 Ranching

The ranching system is most highly developed in Zaire and Congo and more recently in Ivory Coast and Nigeria (see Figures 3.24 to 3.26). Cattle are raised on fenced pastures where they graze day and night or are herded by day and kept in pens at night. They graze chiefly on Hyparrhenia grass which is common in the natural Guinean savanna areas where the ranches are found. Carrying capacity varies from 2 to 5 ha per head, and the savanna is burnt every year. Cattle usually have access to mineral salt licks and are dipped or sprayed 2 to 4 times a month, which is the only contact with people for the animals raised on fenced pastures. The herds are separated according to sex and age categories. Ranch sizes vary considerably from a few hundred to 25000 animals.

3.1.5 Performance

Table 3.2 presents a typical range of N'Dama performance levels, covering the more important traits under both traditional and improved management systems. These have been taken from the country sections of Volume 2. Figures for the traditional system come from The Gambia and Ivory Coast, those for ranches from Zaire and Ivory Coast and those for stations from Ivory Coast and Sierra Leone.

Table 3.2 Range of N'Dama performance levels under traditional and improved management.

Performance Trait

- Management System -

Traditional

Ranches

Stations

Age at first calving (months)

48

42

35-39

Calving interval (months)

18-24


14-15

Calving rate (%)

50

75-80

88

Mortality: calves (%)

12-30

10

-

1-2 years (%)

12

2-4

-

adults (%)

3

2-4

-

Milk yield

0.4-0.8 kg/day (partial milking)

-

400-600 kg per lactation

Rate of gain

20-40 kg per year

0.3- 0.7 kg per day


Beef Production

Mature Oxen

Steers


Age (years)

8-9

4


Liveweight (kg)

360

365


Carcass weight (kg)

167

199


Dressing out %

46.0

54.5


Source: Country studies in Volume 2.

3.2 The West African Shorthorn


3.2.1 The Savanna Shorthorn
3.2.2 The Dwarf West African Shorthorn


The original breeding area of the West African Shorthorn (WAS) stretches in an almost continuous belt from Liberia to Cameroon. They are found in all the coastal countries and also in southern Upper Volta. They are derived from the shorthorned humpless (brachyceros) cattle which appeared in ancient Egypt in the middle of the second millenium B.C. and were first recorded in West Africa during the second half of the first millenium B.C. Shorthorned humpless cattle are depicted among the prevailing longhorns in rock paintings on the Bauctic plateau of Nigeria dating from this period. Before the Fulani invasions of about 1820, they were the most common type in northern Nigeria (Epstein, 1971). They have now been replaced by Zebus in this area and are under pressure from Zebus or from N'Dama in all other areas. More recently, Shorthorn cattle have been introduced into the francophone countries of Central Africa (Central African Republic, Gabon, Congo and Zaire), though they are not numerous in these countries and are found only in pockets.

The Shorthorn may be divided into two subgroups according to size, conformation and environment (see Figure 2.5)

1. The larger animals found in the Guinean or Sudano-Guinean savannas, from Ivory Coast to Cameroon. They are Baoulé (Ivory Coast and Upper Volta), Ghana Shorthorn, Somba (Togo and Benin), Savanna Muturu (Nigeria) and Bakosi, Doayo and Kapsiki (Cameroon). This typical Short horn type is referred to as Savanna Shorthorn;

2. The Dwarf Shorthorn, including the Lagune (Ivory Coast, Togo and Benin) and Forest Muturu (Liberia and Nigeria). These populations are found in small numbers in the coastal and forest regions. They were presumably derived from the larger type by natural selection in a humid forest environment where nutrition is poor and the climate harsh.

In Nigeria, no distinction is made and both groups are called Muturu (which means humpless).

3.2.1 The Savanna Shorthorn


3.2.1.1 Numbers and distribution
3.2.1.2 Environment
3.2.1.3 Breed characters
3.2.1.4 Husbandry Systems
3.2.1.5 Performance


3.2.1.1 Numbers and distribution

There are approximately 1673000 West African Savanna Shorthorn found in eight countries of West and Central-Africa, as indicated in Table 3. 3.

In the northern parts of Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin and in the southern part of Upper Volta, the West African Shorthorn is found in a relatively continuous belt through the savanna areas, as shown in Figure 2. 5, although livestock densities vary considerably. There are some areas where the population is very dense such as the Senoufo (Korhogo) and Lobi (Bouna) areas in northern Ivory Coast, the Lobi area (Gaoua) in southern Upper Volta, Wa, Tamale and Bolgatanga in Northern Ghana, the Dapaong savanna region and Kara (Lame Kara) in northern Togo and the Atacora plains in western Benin. Towards the east, there are many Shorthorn crossbreeds - from northeastern Benin eastwards where the Borgou type is found and the original type is seen only in pockets. Thus the Shorthorn are found in a few scattered, isolated zones in Nigeria, while in Cameroon, the most eastern part of the original breeding area, there are only a few traces left in very small pockets.

The southern region is less densely populated. A belt from 200 to 400 km wide where almost no cattle are found stretches from Ivory Coast to the southeastern Nigerian highlands, approximately following the eighth parallel before bending to the south in Nigeria. This area stretches over Seguela, Bouaké and Bondoukou in Ivory Coast, Sunyani in Ghana, Atakpamé and Sokodé in Togo and Savalou and Savé in Benin, and it forms a crescent from Ibadan to Nsukka to Enugu in Nigeria. This region is characterized by pert-forest savanna vegetation (Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria) or Guinean or sub-Guinean bush savanna (Togo, Benin), with disease affecting both humans (e. g. sleeping sickness, onchocercosis) and livestock (e.g. trypanosomiasis, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, rinderpest and streptothricosis).

Table 3.3. Distribution of the West African Savanna Shorthorn group.

Country and Breed Name

Shorthorn population in study area

Percentage of total Shorthorn population

Total cattle population of study area

Percentage of Shorthorn in total cattle population of study area

(' 000)

(' 000)

Original Areas





Ghana (Ghana Shorthorn)

616

36.8

777

79.3

Upper Volta (Baoulé, Lobi or Mere)

484

28.9

1534

31.6

Ivory Coast (Baoulé)

250

15.0

516

48.4

Togo (Somba)

144

8.6

214

67.3

Nigeria (Muturu)

82

4.9

766

10.7

Benin (Somba)

75

4.5

726

10.3

Cameroon (Doayo, Kapsiki, Bakosi)

7

0.4

2917

0.2

Sub-Total

1658

99.1

7450

22.3

Area of Introduction





Central African Republic (Baoulé)

15

0.9

1115

1.3

Total

1673

100.0

8565

19.5

Source: Information from country visits.

The Shorthorn breeds have different names in the various countries of the study area, as follows:

- Baoulé: This name is used chiefly in Ivory Coast, after the Baoulé tribe. Numbers are significant. Crossbreeding is mostly with Zebus in the north (Korhogo), and the breed is still relatively pure towards Bouaké, Dabakala and Bouna (see Figures 3.33, 3.37);

- Lobi: The Lobi tribe near Bouna in northeastern Ivory Coast and in the Gaoua region of southwestern Upper Volta breed cattle very similar to the Baoulé which are called Lobi in both countries. In Upper Volta outside the Lobi area there is a high proportion of crossbreds (see Figure 3.38);

- Mere: This term (which means small) is used by the Fulani for both crossbred and purebred Shorthorns. It would be preferable to restrict this term to the crossbreds and to describe the purebreds as Lobi or Baoulé of Upper Volta;

- Ghana Shorthorn: The most common name used in Ghana is West African Shorthorn (WAS). However, this group includes a fairly large crossbred population with more Shorthorn than Zebu blood. In the northwest (Wa region), the populations linking those of northeastern Ivory Coast with those of southern Upper Volta are still relatively pure (see Figures 3.45 and 3.47);

- Somba: The Somba breed is a typical Shorthorn, very similar to the Baoulé It is the predominant breed in Togo and forms a continuation in the north with the Ghana Shorthorn (see Figure 3.34 and 3.44). This breed is believed to have originated in the Atacora highlands in Benin where the Somba tribe lives, though east of the Atacora the Borgou breed predominates. In the rest of the country the cattle are of the Somba type as far south as Abomey (see Figures 3.44); further south the Lagune breed is found (see Figure 3.31).

- Nigerian Savanna Muturu: In Nigeria all Shorthorn are called Muturu. A large part of this population is found in the savanna regions of Benue and Anambra (30000 to 50000), and small numbers are found in Kwara and Oyo (4000 to 7000). There are no precise statistics available on Shorthorns in Nigeria but numbers are decreasing rapidly, a trend which began with the civil war in the late 1960s and has continued since then (see Figures 3.35 and 3.40).

3.2.1.2 Environment

The typical environment of these Shorthorn populations is the humid Guinean or Sudano-Guinean bush or grass savanna, characterized by tall perennial grasses (Andropogon, Pennisetums and Panicum). These areas are burnt annually and livestock, unless overstocked, perform well. In the dry season, the little pasture available is of good quality. The Shorthorns are not always found in a humid environment, however. They are sometimes found in Sahelo-Sudanian areas along with Zebus and crossbreds, for example in Upper Volta.

3.2.1.3 Breed characters

Typically, Shorthorn are small animals, averaging 90 to 100 cm at withers for the breeds in Ivory Coast, 92 to 97 cm for the Somba of Atacora, and 98 to 110 cm for the Ghana Shorthorn (see Figures 3.33, 3.36). They have a compact conformation with good muscling. The head is heavy compared with the rest of the body. The forehead is wide and the facial profile straight. Horns are short, circular in section and thick at the base, being thicker on bulls and firmer and more pointed on cows. The horns project laterally, forming a crescent pointing for wards and sometimes upwards (in males). They are pale in colour, sometimes with black tips. Ears are small and lateral. Mucosae are usually black. Neck and withers are short, thin in cows and thick in bulls, forming a continuous line with the back. The dewlap is small. The back is straight, loins short, chest wide and round but constricted behind the front legs, sloping down slightly from rump to withers. The tail is long with a high and protruding attachment. The terminal tuft is conspicuous. The udder is small and retracted and the teats poorly developed. In more wooded areas, black or black-and-white coats predominate, though occasionally brown, red or fawn animals are also found.

3.2.1.4 Husbandry Systems

Shorthorn cattle are usually kept by sedentary farmers. In some cases livestock still play an important traditional role in society, for example among the Lobi of Ivory Coast and Upper Volta and the Kapsiki and Doayo of northern Cameroon, while in other areas they are kept for milk or meat production or as draught animals (see Figures 3.45, 3.46 and 3.47).

In traditional systems where livestock are chiefly kept for religious or social reasons, they are usually slaughtered on ritual occasions, such as funerals, circumcisions and weddings. Cattle are also often included in dowries. In such societies, cows are never milked and draught animals are not used. During the cropping season (and sometimes in the dry season) the herd is tended by village children or by herdsmen belonging to the same tribe. The number of animals per family is very small and the village cattle are usually combined in one or more collective herds which go out to pasture together. In certain isolated villages in the forest and in the plantation areas, the animals are often left to roam freely. Cultivated plots near the homesteads are protected by hedges.

In most areas where Shorthorn cattle are kept for meat, milk or draught power, husbandry systems are changing rapidly, but they tend to have several characteristics in common. Animals from several owners are generally herded together, looked after by hired Fulani herdsmen, for example in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. Milking is practiced; milk is part of the herdsman's wages and the owners are beginning to introduce milk into their diets as well. Commercial offtake is often slight; animals are consumed by the villagers themselves, usually as part of traditional ceremonies. The use of draught animals is increasing in several Shorthorn areas such as southern Upper Volta, northern Ivory Coast and northern Ghana, and for this reason crossbreeding with Zebu is increasing virtually everywhere.

Baoulé cattle have also been introduced in Central African Republic as part of a large-scale metayage operation (see Figure 3.48).

3.2.1.5 Performance

Most Shorthorn cattle are bred under traditional village conditions, but some productivity statistics have been recorded at research stations, such as Nungua in Ghana and Bouaké in Ivory Coast. Table 3.4 presents some typical Savanna Shorthorn performance levels, covering the more important traits under both traditional and improved management. These have been taken from various country sections of Volume 2.

Table 3.4 Range of West African Savanna Shorthorn performance levels under traditional and improved management.

Performance trait

- Management System -

Traditional

Improved

Age at first calving (months)

ca. 48

26-35

Calving interval (months)

18-24

12-13

Calving rate (%)

40-55

82-85

Mortality: birth - 1 year (%)

15-17

n.a.


1 - 2 years (%)

5-6

n.a.


adults (%)

3-4

n.a.

Milk yield (kg)

100-300
(incomplete milking)

up to 700




Rate of gain

n.a.

0.2-0.5 kg/day

Beef Production

Males

Males

Age (years)

5+

4+

Liveweight (kg)

188-191

267

Carcass weight (kg)

n.a.

133

Dressing out %

n. a.

49.5

Source: Country studies in Volume 2.

3.2.2 The Dwarf West African Shorthorn


3.2.2.1 Numbers and Distribution
3.2.2.2 Environment
3.2.2.3 Breed Characters
3.2.2.4 Husbandry Systems
3.2.2.5 Performance


The Dwarf Shorthorn are known as Lagune in the francophone countries and Muturu in the anglophone. They are distinguished from the Savanna Shorthorn geographically and by their smaller size.

3.2.2.1 Numbers and Distribution

There are about 98000 Dwarf Shorthorn cattle in the study zone, making them the smallest trypanotolerant cattle group. Their numbers are usually estimated, rather than based on recent censuses. Table 3.5 gives the estimated population of Dwarf Shorthorn in each country where they are found. Of the total population, 75% are found in Nigeria, Benin and Liberia, which are the original breeding areas, and 25% in Zaire, Congo and Gabon where they have been introduced more recently. Additionally, small populations of less than 1000 are found in Ivory Coast (Lagune), Ghana (Muturu), Togo (Lagune) and Cameroon (Muturu).

As shown in Figure 2.5, Dwarf Shorthorn cattle are found scattered along the coastal areas and southern forest zones from Liberia to Cameroon, with some populations in very small pockets. Recent areas of concentration are Maryland and Sinoe Counties in southern Liberia, South Province, especially Ouémé, in Benin, and Bendel, Cross Rivers, Imo, Ondo and Ogun States in southern Nigeria. All the Muturu in Nigeria are not included in this estimate of the Dwarf Shorthorn population however, only those of the forest zone which constitute approximately one-third of the total In Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Cameroon, Dwarf Shorthorn numbers are very low; in fact, the breed is in the process of extinction. Traces of two other Shorthorn populations were found, one in Basse Casamance in Senegal and in southwestern Gambia and the other in Guinea Bissau (the Manjaca breed). These two populations are being rapidly absorbed by the N'Dama, and their numbers are so low that they need not be discussed. The Dwarf West African Shorthorn has also been introduced into Congo, Zaire and Gabon in Central Africa at the village level, through the metayage system (see Figures 3.28, 3.30, 3.32).

Table 3.5. Distribution of the Dwarf Shorthorn group.

Country and Breed Name

Dwarf Shorthorn population in study area

Percentage of total Dwarf Shorthorn population

Total cattle population of study area

Percentage of Dwarf Shorthorn in total cattle population of study area

(' 000)

(' 000)

Original areas





Nigeria (Muturu)

38.0

38.8

766.0

5.0

Benin (Lagune)

20.0

20.4

726.0

2.7

Liberia (Muturu)

15.0

15.3

25.5

5.9

Sub-Total

73.0

74.5

1517.5

4.8

Areas of Introduction





Zaire (Dahomey)

13.0

13.3

281.0

4.6

Congo (Lagune)

10.8

11.1

43.3

25.0

Gabon (Lagune)

1.1

1.1

3.2

34.4

Sub-Total

24.9

25.5

327.5

7.6

Total

97.9

100.0

1845.0

5.3

Source: Information from country visits.

3.2.2.2 Environment

Dwarf Shorthorn cattle are found in the coastal or forest heft of the Gulf of Guinea, from Monrovia to Douala. The vegetation in this zone is diverse: there are forest, farming and cleared areas in Nigeria, coastal savannas in Liberia's Maryland County, flood plains in Ouémé, in Benin, lagoon areas with savanna in Benin, and palm groves in the Sassandra area of Ivory Coast. Cattle are rarely kept in dense forests where there is very little pasture. Rather they are found in the derived savannas, such as Maryland County in Liberia and in Benin, where soil and vegetation are not favourable. Coconut palms are numerous and the pasture is scanty and of poor quality, with Imperata cylindrica the most common grass, which has a low feed value. Fallow fields in cultivated areas also provide poor feeding because of inedible bushes. Thus in terms of nutrition, the environment is harsh.

3.2.2.3 Breed Characters

The Dwarf Shorthorn differs from the typical West African Shorthorn chiefly in terms of its smaller size - 85 to 90 cm at withers compared to 90 to 110 cm (see Figures 3.27, 3.28). The head is less bulky and longer, with a conspicuous poll and protruding eyes. The horns are very imperfect, often thin or flat and sometimes loose or absent. The line of the back slopes down from rump to withers more steeply (3 to 5 cm) than in the Savanna Shorthorn. Coats tend to he pure black, especially among the Lagune.

3.2.2.4 Husbandry Systems

In the Lagune cattle areas, livestock production is of secondary economic importance. Cattle are consumed by the family on special occasions. The herd is sedentary and not always tended; night pens have recently been introduced and in some cases animals are tethered during the day to protect the crops. There is no tradition of milking and there are no skilled herdsmen. Cattle are never given supplementary feeding, with the exception of minerals in some cases, and they receive virtually no veterinary attention.

A more elaborate and productive system is being developed on palm plantations where cattle are herded and tethered individually to the coconut, oil palm or cocoa trees in order to fertilize them (see Figure 3.29, 3.63). As the females come into season for short periods which are difficult to detect, this isolation of the animals leads to poor reproductive performance. Herdsmen are employed, and if they are Fulani the cows are milked. Some animals are also sold outside the village.

In almost all areas where Dwarf Shorthorn are kept, for example Benin, Ivory Coast and Togo, there is a tendency to introduce heavier Borgou, Sanga or N'Dama sires with the aim of improving herd productivity in terms of size and meat and milk production.

3.2.2.5 Performance

Few studies have been carried out on the performance of Dwarf Shorthorn cattle. Lagune cattle kept at the Samiondji station in Benin (FAO project) showed a calving rate of 58%, with mortality at 24% up to one year and 5% for adult cows. Calves weighed 10 kg at birth, 48 kg at 6 months and 85 kg at 1 year. The average weight of adult cows has been estimated by several authors at 130 to 180 kg.

3.3 The Zebu x humpless cattle groups


3.3.1 Numbers and distribution
3.3.2 Environment
3.3.3 Husbandry systems
3.3.4 Zebu x N'Dama crossbreeds
3.3.5 Zebu x Shorthorn crossbreeds


In general in West Africa humpless cattle are found in the humid zone (annual rainfall exceeding 1 m) and the Zebu in the drier tsetse-free zone (annual rainfall often under 500 mm). In the intermediate zones, there are several crossbreed types which have different names in different countries. Crossbreeding seems to be increasing in most countries, with Zebu moving towards the humid zone in the south traditionally populated by the humpless type. These movements of Zebu include both transhumance during the dry season in search of forage and water and more-or-less permanent migration leading to sedentarization. In both cases, Zebu and humpless herds meet and stay together for long periods with resultant increased crossbreeding.

Crossbreeding is not generally accidental; it is usually controlled with a male Zebu introduced into a humpless cow herd. The most common motivation is to produce a suitable conformation for a draught animal, plus higher meat production and higher milk yield. Only rarely does crossbreeding occur the other way round - between humpless bulls and Zebu cows. The Zebu x humpless crossbreeds may be divided into two main subgroups according to the original humpless female type involved - N'Dama or Shorthorn.

3.3.1 Numbers and distribution

A total of 2441000 Zebu x humpless crossbreds are distributed throughout 11 countries of West and Central Africa. Table 4. 6 gives estimated numbers in each country of N'Dama and Shorthorn crosses.

Large numbers are found in a continuous belt through Senegal, Mali, Upper Volta, Benin and Nigeria. Here crossbreeds have existed for some time and commonly a stabilized type has developed, for example the (Djakoré, and the Borgou. The boundary between the N'Dama and the Shorthorn crossbreeds is the Mali Upper Volta border; the N'Dama are found to the west and the Shorthorn to the east.

Figure 2.5 illustrates the distribution of the crossbreed types. Although the main breeding area is the Sudanese belt which stretches from Senegal across southern Mali and northern Benin to Nigeria, the coastal zone is also becoming populated with crossbreds. The coastal savanna stretches from Accra in Ghana to Cotonou in Benin. Because the average rainfall is low (less than 1000 mm), this area is not forested but is largely savanna country with oil palm and coconut groves. In both the savannas of the Accra plains and the coconut groves of southern Benin, the main cattle type is the Sanga or Borgou. The few Lagune herds left in this area are being absorbed.

Table 3. 6. Distribution of the Zebu x humpless cattle group.

Country and Breed Name

Zebu x N'Dama crossbreds

Zebu x Shorthorn crossbreds

Percent - age of all crossbreds

Total cattle population of study area

Percentage of crossbreds in total cattle population of study area

('000)

('000)

('000)

Upper Volta (Méré)

-

540

22.1

1534

35.2

Mali (Bambara)

522

-

21.4

1810

28.8

Benin (Borgou)

-

500

20.5

726

68.9

Senegal (Djakoré)

406

-

16.6

1310

31.0

Nigeria (Keteku)

-

165

6.7

766

21.5

Ghana (Sanga)

-

122

5.0

777

15.7

Togo (Borgou)

-

66

2.7

214

31.0

Guinea (Méré)

61


2.5

1215

5.0

Ivory Coast (Mere)

-

36

1.5

516

7.0

Zaire

21

-

0.9

281

7.5

Central African Republic

2

-

0.1

1115

0.2

Total

1012

1429

100.0

10264

23.8


2441




Source: Information from country visits.

In many of the countries with trypanotolerant cattle, crossbreeding is increasing, leading to a steady rise in the proportion of Zebu blood. This results in heterogeneous populations which are difficult to classify. An attempt has been made in Volume 2 to define the main types in each country concerned and to estimate their distribution.

3.3.2 Environment

The Zebu x humpless crossbreed environment is the Sudanese zone. This is an important agricultural area, producing groundnuts, cotton and sorghum. Farming is intensive and livestock density is high. During the rainy season, live stock are confined to the fallows or areas unsuitable for cultivation. During the dry season, the animals are left to graze freely and agricultural residues contribute substantially to their diet. These residues are usually cereal straws and groundnut haulms. Fodder is not usually grown specially for cattle, but there is an abundance of groundnut stalks and standing hay in the area.

3.3.3 Husbandry systems

When the herdsmen are Fulani, the management of crossbred herds is similar to that of the N'Dama. Draught animals are widely used to pull carts and ploughs in many of these areas, such as Sine Saloum in Senegal, southern Mali southern Upper Volta and Borgou Province in Benin. The cattle are also used for manuring the fields; in Borgou Province of Benin, for example, animals are tethered in the fields after the harvest and agricultural residues form part of their feed supply in the dry season. Herds are often large (50 to 150 head) and the percentage of males is high (28 to 32%).

3.3.4 Zebu x N'Dama crossbreeds


3.3.4.1 Djakoré
3.3.4.2 Bambara


There are two main types of Zebu x N'Dama crossbreeds - the Djakoré of Senegal (see Figures 3.49, 3.53 and 3.54) and the Bambara of Mali (see Figure 3.55).

3.3.4.1 Djakoré,

The Djakoré, of Senegal are a cross between Gobra Zebu and N'Dama. They are mainly found in the Sine Saloum and Senegal Oriental Regions. All intermediate types between the N'Dama Grande and the Gobra Zebu (or Senegal Fulani) are considered (Djakoré, They are large, 135 cm at withers at Bambey. The hump is not very conspicuous and is carried further forward than in the Zebu. The skeleton is light. The horns are thin, and usually rather long. The coat varies but is mostly self-coloured and pale - white, greyish or yellow.

Very few data are available on Djakoré, performance under traditional management, but some records have been kept on research stations, such as the Bambey CNRA and the Dakar Laboratory at Hann. As an indication of possible body weight, Hamon (1969) quotes 140 kg for females and 159 kg for males at one year, 236 kg for females and 260 kg for males at two years, and 332 kg for females and 369 kg for males at three years at the Bambey CNRA. According to Pugliese and Calvet (1973), Djakoré males between the ages of 3 and 5 years gained an average of 938 g/day during a 112-day intensive fattening test. The average food conversion index was 8.1. In terms of weight gain and ration efficiency, the Djakoré's performance was lower than the Zebu's hut higher than the N'Dama's.

3.3.4.2 Bambara

The Bambara (or Méré) in western Mali are a continuation of the Senegalese Djakoré. Their origin is similar, except that the Zebu parent is the Sudanese Fulani Zebu of Mali instead of the Gobra Zebu. Northeastern Guinea and northwestern Ivory Coast also have small populations of Bambara. Doutressoulle (1947) considers this Bambara type a stabilized variety, with a relatively uniform conformation. The situation is rather complicated in southern Mali which is the transition zone between the N'Dama and the Shorthorn. Here the heterogeneous populations are called Méré, but according to Dumas (1973) the Mere are an intermixture of three breeds, the N'Dama, Zebu and Shorthorn of the Baoulé type. These Méré, populations are made up of animals similar to the Bambara, together with N'Dama x Baoulé crossbreds, Baoulé x Zebu crossbreds and a few Shorthorn. It is impossible to speak of a Méré, breed or to define an average type as the Fulani use this name for all cattle which are smaller than the Zebu.

According to Dumas (1973), coats vary considerably and estimated body weights are 255 kg for cows, 270 kg for bulls and 310 kg for oxen.

3.3.5 Zebu x Shorthorn crossbreeds


3.3.5.1 Méré
3.3.5.2 Sanga
3.3.5.3 Borgou and Keteku


There are three main types of Zebu x Shorthorn crossbreeds, the Méré in Upper Volta and Ivory Coast (see Figure 3.55), the Sanga in Ghana (see Figure 3.57), the Borgou in Togo and Benin (see Figures 3.50 and 3.58) and the Keteku in Nigeria (see Figures 3.51 and 3.59).

3.3.5.1 Méré

It has already been mentioned that in Upper Volta both Shorthorn and crossbreds are known as Méré. In order to avoid confusion, the term Méré is used here to describe the crossbreds only. The (Méré) observed in Upper Volta and northern Ivory Coast are a cross between the Fulani Zebu and the Baoulé Shorthorn. The zone inhabited by these populations in southern Upper Volta is a continuation of the Mali zone. Their external appearance varies: the size is generally quite small, 100 to 110 cm at withers. The horns are medium-sized and the coat is often black. These crossbreds have been developed recently and there are several herds where first or second generation crossbreeding is evident, using Zebu or Zebu-cross hulls with Baoulé cows.

3.3.5.2 Sanga

The Sanga of northern Ghana are very similar to the Méré just described. In the Accra Plains and Volta Region of southern Ghana, however, there is a Sanga which, oddly enough, resembles the Borgou and is called White Sanga because of its white coat. This type is more stabilized than the northern Sangas which vary like the Méré,

3.3.5.3 Borgou and Keteku

The Borgou are mainly found in northern Benin, but they are beginning to spread throughout the country. They originate from the partial absorption of the Somba breed by the White Fulani Zebu, and they are now relatively stabilized (see Figure 3.62). In Nigeria the term Keteku is used to describe a population part of which is very similar to the Borgou, though it also includes animals which differ from the Borgou in colour, size and shape. Two similar Nigerian populations, formerly known as the Biu in Bornu State and the Yola in Longola State, seem to have disappeared. It is said that they have been absorbed by the Zebu which are predominant in these areas. The small Shorthorn populations in Cameroon have not produced any specific crossbreed type, although an absorption process is apparently under way there too. The Borgou of Benin and the Keteku of Nigeria are very similar; they are found on both sides of the border, in Borgou Province east of Parakou in Benin and in Kwara State and north of Oyo State in Nigeria. They seem to be of common origin, crosses between White Fulani Zebu and Somba from Benin or Savanna Muturu from Nigeria. These relatively stabilized populations are often considered to be breeds. The predominant coat colour is white, often with black points (ears and nose); in addition, some are white with black spots or black-and-white. The hump is usually inconspicuous and the horns are quite short.

Size increases in proportion to the percentage of Zebu blood, and typical cow body weights are 237 kg for the Borgou in Benin (FAO/UNDP, 1977) and 295 kg for the Keteku in Nigeria (Oyenuga, 1967). Calving rates of 52% have been recorded under traditional management, reaching 75% under improved management, such as in the FAO project in Benin. Age at first calving has been recorded from three to four years in Nigeria and Ghana, but is most probably over four years under traditional management.

3.4 Sheep and goats


3.4.1 Numbers and distribution
3.4.2 Environment
3.4.3 Husbandry systems
3.4.4 Sheep description
3.4.5 Sheep performance
3.4.6 Goat description
3.4.7 Goat performance


Djallonké sheep and Dwarf goats are found throughout the tsetse areas of West and Central Africa where there are no other breeds of small ruminants. There is little experimental work on their tolerance to trypanosomiasis, but the feet that they are able to live without any veterinary attention, and yet show little or no sign of disease in an infested zone, is taken as evidence of their trypanotolerance.

3.4.1 Numbers and distribution

Sheep and goats are found in large numbers in each of the 18 countries of the study area. Table 2.1 gives the estimated numbers of each species in each country. For three countries, it was not possible to obtain estimates of the two species separately and therefore estimates of total small ruminants are quoted from FAO (1978).

There are 72 million sheep and goats in the 18 countries studied, with between 26 and 27 million in the study area which are all considered trypanotolerant. There are 1.3 goats for each sheep in the 15 countries where the population of each species is known, and 1.7 goats for each sheep in the study areas of those countries. In the coastal countries from Senegal to Liberia, there are more goats than sheep, with the exception of Guinea where there are equal numbers of the two species. In Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin on the other hand, there are more sheep than goats. In Nigeria and the Central African countries there are more goats than sheep, with sometimes very high ratios such as 10 goats to 1 sheep in the Central African Republic and 3 goats to 1 sheep in Zaire.

3.4.2 Environment

As the two species are found throughout the entire study area, the description of the environment given in section 2.1 is relevant. Sheep and goats are reared in many different environments and appear to adapt easily. It is common to find animals of apparently the same type living in the dense forests of the equitorial Guinean zone, in the Sudan zone and in the highlands. Although there are large areas of West and Central Africa without cattle, sheep and goats are present everywhere, especially in all densely populated regions. Another difference between the distribution of cattle and that of sheep and goats is that non-trypanotolerant Zebu cattle show a tendency to extend south into tsetse-infested areas, whereas, among sheep in particular, the trypanotolerant types are found right up to and sometimes beyond the northern tsetse boundary, especially in Mali and Cameroon.

3.4.3 Husbandry systems

The management system is usually similar for sheep and goats, but varies according to the type of environment. In the forest environment, sheep and goats are usually left free to roam around the villages and in nearby coffee or cocoa plantations and palm groves (see Figures 3.75 and 3.85), suffering injuries and losses troth on roads and from crop owners. They are usually brought hack to the village in the evening, where they may he kept in a special hut or sometimes tethered (see Figure 3.71). Their main diet consists of grass from roadsides and domestic refuse. In savanna country on the other hand, it is common to see collective village flocks which are often tended together with the cattle (see Figure 3.47). Sheep are frequently tethered near the village during the cropping season, while in the dry season as a rule they are left to roam free. The number of animals per family is often higher in the savanna areas than in the forest. In the humid zone, sheep and goats are reared for meat production and play important social roles, given as part of dowries or gifts or slaughtered in honour of special guests. They are never milked in the forest areas and only occasionally in the savannas of Guinea, Upper Volta and northern Nigeria.

3.4.4 Sheep description

The trypanotolerant sheep of West and Central Africa are sufficiently homogeneous to he considered as a single group, the Djallonké (see Figures 3.70 to 3.77). Other common names are Fouta Djallon, Guinean Southern sheep or Forest sheep. This group is the one described by Mason (1951) as 'West African Dwarf' sheep. Epstein (1971) distinguishes the Dwarf sheep of Cameroon and the Dwarf sheep of West Africa, but it is difficult to accept this distinction. The Djallonké group includes all the populations of small sheep in West and Central Africa, and in this report two sub-groups are recognized, the Dwarf Forest type and the Savanna type, which includes the sheep populations of the Sudanese belt near the northern boundary of the tsetse area known under different names in each country, such as the Mossi sheep of Upper Volta (see Figure 3.76).

The Djallonké is a hair sheep with a thin tail. The Savanna type is larger than the Forest type: the Dwarf Forest sheep measures from 40 to 55 cm at withers, while the Savanna sheep averages 55 to 65 cm. In general, the higher the altitude the larger the sheep, as in Cameroon for instance. The head is small with a straight profile. The ears are also small and droop a little, but less than in the Sahelian type. The males have short spiralled horns, larger among the Savanna sheep than among the Dwarf Forest type. In general, females are hornless, but they sometimes have spurs. The hair of the adults is short and quite smooth, hut sometimes rough among the young. The well-developed mane of the rams is a characteristic of this group. It is made up of a mass of long hairs which, in general, cover the neck, withers, shoulders and front part of the chest. The main coat colour is white with black spots (see Figures 3.70 and 3.74), though some are also plain white (see Figure 3.71) or plain black. Tan or tan-and-white animals are rare in West Africa. However, in Central Africa a sheep population is found in forested areas with a wide variety of coat colours, including white, black, red and combinations. There is, in particular, a red sheep with a black belly, described by Epstein (1971) among the dwarf sheep of Cameroon, which is similar to and could be the ancestor of the Barbados Blackbelly sheep. These are also found in the coastal regions of Gabon, Congo and Zaire (see Figures 3.72).

3.4.5 Sheep performance

There are almost no records of Djallonké sheep performance under village conditions, but a few studies have been carried out at research stations. Females are early maturing, especially in the equitorial Guinean environment, with first lambing sometimes before one year (Rombaut and Van Vlaenderen, 1976). Several studies carried out in other environments record an average age at first lambing of 18 months. Prolificacy varies according to region, with 117% recorded in Cameroon (Vallerand and Brankaert, 1975), 110% in Ivory Coast under village conditions (Ginisty, 1976), 127% from another sample in Ivory Coast (Rombaut and Van Vlaenderen, 1976) and 161% in Nigeria (Dettmers and Hill, 1974). These studies all report twin lambings but very few triplets. However, in Nigeria Dettmers and Hill (1974) recorded 8% triplets and 55% twins at the Ibadan University Farm. The average lambing interval is eight months according to different authors. Annual overall fecundity can be very high, for example 206% according to Rombaut and Van Vlaenderen (1976) and 175% according to Ginisty (1976) under village conditions.

The Djallonké sheep are very well adapted to their environment. Both in the savanna and forest regions, they generally appear in good health. However, the mortality rate is high among the young. Rombaut and Van Vlaenderen (1976) point out that this high mortality rate among the young curbs numerical productivity considerably in lower Ivory Coast, despite the very high fecundity rate. According to the same authors, mortality is correlated with the ewe's general condition and with lamb weight at birth. They point out maximal mortality rates for offspring of primaparous ewes and the pluriparous ewes worn out by close gestations. In Nigeria, Matthewman (1977) reports mortality rates of 15% before weaning and 11% for adults under village conditions, but these estimates seem rather low, especially for young animals. According to Vallerand and Brankaert (1975), mortality rates under village conditions in southern Cameroon are 35% from 0 to 8 months and 10% from 8 to 16 months.

The growth rates of Djallonké sheep have been recorded at various stations. At Ibadan University Farm, Oyenuga (1967) recorded average weights of 11 kg for females and 12 kg for males at six months, 16 kg for females and 19 kg for males at one year, 24 kg for both females and males at two years, and 24 kg for females and 31 kg for males at three years. Carcass yields recorded in Ivory Coast by Ginisty (1976) averaged 46.7% for all males and 49.6% for fattened males. Studies carried out in Nigeria (Dettmers and Hill, 1974) and in Cameroon (Vallerand and Brankaert, 1975) report average carcass yields varying from 39 to 53%.

3.4.6 Goat description

The main characteristic of the goats studied in the tsetse-infested area is their small size. On the whole, populations from Senegal to Zaire are sufficiently similar to fit into one group, commonly known as West African Dwarfs (see Figures 3.78 to 3.85). Other names used are Guinean goat or Guinean Dwarf goat, Djallonké goat or Fouta Djallon goat or Forest goat, though it is not easy to distinguish between these different breeds in each country. The Dwarf goats are also very similar in the forest and savanna areas within the tsetse zone. Forest goats are smaller than the savanna populations, but the savanna goats are also dwarf. According to Epstein (1971), the Dwarf goat of Nigeria is kept by the Hausas in the northern part of the country in Sokoto, Katsina and Zaria. Attempts to classify these goats into different breeds on the basis of their size are hazardous and unjustifiable.

Dwarf goats measure 40 to 50 cm at withers and are stocky with short legs. The head is short and wide, the ears are medium sized and carried horizontally or erect, and the horns are short, wide at the base in males and more slender in females. There are also a few hornless animals. Colours vary considerably: the most common coats are fawn to brown with a black back line, tail and belly (Chamoise) (see Figure 3.81), black (see Figure 3.80), black-and-white (see Figure 3.82), white, yellow or tricoloured white, red and black. In the forest areas, dark coats and black-and-white are common. In savanna areas, the predominant coat colours are fawn and brown, becoming lighter towards the Sudanese belt in the north.

3.4.7 Goat performance

Age at first kidding is 13 to 14 months on stations and 14 to 18 months under village conditions. Fertility and prolificacy can be very high: Buadu (1972) reports 35% single, 47% twin, 17% triplet and 1% quadruplet births in Ghana, and Matthewman (1977) reports 27% to 34% single, 62 to 67% twin, and 5 to 6% triplet births in Nigeria. According to Matthewman (1977), prolificacy increases considerably with the number of kiddings, averaging 100 to 110% at first kidding, 150 to 170% at second and third kidding and 200% at fourth, fifth and sixth kidding. The kidding interval averages about eight months.

Dwarf goats are well known for their hardiness and adaptability, and in particular their trypanotolerance. The normal mortality rate is 15% under village conditions, according to Matthewman (1977). On stations, the mortality rate is sometimes very high, due mainly to Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) and gastrointestinal parasites. Rearing goats or sheep in large units is extremely difficult. The growth rate for Dwarf goats is slower than for Dwarf sheep, but few data are available.

3.5 Conclusions

In the study area, the N'Dama represent the largest population of trypanotolerant cattle, with approximately 3.5 million head, while there are 1.7 million Savanna West African Shorthorn, 0.1 million Dwarf Shorthorn and 2.4 million Zebu x humpless crossbreds. There are also approximately 11.5 million trypanotolerant sheep and 15 million goats. N'Dama are found in all 18 countries of the study zone, Savanna Shorthorn in 8, Dwarf Shorthorn in 6, crossbreds in 11, and sheep and goats in all 18.

The number of N'Dama appears to be increasing, but the Savanna Shorthorn are declining slowly and the Dwarf Shorthorn are declining rapidly, mainly due to crossbreeding, resulting in an increase in crossbred cattle types. Sheep and goat populations appear relatively static overall. The type and degree of cattle crossbreeding vary over time with gradual changes in feed availability and disease frontiers influenced by climatic conditions.

N'Dama and crossbred cattle types are found in both traditional and ranching systems, while West African Shorthorn cattle and sheep and goats are generally found in traditional systems only. The metayage system is used to introduce cattle husbandry at the village level in situations where this has not been a traditional activity.

It has been suggested on a number of occasions that Zebu and trypanotolerant cattle maintained on natural savannas have different grazing patterns, with the trypanotolerant animals less selective and better able to utilize poor quality forage and thus exploit the natural savannas more fully. No objective information in support of this contention has been found, however.

Although trypanosomiasis is the major disease limiting the use of Zebu cattle in the tsetse zone, it is not the only one. The trypanotolerant cattle are also more resistant to streptothricosis, which is widespread throughout West Africa and for which there is no effective prevention or cure (see Coleman, 1967; Obeid, 1973; Roberts and Gray, 1973). There is little precise experimental evidence on this point, but it was mentioned by Stewart (see Epstein, 1971) and it was noted during several of the country visits (e. g. Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Zaire). Some authors maintain that the N'Dama and the West African Shorthorn appear more resistant than the Zebu to other diseases, such as pleuropneumonia (Stewart, 1937) and tick-borne fevers (Esuruoso and Hill, personal communication), but again there are no precise data. Nevertheless, the reistance to streptothricosis may well he an important advantage of the N'Dama and West African Shorthorn over other breeds.

3.1 Taureau N'Dama typique (Yanfolila, Mali) - Typical N'Dama bull (Yanfolila, Mali)

3.2 Vache N'Dama typique (Yanfolila, Mali) - Typical N'Dama cow (Yanfolila, Mali)

3.3 N'Dama: troupeau villageois (Narena, Mali) - N'Dama village herd (Narena, Mali)

3.4 N'Dama: troupeau d'éleveur peul, au parc (Northern Region, Sierra Leone) - N'Dama fulani pastoralist herd, penned (Northern Region, Sierra Leone)

3.5 N'Dama: troupeau villageois, au piquet (près de Banjul, Gambie) - N'Dama village herd, tethered (near Banjul, The Gambia)

3.6 Vache N'Dama du type de Guinée Bissau (près de Cacheu, Guinée Bissau) - N'Dama cow, Guinea Bissau type (near Cacheu, Guinea Bissau)

3.7 Taureau N'Dama du type gambien (Keneba, Gambie) - N'Dama bull, Gambia type (Keneba, The Gambia)

3.8 Vache N'Dama du type de Casamance (Velingara, Senegal) - N'Dama cow, Casamance type (Velingara, Senegal)

3.9 N'Dama: troupeau villageois en divagation (Kissidougou, Guinée) - N'Dama village herd, roadside grazing (Kissidougou, Guinea)

3.10 N'Dama: troupeau d'éleveur peul, mode de contention (Mac Carthy Island Division, Gambie) - N'Dama fulani pastoralist herd, handling method (Mac Carthy Island Division, The Gambia)

3.11 N'Dama: variétés de robe (Velingara, Senegal) - N'Dama coat colour variations (Velingara, Senegal)

3.12 N'Dama: variétés de robe (Bansang, Gambie) - N'Dama coat colour variation (Bansang, The Gambia)

3.13 N'Dama: variétés de robe (Badiana, Senegal) - N'Dama coat colour variation (Badiana, Senegal)

3.14 N'Dama: traite (Fatoto, Gambie) - N'Dama milking (Fatoto, The Gambia)

3.15 N'Dama: Complémentation avec des résidus de récoltes (Labé, Guinée) - N'Dama supplementation with crop residues (Labe, Guinea)

3.16 N'Dama: bœufs de culture attelée (Beyla, Guinée) - N'Dama draught oxen (Beyla, Guinea)

3.17 N'Dama: troupeau villageois en milieu arboré (Sare Kali, Gambie) - N'Dama village herd, wooded environment (Sare Kali, The Gambia)

3.18 N'Dama: troupeau villageois sous palmeraie (près de Sassandra, Côte d'Ivoire) - N'Dama village herd on palm plantation (near Sassandra, Ivory Coast)

3.19 N'Dama en ranching: troupeau de reproduction (Yanfolila, Mali) - N'Dama ranch breeding herd (Yanfolila, Mali)

3.20 N'Dama en ranching: veaux de 2-3 semaines (Pota Ranch, Nigéria) - N'Dama ranch calves, 2-3 weeks (Pota Ranch, Nigeria)

3.21 N'Dama en métayage (Kikwit, Zaïre) - N'Dama, métayage (Kikwit, Zaïre)

3.22 N'Dama: bœufs de culture attelée (près de Bambari, République Centrafricaine) - N'Dama, draught oxen (near Bambari, Central African Republic)

3.23 N'Dama en milieu forestier (Sibit, Congo) - N'Dama, forest environment (Sibit, Congo)

3.24 N'Dama en ranching: troupeau de reproduction au bain détiqueur (Kolo, Zaïre) - N'Dama, ranch breeding herd, dipping (Kolo, Zaïre)

3.25 N'Dama en ranching: bouvillons (Mushie, Zaïre) - N'Dama ranch steers (Mushie, Zaïre)

3.26 N'Dama en ranching: veaux de 2-3 semaines (Kolo, Zaïre) - N'Dama ranch calves, 2-3 weeks (Kolo, Zaïre)

TAURINS NAINS A COURTES CORNES D'AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE - DWARF WEST AFRICAN SHORTHORN

3.27 Taureau Lagune (Province du Mono, Benin) - Lagune bull (Mono Province, Benin)

3.28 Vache Lagune: 85 cm au garrot (près de Lemba, Zaïre) - Lagune cow 85 cm at withers (near Lemba, Zaïre)

3.29 Lagune: troupeau en palmeraie (Sassandra, Côte d'Ivoire) - Lagune herd on palm plantation (Sassandra, Ivory Coast)

3.30 Vache Lagune (près de Tchibanga, Gabon) - Lagune cow (near Tchibanga, Gabon)

3.31 Génisses Lagune de 2 ans (Lemba, Zaïre) - Lagune heifers, 2 years (Lemba, Zaïre)

3.32 Lagune: troupeau en milieu forestier (Region de Tchibanga, Gabon) - Lagune herd, forest environment (Tchibanga region, Gabon)

TAURINS DE SAVANE A COURTES CORNES D'AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE - SAVANNA WEST AFRICAN SHORTHORN

3.33 Vache Baoulé (près de Bouaké Côte d'Ivoire) - Baoulé cow (near Bouaké Ivory Coast)

3.34 Somba: troupeau au piquet sur champs (près de Sokodé, Togo) - Somba herd tethered on stubble field (near Sokode, Togo)

3.35 Vache Muturu (Ado Ekiti, Nigéria) - Muturu cow (Ado Ekiti, Nigeria)

3.36 Taureau Baoulé (Station de Bossembélé, République Centrafricaine) - Baoulé bull (Bossembele Station, Central African Republic)

3.37 Baoulé: troupeau villageois au parc (près de Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire) - Baoulé village herd, penned (near Bouaké, Ivory Coast)

3.38 Lobi sur jachères (près de Banfora, Haute-Volta) - Lobi cattle on fallow (near Banfora, Upper Volta

3.39 Vache Muturu (près de Victoria, Cameroun) - Muturu cow (near Victoria, Cameroon)

3.40 Génisse Muturu âgée de 1,5 à 2 ans (Ethnie Tiv, Plateau State, Nigéria) - Muturu heifer, 1.5 - 2 years (Tiv tribe, Plateau State, Nigeria)

3.41 Kapsiki: troupeau villageois (Nord-Cameroun) - Kapsiki: village herd (North Cameroon)

3.42 Vache Doayo (près de Poli, Cameroun) - Doayo cow (near Poli, Cameroon)

3.43 Bakosi: troupeau villageois (Sud-Ouest, Cameroun) - Bakosi: village herd (Southwest, Cameroon)

3.44 Somba: troupeau au piquet (Bassa Zoume, Bénin) - Somba herd, tethered (Bassa Zoume, Benin)

3.45 Ghanaian Shorthorn: traite (Techiman, Ghana) - Ghanaian Shorthorn, milking (Techiman, Ghana)

3.46 Baoulé: bœuf de culture âgé de 4 ans pesant 240 kg (Région de Bambari, République Centrafricaine) - Baoulé draught ox, 4 years, 240 kg (Bambari region, Central African Republic)

3.47 Ghanaian Shorthorn et ovins nains d'Afrique Occidentale gardés par des enfants (Tamale, Ghana) - Ghanaian Shorthorn cattle and W.A. Dwarf sheep herded by children (Tamale, Ghana)

3.48 Baoulé: troupeau en métayage (Région de Bambari, République Centrafricaine) - Baoulé herd, métayage (Bambari region, Central African Republic)

METIS - CROSSBREEDS

3.49 Taureau Djakoré (près de Tambacounda, Sénégal) - Djakoré bull (near Tambacounda, Senegal)

3.50 Borgou: taureau à l'embouche (Ferme de Kpinnou, Bénin) - Borgou bull, fattened (Kpinnou Farm, Benin)

3.51 Taureau Keteku (Ado Ekiti Ranch, Nigéria) - Keteku bull (Ado Ekiti Ranch, Nigeria)

3.52 Bœuf Méré et taurillon N'Dama (près de Odienné, Côte d'Ivoire) - Méré ox and young N'Dama bull (near Odienne, Ivory Coast)

3.53 Vache Djakoré (Région du Siné Saloum, Sénégal) - Djakoré cow (Sine Saloum Region, Senegal)

3.54 Troupeau Djakoré (Région du Siné Saloum, Sénégal) - Djakoré herd (Sine Saloum Region, Senegal)

3.55 Troupeau Méré (Bambara) (près de Sikasso, Mali) - Méré (Bambara) herd (near Sikasso, Mali)

3.56 Troupeau Méré (Banfora, Haute-Volta) - Méré herd (Banfora, Upper Volta)

3.57 Troupeau Ghanaian Sanga (White Sanga) (Sogakofe, Ghana) - Ghanaian Sanga (White Sanga) herd (Sogakofe, Ghana)

3.58 Troupeau Borgou (Province du Borgou, Bénin) - Borgou herd (Borgou Province, Benin)

3.59 Vache Keteku (Fashola Farm, Nigéria) - Keteku cow (Fashola Farm, Nigeria)

3.60 Génisses Mateba (près de Boma, Zaïre) - Mateba heifers (near Boma, Zaïre)

3.61 Troupeau Kisantu (Kisantu, Zaïre) - Kisantu herd (Kisantu, Zaïre)

3.62 Somba et Borgou: troupeau avec taureau Zébu (Province de l'Atacora, Bénin) - Mixed Somba Borgou herd with Zebu bull (Atacora Province, Benin)

3.63 Veau métis Lagune & Borgou en palmeraie (Province du Mono, Bénin) - Lagune & Borgou calf on palm plantation (Mono Province, Benin)

3.64 Génisse métis White Fulani x N'Dama âgée d'un an (Ezillo-Nkalagu State Farm, Nigéria) - White Fulani x N'Dama heifer 1 year (Ezillo-Nkalagu State Farm, Nigeria)

3.65 Génisse N'Dama x Muturu (Igarra Cattle Farm, Nigéria) - N'Dama x Muturu heifer (Igarra Cattle Farm, Nigeria)

3.66 Veau Keteku x N'Dama (Fashola Farm, Nigéria) - Keteku x N'Dama calf (Fashola Farm, Nigeria)

3.67 Vache N'Dama x Mbororo (Station de Bokolobo, République Centrafricaine) - N'Dama x Mbororo cow (Bokolobo Station, Central African Republic)

3.68 Vache Baoulé avec veau métis N'Dama (Station de Bossembélé, République Centrafricaine) - Baoulé cow with N'Dama-cross calf (Bossembele Station, Central African Republic)

3.69 Métis Lagune (Dahomey) x N'Dama en palmeraie (Ranch de Kolo, Zaïre) - Lagune (Dahomey) x N'Dama on palm plantation (Kolo Ranch, Zaire)

OVINS - SHEEP

3.70 Bélier Djallonké du type de forêt (Kibélémoussia, Congo) - Djallonké ram, forest type (Kibelemoussia, Congo)

3.71 Bélier Djallonké: type du savane (Upper River Division, Gambie) - Djallonké ram, savanna type (Upper River Division, The Gambia)

3.72 Brebis Djallonké à ventre noir (près de Mayumba, Gabon) - Djallonké ewes, black belly (near Mayumba, Gabon)

3.73 Brebis Djallonké (près de Rumsiki, Cameroun) - Djallonké ewes (near Rumsiki, Cameroon)

3.74 Brebis et agneau Djallonké (Northern Province, Sierra Leone) - Djallonké ewe and lamb (Northern Province, Sierra Leone)

3.75 Troupeau Djallonké (Bignona, Sénégal) - Djallonké herd (Bignona, Senegal)

3.76 Béliers Djallonké du type Mossi (Ouagadougou, Haute-Volta) - Djallonké rams, Mossi type (Ouagadougou, Upper Volta)

3.77 Djallonké et métis sahéliens (Bamako, Mali) - Djallonké and Sahelian crossbreds (Bamako, Mali)

CAPRINS - GOATS

3.78 Bouc nain d'Afrique Occidentale (près de Bambari, République Centrafricaine) - Dwarf West African male goat (near Bambari, Central African Republic)

3.79 Chèvre naine d'Afrique Occidentale (près de Nikki, Bénin) - Dwarf West African female goat (near Nikki, Benin)

3.80 Chèvre naine d'Afrique Occidentale âgée de 15 mois, mesurant 45 cm au garrot (Ghokotown, Nigéria) - Dwarf West African female goat, 15 months, 40 cm at withers (Ghokotown, Nigeria)

3.81 Chevreaux nains d'Afrique Occidentale (près de Kinshasa, Zaïre) - Dwarf West African young goats (near Kinshasa, Zaïre)

3.82 Chèvre naine d'Afrique Occidentale mesurant 35 cm au garrot (près de Calabar, Nigéria) - Dwarf West African female goat, 35 cm at withers (near Calabar, Nigeria)

3.83 Caprins nains d'Afrique Occidentale (près de Ziguinchor, Sénégal) - Dwarf West African goats (near Ziguinchor, Senegal)

3.84 Caprins nains d'Afrique Occidentale: troupeau villageois (près de Nikki, Bénin) - Dwarf West African goat village herd (near Nikki, Benin)

3.85 Caprins nains d'Afrique Occidentale troupeau villageois (Monogaga, Côte d'Ivoire) - Dwarf West African goat village herd (Monogaga, Ivory Coast)


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