The epidemiology, diagnosis and control of helminth parasites of ruminants













Table of Contents


A Handbook

Jørgen Hansen, DVM, PhD
Animal Production and Health Division Food and Agriculture Organization Rome, Italy

Brian Perry, BVM&S, DTVM, MSc, DVM&S, MRCVS
International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases Nairobi, Kenya

© ILRAD 1994

Published by the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi, Kenya

Cover Design by Dynamic Advertising Ltd.

Printed by the International Livestock Centre for Africa Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

ISBN 92-9055-703-1

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


Foreword

Preface to the second edition

1. Initial surveys for determining the parasite species present

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Parasite groupings

1.2.1 Nematodes
1.2.2 Cestodes
1.2.3 Trematodes
1.2.4 Protozoa

1.3 Identification procedure

1.3.1 Post-mortem examination

1.3.1.1 Gastro-intestinal tract
1.3.1.2 Liver
1.3.1.3 Lungs
1.3.1.4 Other organs and tissues

1.3.2 Identification of parasite eggs in faecal samples from live animals

2. The epidemiology of helminth parasites

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Nematodes of the digestive tract

2.2.1 Life cycles
2.2.2 Egg production
2.2.3 Development and survival of infective larvae in the environment
2.2.4 Dissemination of infective larvae
2.2.5 Effect of climate on survival and development of infective larvae
2.2.6 Factors affecting the size of gastro-intestinal nematode infections
2.2.7 Pathogenesis of gastro-intestinal nematode infections

2.2.7.1 Effect of larval stages on the host
2.2.7.2 Effect of adult worms on the host

2.2.8 Toxocara vitulorum infections

2.2.8.1 Life cycle
2.2.8.2 Pathogenicity of Toxocara infections

2.3 Nematodes of the lungs

2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 Life cycles
2.3.3 Development and survival of infective larvae
2.3.4 Pathogenic effect
2.3.5 Factors influencing the epidemiology of lungworm infections

2.4 Nematodes of other organs and tissues

2.4.1 Filarial nematodes

2.4.1.1 Life cycles
2.4.1.2 Pathogenicity of filarial nematode infections

2.4.2 Nematodes of the eye

2.4.2.1 Life cycle
2.4.2.2 Pathogenicity of eyeworms

2.5 Trematodes

2.5.1 Introduction
2.5.2 Trematodes of the liver

2.5.2.1 Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica
2.5.2.2 Dicrocoelium dendriticum

2.5.3 Gastro-intestinal trematodes

2.5.3.1 Life cycles
2.5.3.2 Pathogenicity of paramphistomes
2.5.3.3 Factors affecting the epidemiological pattern

2.5.4 Pancreatic trematodes

2.5.4.1 Life cycles
2.5.4.2 Pathogenic effect

2.5.5 Schistosomes (blood trematodes)

2.5.5.1 Life cycle
2.5.5.2 Pathogenic effect
2.5.5.3 Factors affecting the epidemiological pattern
2.5.5.4 Nasal schistosomes

2.6 Cestodes

2.6.1 Introduction
2.6.2 Cestodes with ruminants as the final hosts

2.6.2.1 Intestinal tapeworms
2.6.2.2 Hepatic tapeworms

2.6.3 Cestodes with ruminants as the intermediate hosts

2.6.3.1 Muscular cysticercosis
2.6.3.2 Abdominal cysticercosis
2.6.3.3 Coenurosis of the brain
2.6.3.4 Hydatidosis

2.7 Protozoa

3. Techniques for parasite assays and identification in faecal samples

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Collection of faecal samples
3.3 Qualitative techniques for separating and concentrating eggs/larvae

3.3.1 Simple test tube flotation

3.3.1.1 Principle
3.3.1.2 Application
3.3.1.3 Equipment
3.3.1.4 Procedure

3.3.2 Simple flotation method

3.3.2.1 Principle
3.3.2.2 Application
3.3.2.3 Equipment

3.3.3 Sedimentation technique (for trematode eggs)

3.3.3.1 Principle
3.3.3.2 Application
3.3.3.3 Equipment
3.3.3.4 Procedure

3.3.4 Microscopical examination of prepared samples

3.4 Quantitative techniques for separating and concentrating eggs/larvae

3.4.1 McMaster counting technique

3.4.1.1 Principle
3.4.1.2 Application
3.4.1.3 Equipment
3.4.1.4 Procedure
3.4.1.5 Guideline to the interpretation of faecal egg counts in young animals

3.5 Preparation of faecal cultures

3.5.1 Principle
3.5.2 Application
3.5.3 Equipment
3.5.4 Procedure

3.6 Isolation and identification of lungworm larvae and infective larvae harvested from faecal cultures (the Baermann technique)

3.6.1 Principle
3.6.2 Application
3.6.3 Equipment
3.6.4 Procedure
3.6.5 Identification of infective larvae

3.7 Diagnostic techniques for filarial nematodes

3.7.1 Stephanofilaria
3.7.2 Onchocerca
3.7.3 Parafilaria
3.7.4 Setaria

3.8 Identification and examination of snails

4. Post-mortem differential parasite counts

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Equipment
4.3 Methods for post-mortem differential parasite counts

4.3.1 Differential parasite counts of the abomasum

4.3.1.1 Procedure

4.3.2 Isolating inhibited/immature larvae from the abomasum

4.3.2.1 Principle
4.3.2.2 Application
4.3.2.3 Equipment
4.3.2.4 Procedure

4.3.3 Differential parasite counts of the small intestines

4.3.3.1 Principle and application
4.3.3.2 Procedure

4.3.4 Differential parasite counts of the large intestines

4.3.4.1 Principle and application
4.3.4.2 Procedure

4.4 Interpreting adult nematode counts
4.5 Identifying gastro-intestinal parasites of sheep and goats
4.6 Post-mortem examination for trematodes

4.6.1 Introduction
4.6.2 Equipment
4.6.3 Procedure

4.7 Post-mortem examination for cysticercosis

4.7.1 Introduction
4.7.2 Equipment
4.7.3 Procedure

5. Supplementary diagnostic procedures

5.1 Introduction
5.2. Isolating infective larvae from herbage

5.2.1 Principle
5.2.2 Application
5.2.3 Equipment
5.2.4 Procedure

5.3 Packed cell volume determination (PCV, haematocrit)

5.3.1 Principle
5.3.2 Application
5.3.3 Equipment
5.3.4 Procedure

6. Investigating a possible gastro intestinal parasite problem

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Diagnosing a herd/flock problem

6.2.1 Sampling of live animals
6.2.2 Sampling of dead (moribund or sacrificed) animals

6.3 Long-term monitoring of a herd/flock problem or of a control programme

6.3.1 Sampling of live animals
6.3.2 Sampling of dead (moribund or sacrificed) animals
6.3.3 Sampling of pasture
6.3.4 Sampling of tracer (sentinel) animals

6.4 Plot experiments

6.4.1 Procedure
6.4.2 Monitoring the climate in plot experiments

7. Treatment and control strategies

7.1 Principles of control: Nematodes

7.1.1 Parasite species present
7.1.2 Herd structure and grazing management
7.1.3 Availability and abundance of infective larvae on pasture
7.1.4 Type of climate
7.1.5 Genetic resistance

7.1.5.1 Parasite resistance within breeds
7.1.5.2 Parasite resistance between breeds

7.1.6 Control of gastro-intestinal nematodes

7.1.6.1 Control in savannah-type climates with one or more distinct dry season(s)
7.1.6.2 Control in arid climates
7.1.6.3 Control in humid climates

7.1.7 Control of lungworms
7.1.8 Control of filarial nematodes
7.1.9 Control of Toxocara vitulorum

7.2 Principles of control: Trematodes

7.2.1 Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica

7.2.1.1 Strategic chemotherapy of ruminants
7.2.1.2 Chemical control of snails
7.2.1.3 Biological methods of snail control
7.2.1.4 Managemental methods of snail control

7.2.2 Control of paramphistomes
7.2.3 Control of schistosomes

7.3 Principles of control: Cestodes

7.3.1 Ruminants as final hosts

7.3.1.1 Intestinal tapeworms
7.3.1.2 Hepatic tapeworms

7.3.2 Ruminants as intermediate hosts

7.3.2.1 Cysticercosis
7.3.2.2 Coenurosis
7.3.2.3 Hydatidosis/echinococcosis
7.3.2.4 Regional/national hydatidosis control programmes

7.4 Anthelmintics

7.4.1 Characteristics and selection of anthelmintics
7.4.2 Administration of anthelmintics

7.4.2.1 Dosing by mouth
7.4.2.2 Dosing by injection
7.4.2.3 Dosing by external application

7.4.3 Testing of anthelmintics
7.4.4 Summary of anthelmintics for the treatment of gastro-intestinal

7.5 Anthelmintic resistance

7.5.1 Detection of resistance
7.5.2 Testing for anthelmintic resistance
7.5.3 Preventing the development of anthelmintic resistance

Appendix

Bibliography