Management of Vertisols in Sub-Saharan Africa













Table of Contents


PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD AT ILCA, ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA
31 AUGUST-4 SEPTEMBER 1987

SEPTEMBER 1988

International Livestock Centre For Africa
P.O. BOX 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

PHOTOS

Front cover

Vicia faba growing on broadbeds (right) and on traditional ridges (left) on a pellic Vertisol in Wello, Ethiopia.

Back cover

Bread wheat growing uniformly on broadbeds on a pellic Vertisol in northern Shewa, Ethiopia.

Edited by

S.C. Jutzi
I. Haque
J. McIntire
J.E.S. Stares

Correct citation: Jutzi S C, Haque I, McIntire J and Stares J E S (eds). 1988. Management of Vertisols in sub-Saharan Africa. Proceedings of a conference held at ILCA, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 31 August-4 September 1987. ILCA, Addis Ababa.

ABSTRACT

This volume contains 19 papers and 26 abstracts from an international conference on the management of Vertisols in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world. Three papers and one abstract overview the importance, distribution, agroclimatology and properties of Vertisols and the Indian Vertisol technology experience. Eight papers and 10 abstracts deal with resource assessment, while six papers and 15 abstracts review the resource management of Vertisols. Two papers highlight inter-institutional modes of operation and networking concepts in Vertisol research and development. Opening and closing addresses to the conference, and recommendations, are also presented.

KEYWORDS

Vertisols/Vertic soils/Clay soils/Waterlogging/Cracking/Resource assessment/Agroclimatology/Physical properties/Chemical properties/Soil water/Nutrients/Irrigation/Soil fertility/Resource management/Soil surface drainage/Tillage/Animal power/Land use systems/Cropping systems/Forages/Economic evaluation/Vertisol technology/Traditional farming systems/Institutional support/Networking/Sub-Saharan Africa

RESUME

Ce volume regroupe dix-neuf documents et vingt-six résumés de communications présentés lors de la Conférence internationale sur la gestion des vertisols au sud du Sahara et dans d'autres parties du monde. Trois de ces documents et l'un des résumés portent sur l'importance, la distribution, l'agroclimatologie et les propriétés des vertisols ainsi que sur l'expérience indienne en matière de technologies relatives aux vertisols. Huit documents et dix résumés traitent de l'évaluation des ressources, et six documents et quinze résumés font référence à leur gestion. Deux documents sont consacrés aux modes interinstitutionnels de fonctionnement et au concept de réseau en matière de recherche et de développement des vertisols. Les allocutions d'ouverture et de clôture ainsi que des recommandations sont également présentées.

MOTS CLES

Vertisols/Sols vertiques/Sols argileux/ Engorgement/Formation de fentes/Evaluation des ressources/Agroclimatologie/Propriétés physiques/Propriétés chimiques/Eau du sol/Eléments nutritifs/Irrigation/Fertilité du sol/Gestion des ressources/Drainage superficiel/Travail du sol/Force animale/Système d'occupation des sols/Système cultural/Fourrages/Evaluation économique/Technologies des vertisols/Systèmes agraires traditionnels/Appui institutionnel/Réseau/Afrique subsaharienne.

This electronic document has been scanned using optical character recognition (OCR) software and careful manual recorrection. Even if the quality of digitalisation is high, the FAO declines all responsibility for any discrepancies that may exist between the present document and its original printed version.


Table of Contents


Preface

Opening address

Opening speech by Comrade Dr Geremew Debele, member of the central committee of the worker's party of Ethiopia, Minister of Agriculture

Overviews

Developing, testing and transferring improved Vertisol technology: The Indian experience

Abstract
Introduction
Vertisols and their environment
Soil degradation
Traditional dryland farming systems
Prevailing production constraints
Improved cropping systems
On-farm studies of the improved systems
Early adoption by farmers of the new technologies
Conclusions
References

Agroclimatology of the Vertisols and vertic soil areas of Africa

Abstract
Introduction
Distribution of Vertisols and vertic soils in Africa
The climate of Tropical Africa
Thermal environment of Vertisols and vertic soils in Africa
Hygric environment
Role of soil-climate interaction studies in agricultural development
References

Classification and management-related properties of Vertisols

Abstract
Introduction
Classification
Soil morphological properties - microvariability
Management-related constraints
Conclusions
References

Toe sub-Saharan Vertisols - An overview

Abstract

Resource assessment agroclimatology

Agroecological assessment of Ethiopian Vertisols

Abstract
Introduction
Methods
Results and discussion
References

Assessing the agroclimatic potential of Vertisols

Abstract

Agroclimatic data analysis of selected locations in the Vertisols regions of Ethiopia

Abstract

Physical properties

Physical properties of Ethiopian Vertisols

Abstract
Introduction
Importance of Vertisols in Ethiopian agriculture
Physical properties of Ethiopian Vertisols
Problems
Research results
Conclusions
References

Soil burning in Ethiopia: Some effects on soil fertility and physics

Abstract

The role of soil spacial variability investigations in the management of the Chad Basin Vertisols of northeast Nigeria

Abstract

Effects of adsorbed cations on the physical properties of Vertisols in the lake Chad Basin of northeast Nigeria

Abstract

Soil water and nutrients

Soil water measurement and management on Vertisols in Queensland, Australia

Abstract
Introduction
Soil water content
Plant available water capacity
Infiltration
Evaporation
Drainage
Management practices
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Irrigation water management for cotton on Vertisols in the middle Awash region of Ethiopia

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Soil moisture related properties of Vertisols in the Ethiopian highlands

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Acknowledgements
References

Soil moisture storage along a toposequence in Ethiopian Vertisols

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Acknowledgements
References

Soil fertility research on some Ethiopian Vertisols

Abstract
Introduction
Characteristics
Fertility management
Conclusions
References

Phosphorus status of some Ethiopian highland Vertisols

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Summary and conclusions
References

Vertic arable soils of central Ethiopia: Their fertility status and weed community

Abstract

Soil fertility assessment of Ethiopian Vertisols on the basis of extension trial series of the Ministry of Agriculture

Abstract

Response of Sesbania sesban to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on two Ethiopian Vertisols

Abstract

Soil properties and dry matter yield of wheat as affected by the quality and quantity of irrigation water in a sodic Vertisol of northeast Nigeria

Abstract

Rainwater management on Vertisols for crop production in semi-arid regions

Abstract

Resource management soil and water

Economic evaluation of improved Vertisol drainage for food crop production in the Ethiopian highlands

Abstract
Introduction
Improved drainage technology and evaluation technique
Results
Discussion and conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

Economic assessment of Vertisol technologies in India: Implications for on-farm verification in sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract

Occurrence, properties and management of Vertisols in the Caribbean

Abstract

Effects of surface drainage on soil erosion and wheat growth on a gently sloping Vertisol at debre zeit, Ethiopia

Abstract

Soil conservation works on Vertisols of central Ethiopia

Abstract

Food and feed

Characteristics and management problems of Vertisols in the Nigerian savannah

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Results and discussion
Problems of soil management
Acknowledgement
References

Land-use systems for Vertisols in the Bay Region of Somalia

Abstract
Introduction
Crop production
Livestock production
Discussion
Acknowledgments
References

Crop agronomy research on Vertisols in the central highlands of Ethiopia: Jar's experience

Abstract
Introduction
Crops and production patterns
Review of research results
Future research
References

Rainfed agriculture and cropping systems on Vertisols in Sudan

Abstract

State of knowledge and critical analysis of the use and management of Vertisols in Burkina Faso

Abstract

Nigerian dark clay and associated soils

Abstract

Vertisols in Burundi: Their importance, use and potential

Abstract

The extent and utilisation of Vertisols in Swaziland

Abstract

Properties, uses and management of Vertisols in Malawi

Abstract

Vertisols of Zambia: Their management, productivity and economic assessment

Abstract

Livestock

The role of livestock in the generation of smallholder farm income in two Vertisol areas of the central Ethiopian highlands

Abstract
Introduction
Materials and methods
Contribution of livestock to farm income
Conclusions
References

Vertisols of Ghana: Uses and potential for improved management using cattle

Abstract
Introduction
Environmental and soils characteristics
Use, management and productivity
Potential for improved management of Vertisols using cattle
Conclusions
References

Assessment of the productivity of native and improved forages on Vertisols in the central highlands of Ethiopia

Abstract

Effect of tillage frequency of clay soils on the draught of the Ethiopian ard (maresha)

Abstract

Utilisation of feed resources by draught animals on smallholder farms in the Ethiopian highlands

Abstract

Diagnosis of traditional farming systems in some Ethiopian highland Vertisol areas

Abstract

Institutional support and networking

Inter-institutional modes of operation in research and development of improved Vertisol technologies for the Ethiopian highlands

Abstract
Introduction
Rationale for inter-institutional activities in Vertisol research and development
Present features of inter-institutional research and development agreements for the Ethiopian highlands
Potential and envisaged developments in the inter-institutional coordination of Vertisol-related activities
References

Networking on Vertisol management concepts, problems and development

Abstract
Introduction
Soil management and network concepts
Major Vertisol management problems
Development of the MOVUSAC network
References

Recommendations

Panel recommendations on research needs for sustained agriculture on African Vertisols

Introduction
Resource assessment
Resource management
Inter-institutional cooperation and networking

Closing address

Closing remarks by Comrade Gizaw Negussie, Vice Minister, Animal and Fishery Resources Development Main Department, Ministry of Agriculture

Appendix

Organizing Committee and conference participants