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Chapter 1 - Senegal


1. Background
2. Livestock numbers and distribution
3. Cattle
4. Sheep and goats
5. Research and development activities
6. Selected bibliography

1. Background

The Republic of Senegal lies on the west coast of Africa, bordered to the north by Mauritania, to the east by Mali and to the south by Guinea and Guinea Bissau. In the southern part of the country, The Gambia forms a narrow enclave extending some 350 kilometres inland. The country, with its capital at Dakar, is divided into eight administrative regions - Fleuve, Diourbel-Ferlo, Louga, Thiès, Cap Vert, Sine Saloum, Senegal Oriental and Casamance - and each of these regions is divided into departments which are sub-divided into arrondissements.

The Direction de la Santé et des Productions Animales is under the control of the Ministère du Développement Rural with divisions based on the administrative system. There are Services Régionaux de la Santé et des Productions Animales, Secteurs and Sous-secteurs d'Elevage, and, at the local level, Postes Vétérinaires. The study area covers the three regions, Casamance, Sine Saloum and Senegal Oriental where most of the trypanotolerant breeds are found. The regions with their capitals are shown in Figure 1 except for Louga which was created recently. Basic data for the country as a whole and for the study area are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Background data for Senegal.


Whole Country

Study Area

Area

196 200 km²

111 480 km²

Latitude

17° 20' - 11°20' W

16° 50' - 11°20' W

Longitude

12° 18' - 16°41' N

12° 18' - 14°40' N

Population


number

5 135 000

1 700 090


density

26.2/km²

15.2/km²

Livestock numbers


cattle

2 440 000

1 310 000


sheep

2 660 000

1 039 000


goats

2 660 000

1 039 000

Sources: For population, OAU, 1978: for livestock numbers, national census, 1976.

Figure 1. Administrative divisions, boundaries of study zone, location of research centres and development projects.

The three regions under study have a rainy season from June to October. Sine Saloum has a Sahelo-Sudanian climate, with an annual rainfall averaging 600-800 to 800-1000 mm. Senegal Oriental also has a Sahelo-Sudanian climate, with annual rainfall averaging 600 to 1300-1500 mm. Casamance has a Sudano-Guinean climate, with rainfall averaging 1000-1800 mm annually.

According to the tsetse distribution map prepared by Touré (1971a) and a synthesis published by OAU/STRC (1977) all of the Casamance Region is infested with tsetse, as well as a large part of Senegal Oriental and a strip in the south of Sine Saloum along the Gambian border and the coast. G. morsitans submorsitans is found throughout the study area. G. palpalis gambiensis is found in dense forest and along river galleries throughout the Casamance Region, in the south of Sine Saloum and in the south and southeast of Senegal Oriental.

2. Livestock numbers and distribution

The number of cattle in the departments of the three regions under study is shown in Table 2, broken down according to the three breeds found in the area N'Dama, Djakoré and Gobra Zebu. Figure 2 shows the total number of cattle in each region and the proportion of each of the three breeds. This map also shows the northern limit of the tsetse belt (according to Touré, 1971a) and the areas where each breed is dominant, based on field observations.

The N'Dama make up 56% of the cattle population in the study area and about 30% of the total number of cattle in Senegal. The Djakoré account for 30% of the herd in the study area and 17% of the total population. Thus, these two breeds represent slightly less than half the total number of cattle in Senegal.

Statistics in Senegal do not usually differentiate sheep from goats. The overall figures for small ruminants are given in Tables 1 and 2. It is generally believed that two-thirds of the total are sheep and one-third goats, and this is confirmed by the FAO (1978a) which estimates that there are 1.76 million sheep and 0.895 million goats in the country.

3. Cattle

3.1 BREED DESCRIPTIONS

3.1.1 N'Dama

In the past, two types of N'Dama were identified in Senegal, the N'Dama petite and the N'Dama grande (Larrat, 1948, quoted in Touré, 1977). The so-called N'Dama grande are found in Upper Casamance in the Velingara District, which is the district where the greatest phenotypic variability is observed (see Figures 3.8 and 3.11, volume 1). It is likely that these cattle in fact contain a small mixture of Gobra Zebu, which are found in this region as well as in the extreme eastern part of The Gambia. For this reason, it seems unnecessary to maintain the classification of N'Dama grande as a distinct type (SATEC, 1973). In Lower Casamance some animals of the N'Dama type were observed with atypical horns - short, horizontal and flat in section - reminiscent of shorthorn cattle. These could represent an influence from the Manjacas, which were reported in the past in the area next to Guinea Bissau (Epstein, 1971). In Velingara Department, N'Dama with white coats and black mucosa were observed. These are described as the Guinea Bissau variety in the discussion in section 3.1 of volume 1. In the south of Senegal Oriental (Kedougou Department), the typical Guinean N'Dama is found in almost pure form.

Figure 2. Cattle numbers and breeds distribution.

3.1.1.1 Performance Traits. SATEC (1973) gives data on N'Dama reproduction parameters in Casamance. The age at first calving is given as 3.5 years in Upper Casamance and slightly lower in Lower and Middle Casamance. The calving interval is about 19 months in Lower Casamance and 16 to 17 months in Middle and Upper Casamance. Eighty percent of calving takes place in the last six months of the year. The abortion rate is 10 to 20%, which leads to an average calving rate of 56%.

Calves are weaned at around 12 months; castration, when it occurs, is at about three years. Annual mortality is about 12% overall: 30% for calves under one year, 15% for one- to two-year-olds, 5% for two- to three-year-olds and 2% for adults. The N'Dama reproduction parameters seem to be similar in Senegal Oriental and Sine Saloum.

Some milk production data were recorded by the Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques at Bambey for the Bambey crossbred (métis de Bambey). Between 1955 and 1958, 48 cows averaged 521 kg of milk over 266 days, milked twice a day in the presence of the calf (Gaudefroy-Demombynes, 1958a).

At Bambey, the body weights of about 100 animals on improved feeding were recorded as follows (Gaudefroy-Demombynes, 1958b):


birth

6 mo

1 yr

1 ½ yrs

2 yrs

3 yrs

4 yrs

over 6 yrs

Female (kg)

21.5

80.0

112.0

141.0

183.0

251.0

281.0

300

Male (kg)

24.0

86.0

122.0

142.0

217.0

272.0

350.0

420-430

At the Station de Recherches Zootechniques at Kolda, calf weights were recorded which are presented in Table 3 (personal communication).

Information on meat production is available from a fattening trial carried out at Dakar-Hann, in which three- to five-year-old animals of four breeds were fed molassed groundnut husks and cotton seed over a 112-day period. A food conversion ratio (kg feed per kg weight gain) of 9.3 was obtained for the N'Dama, which compared favourable with the results obtained for the other breeds (Pugliese and Calvet, 1973). The results of this trial are shown in Table 4.

Table 2. Livestock numbers in the study area of Senegal, 1976 ('000)

Region and Department

Total


Cattle

Sheep


Goats


N'Dama

Djakoré

Zebu

Casamance


Ziguinchor

10.5

10.5

-

-

8.5

12.5


Oussouye

8.5

8.5

-

-

2.0

3.5


Bignona

113.0

113.0

-

-

55.0

22.0


Sedhiou

113.0

113.0

-

-

40.0

39.5


Kolda

170.0

170.0

-

-

74.0

112.0


Velingara

95.0

95.0

-

-

21.0

29.0

Total

510.0

510.0

-

-

201.0

218.5






419.5

Senegal Oriental


Tambacounda

174.0

60.0

93.0

21.0

324.0


Bakel

130.0

-

98.0

32.0

154.0


Kedougou

43.0

43.0

-

-

80.0

Total

347.0

103.0

191.0

53.0

558.0

Sine Saloum


Fatick

75.0

-

25.0

50.0

146.5


Foundiougne

41.0

41.0

-

-

157.2


Gossas

46.0

-

12.0

34.0

52.5


Kaffrine

174.0

44.0

87.0

43.0

99.5


Kaolack

64.0

-

43.0

21.0

79.0


Nioro

96.0

48.0

48.0

-

94.3

Total

496.0

133.0

215.0

148.0

629.0

National Total

1 353.0

746.0

406.0

201.0

1 606.5

Source: National census, 1976

Table 3. Calf weights at the Station de Recherches Zootechniques at Kolda.

Year


Sex

Birth

3 months

6 months

12 months


n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

1975


Female

17

16.7

16

44.7

15

60.9

15

94.5

Male

26

16.7

26

45.6

26

70.7

26

109.0

1976


Female

23

18.1

20

44.2

14

68.1

2

98.0

Male

35

19.3

30

46.4

16

74.7

4

136.0

Source: Personal communication.

Table 4. Results of fattening trial for four breeds at Dakar Hann.


N'Dama

Djakoré

Gobra Zebu

Maure Zebu

Number of animals

10

9

9

9

Initial weight (kg)

224

236

245

223

Final weight (kg)

315

341

363

352

Daily gain (g)

809

938

1 060

1 152

Food conversion (kg feed per kg gain)

9.3

8.1

7.5

6.7

Number of carcasses

5

5

5

5

Dressing out %

54

55

56

54

Source: Pugliese and Calvet, 1973.

3.1.1.2 Index of Productivity. Table 5 summarizes estimates of the main production traits required to build up a productivity index based on the total weight of one-year-old calf plus the liveweight equivalent of milk produced per 100 kg of cow maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for two basic production environments, meat and milk production under village conditions in a light tsetse challenge area (SATEC, 1973) and meat production under improved research station conditions, also in a light tsetse challenge area (Station de Recherches Zootechniques, Kolda, 1976).

3.1.2 Djakoré

The typical Djakoré found in Senegal is described in volume 1, chapter 3. In addition, a type of Djakoré was bred in 1921 at the Centre National de Recherches. Agronomiques at Bambey, the Bambey crossbred. This is, in fact, a stabilized crossbred, 13/16 N'Dama and 3/16 Gobra Zebu (Hamon, 1969). The result is an animal which has the frame of the Zebu and the conformation and colour of the N'Dama (see Figures 3.49 and 3.53, volume 1). The adult male measures between 125 and 128 cm at the withers, compared with 105 to 110 cm for the N'Dama in Casamance.

Table 5. N'Dama productivity estimates.



Production Environment

Village/low tsetse
challenge/meat and milk

Station/low tsetse
challenge/meat

Cow viability (%)

98

98

Calving-percentage

56

45

Calf viability to one year (%)

70

90

Calf weight at one year (kg)

100.0

104.0

Annual milked out yield (kg)

89.6

-

Productivity indexa per cow per year (kg)

49.6

42.5

Cow weight (kg)

237.0

219.0

Productivity indexa per 100 kg cow maintained per year (kg)

21.0

19.4

a. Total weight of one-year-old calf plus liveweight equivalent of milk produced.

Sources: SATEC, 1973; Station de Recherches Zootechniques, Kolda, 1976.

There are no figures on the performance of the typical Djakoré. Some productivity data are available for the Bambey crossbred, but only under research station conditions. Calves at Bambey from three- to eight-months-old were given a daily supplement of up to 7 kg of millet and up to 3 kg of groundnut hay. Their weights were recorded as follows (Nourissat, n. d.):



birth

8 months

12 months

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

Female

46

19 ± 0.5

19

129 ± 3

15

146 ± 5

Male

46

21 ± 0.3

11

132 ± 6

9

142 ± 5

Draught power trials have been reported for 13 pairs of Bambey crossbred oxen. The average weight of a pair was 754 ± 36 kg and the average draught power was 494 ± 23 kg, with maximum effort reaching 623 ± 30 kg (Hamon, 1969).

3.2 DISEASES

Information on infectious cattle diseases is contained in the government's 'Rapport succint sur la situation sanitaire et les méthodes de prophylaxie appliquées au Sénégal pendant l'année 1976'. According to this report, no rinderpest outbreak has been recorded in Senegal since 1968 in spite of the presence of this disease in neighbouring countries. In 1978, however, a few outbreaks occurred in the northern part of the country for the first time in 10 years. Only one outbreak of pleuro-pneumonia has been recorded, in Senegal Oriental where there are many N'Dama cattle. Since the N'Dama are particularly susceptible to this disease, such an outbreak poses a serious threat. There were 14 reported outbreaks of botulism throughout the country in 1976, an increase over previous years due to incomplete vaccination coverage, as this vaccination is not given free. Clostridial diseases are confined to a few areas where they continue at a low level because vaccination is not systematic. In the study zone, the incidence of infectious diseases is not very high. Only black-quarter, anthrax and haemorrhagic septicaemia are enzootic. Some brucellosis also occurs, especially in Casamance (SATEC, 1973).

Parasitic diseases are often recorded, especially streptothricosis and scabies, but only the tick-borne fevers, piroplasmosis and rickettsiosis have been of importance. Gastro-intestinal helminths cause serious damage and are responsible for heavy losses among calves. These include Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum and Strongyloides. The association of various Stronglus species with coccidiosis is very common.

A detailed study of animal trypanosomiasis in Senegal was carried out by Touré, (1971b). Although Lower Casamance has a relatively high tsetse challenge, this region has the fewest recorded cases of trypanosomiasis. In Upper Casamance and the highlands of Senegal Oriental, trypanosomiasis is not widespread, although the incidence of the disease tends to increase from south to north. Trypanosomiasis occurs frequently on the southern border of the Sine Saloum Region and in Senegal Oriental along the latitude of Tambacounda. Outbreaks are seasonal, with the greatest morbidity between May and October when the tsetse population is largest due to the rains. Animals are also most likely to be affected when they are in a weakened condition at the end of the dry season due to food deficiencies (Touré, 1971a).

In Senegal, G. palpalis gambiensis and G. morsitans submorsitans transmit T. gambiense, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. Cattle trypanosomiasis is observed everywhere that G. palpalis or G. morsitans is present, with a greater incidence of T. vivax compared to T. brucei and T. congolense. Analysis reveals that T. congolense is more common among N'Dama cattle and the disease caused by this strain is more severe.

3.3 HERD MANAGEMENT AND COMPOSITION

A succinct description of herd management practices in Casamance has been published by SATEC (1973). The people settled in this region are agriculturalists with no pastoral tradition except for the Fulani. They generally practice élevage de cuillette (occasional sale or slaughter as needed). Among the Diolas, where cattle are symbols of wealth and religious values, improved husbandry techniques are generally poorly received, even when they lead to better animal health. Cattle are used for ceremonies, particularly at the time of circumcision, and the entire herd of a dead man may be slaughtered at his funeral. Among the Mandingo people, the herd represents capital which is easily held, but from which the owner draws little or no profit. The Fulani, Balantes and Toucouleurs show the greatest interest in their cattle. They use cattle manure on their fields, participate in vaccination campaigns and increasingly cultivate with draught oxen. These people herd their animals themselves, in contrast to the practices of other groups in the region.

Herd management is generally the same throughout the region. During the rainy season, the cattle are herded carefully to keep them away from the crops. After the harvest, the animals roam freely with little supervision, grazing near the villages on fallow land or savanna pasture. There is no transhumance as such, though temporary movements of small groups of cattle occur occasionally. They may he moved short distances during the rainy season to avoid damaging the crops, and during the dry season to bring them closer to watering places. At night, the animals are gathered near the villages in fenced pens or tethered. Non-Fulani owners frequently combine their herds and hire a Fulani herdsman to look after all the animals together, paying him in milk. Thus, in Lower and Middle Casamance, all the animals of a village are kept together in one herd, or at most two or three.

SATEC (1973) records that herds in this region average about 70 head, with a great deal of variation. In Lower Casamance, 40.7% of the herds were composed of less than 10 animals, while 10.4% had more than 100. Herds of average size (20 to 80 animals) were more than 69% of the total in Middle Casamance, while 14.2% of the herds included more than 100 animals. In Upper Casamance, 63% of the herds were of average size and 16.1% over 100. The average compositions of the herds in the region are given in Table 6.

In Senegal Oriental, cattle are generally tended all year round by Fulani herdsmen who keep them away from the crops during the rainy season and bring them to the watering places during the dry season. Cows are usually milked morning and evening, and calf mortality is high. Particularly in Bakel Department, herds managed by the Fulani average 100 to 150 animals. A typical herd composition would be 41% mature cows, 4% mature hulls, 16% calves, 14% one- to three-year-old heifers, 14% one- to three-year-old bulls and 11% three- to five-year-old steers.

In Sine Saloum, during the rainy season, the herds are usually kept at night on fallow land near the village. The animals are kept in a circle, with the calves and sheep in the middle and the most aggressive animals on the outside. The bull is left free. The herdsman sleeps on a covered, raised platform in the middle of the circle. Generally a wood fire is kept burning until late at night. The cows are milked around 8.00 h, and the herd is untied and led to the pasture between 9.00 and 10.00 h. Calves and small stock are kept near the village, but with the expansion of cultivation, it has become more difficult to find grazing for the animals near the villages during the cropping season. During the dry season after the crops are harvested, the animals stay in pastures near the village without supervision. This period extends from January to June. The herdsmen untie the animals in the morning and lead them to the edge of the village where they leave them on their own. Around 14.00 h, the herdsmen go out to find the animals, which walk to the watering places independently. After watering, the herd is led back to the pasture. At around 17.00 h, the herdsman return to bring in the animals and tie them for the night. The average herd size is between 10 to 60 head and herd compositions are similar to those observed in Casamance.

Table 6. Cattle herd composition in Casamance (%).

Class

Lower Casamance

Middle Casamance

Upper Casamance

Whole Region

Females under 1 year

15.6

15.8

14.9

14.9

Males under 1 year

11.8

14.2

12.9

12.9

Heifers from 1 to 3 years

13.8

14.6

15.9

15.0

Bulls from 1 to 3 years

7.2

8.9

9.7

8.8

Cows of 3 years and above

44.8

43.3

39.0

41.7

Bulls of 3 years and above

4.9

1.9

6.5

4.9

Oxen

1.9

1.3

2.0

1.8

Source: SATEC, 1973.

4. Sheep and goats

In the three regions studied, the great majority of the sheep are of the Djallonké type (see Figure 3.75 in volume 1), while the goats are of the West African Dwarf type. In addition, in Senegal Oriental near Tambacounda and to the north, some Maure sheep with short hair (Touabir), some Senegalese Fulani sheep (Peul-Peul) and some Sahelian goats were observed.

Gueye (1972) indicates an average height of 40-60 cm and an average weight of 20-30 kg for sheep in Senegal, and an average height of 40 cm and an average weight of 20 kg for goats. Recently, a multiplication flock of Djallonké sheep was started up at the Station de Recherches Zootechniques in Kolda, with encouraging results. Weights for lambs have been recorded as follows:



birth

10 days

30 days

50 days

70 days

90 days

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

Females

71

1.3

40

2.5

35

3.0

22

4.4

22

5.1

23

5.4

Males

66

1.6

36

2.8

34

3.2

21

5.5

20

6.0

17

6.7

In 1976, the fecundity rate at this station was 122%, with an abortion rate of 1,8% and a twinning rate of 15.5%.

Among diseases affecting small ruminants, the peste des petite ruminants (PPR) will remain a problem for some time.

4.1 INDEX OF PRODUCTIVITY

Table 7 summarizes the estimates of major production traits required to build up a productivity index based on the total weight of five-month-old lamb produced per 10 kg of ewe maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for production under station conditions in a low tsetse challenge area.

Table 7. Djallonké productivity estimate.

Parameter


Production environment

Station/low tsetse challenge

Ewe viability (%)

95b

Lambing percentage

183

Lamb viability to one year (%)

50

Lamb weight at five months (kg)

10

Productivity indexa per ewe per year (kg)

9.4

Ewe weight (kg)

25

Productivity indexa per 10 kg ewe maintained per year (kg)

3.8

a. Total weight of five-month-old lamb produced.
b. Estimate.
Source: Station de Recherches Zootechniques, Kolda; country visit information.

5. Research and development activities

5.1 RESEARCH CENTRES

The research centres in Senegal which work on trypanotolerance or with the trypanotolerant breeds are listed in Table 8 and their locations shown in Figure 1.

5.2 DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

The Republic of Senegal is at present reviewing its national livestock development policy. The country has been divided according to ecological conditions and herd distribution into five zones: (1) the sylvo-pastoral zone (Ferlo Basin), which is planned as a breeding zone (with young males removed from 6 months); (2) the valley of River Senegal, planned as a rearing and fattening zone; (3) the groundnut basin, planned as a rearing and fattening zone; (4) Cap Vert, planned to specialize in intensive industrial fattening and milk production; and (5) Casamance and the southern part of Senegal Oriental, which is planned in three areas:

a. South of Tambacounda and Bakel Departments and Upper Casamance, to be a calving, rearing and fattening zone due to the lower population density and the existence of vast rangelands,

b. Middle and Lower Casamanee, with priority to be given to milk production from N'Dama x Jersey crossbreds, and

c. Kedougou Department to speeialise in the breeding of pure N'Dama. Breeding stock would be exported from this department to the forest zone of other African countries.

The Direction de la Sante et des Productions Animales, two marketing organizations and five Societes d'Encadrement (extension organizations) are responsible for the implementation of government livestock policy. The government has decided that every development project covering a specific region should be centralized and controlled by one extension organization. Thus, for the regions involved in this study, three extension organizations are responsible for development projects: in Casamanee the Societe de Mise en Valeur de la Casamanee (SOMIVAC), in Sine Saloum the Societe de Developpement et de Vulgarisation Agricole (SODEVA) and in Senegal Oriental the Societe de Developpement des Fibres Textiles (SODEFITEX).

Present development projects concerned with the trypanotolerant breeds are listed in Table 9, with headquarters locations shown in Figure 1. In addition to the projects listed in the table, the European Development Fund of the European Economic Community (EEC) has financed a preliminary study for an extension project to encourage livestock development in Casamanee. The EEC also finances a project in the sylvo-pastoral zone (outside the study area) and 'Operation Sauvetage des Veaux 1978' (calf rescue operation) on the lines of a similar project carried out in 1974.

Table 8. Research centres working on trypanotolerance or with trypanotolerant breeds.

Name

Laboratoire National de l'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires

Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques

Centre de Recherches Zootechniques

Unites Experimentales (UK)

Location (reference in Figure 1)

Dakar-Hann +1

Bambey, 130 km east of Dakar () 2

Kolda, in Casamance Region 3

Kaolack, in Sine Saloum Region (·) 4

Organization responsible

Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agronomiques (ISRA), DGRST, Primature, Dakar

ISRA

ISRA

ISRA

Size


614 ha (1/3 crops, 2/3 livestock grazing)

2600 ha in 18 plots

1 or 2 villages (an example is the UE Thyssa Kaymor/Sonkorong) (Mbodji-Faye, 1976)

Breeds and numbers


Bambey crossbreed (13/16 N'Dama, 3/16 Gobra Zebu, 100 head)

400 N'Dama cattle
300 Djallonké sheep


Objectives and activities

Vaccine production. Within the laboratory a parasitology service carries out experiments on trypanosomiasis, trypanotolerance and trypanotolerant cattle (Touré, 1978).

Mainly crop research. Animal breeding only to improve the N'Dama as draught oxen. Some trials were carried out to introduce the Bambey crossbreed more widely in infested areas in the south. Annual reproduction and weight records are available on 100 to 150 head from 1966.

Improvement of N'Dama cattle, of Djallonké sheep and of grazing (180 ha artificial pasture). Identification and complete data since 1973 for cattle and since 1976 for sheep.

Demonstration of the value of forage reserve and mineral supplementation. Trial system of integrating agriculture and livestock production at the rural level. Milk yields are recorded fortnightly, calf weights monthly and adult weights quarterly.

External Aid

France (IEMVT)


Launched by EEC (EDF) in 1972


Table 9. Development projects.

Name

Projet de Développement de l'Elevage au Sénégal Oriental

Projet de Développement de l'agriculture au Sine Saloum

Amélioration de l'Elevage et des Pâturages dans le Département de Bakel

Location (headquarters) (reference in Figure 1)

Tambacounda 5

Kaolack 6

Bakel 7

Organization responsible

SODEFITEX, B. P. 41, Tambacounda

SODEVA

SODEFITEX

Size

All of Senegal Oriental

All of Sine Saloum

Department of Bakel (111 000 ha)

Breeds and numbers

300 000 cattle (mainly Djakoré and Zebu)

470 000 cattle (Zebu, Djakoré N'Dama) 460 000 small ruminants

160 000 Animal Units

Objectives and activities

Development and increased utilization of rangelands on 1.4 million ha of underexploited land in the northeast of the region. Improvement of animal health services in the region. Training supervision and monitoring of the project. Marking of individual animals is envisaged and surveys of herd composition are being carried out.

Integrated agriculture project with a small livestock component aimed at improving animal production for meat and draught oxen.

Organization and development of an integrated pasture management system with fire barriers, watering facilities, animal health programme and a training component.

External aid

IBRD, BADEA, Kuwait

World Bank, France (Caisse Centrale de Cooperation Economique)

USAID

Project period

1976-1980

1975-1976 to 1979-1980

1975-1978

6. Selected bibliography

Bremaud, O. Beck, K, Nissen, N and Vindrinet, R (1976). La santé animale au Sénégal. Eschborn and Paris, GTZ/SEDES. 115p.

Diallo, M S (1969). 'L'élevage au Sénégal. Bilan. Situation actuelle'. In Colloque sur l'élevage. Fort Lamy, IEMVT, pp. 26-29.

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