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Chapter 13 - Nigeria


1. Background
2. Livestock numbers and distribution
3. Cattle
4. Sheep and goats
5. Research and development activities
6. Selected bibliography

1. Background

The Federal Republic of Nigeria lies on the west coast of Africa, on the Gulf of Guinea, with Benin to the west, Niger to the north and Cameroon and Tchad to the east. The capital is at Lagos, and the country has been divided into 19 states since 1976. Before this, there were 12 states.

Government livestock services are provided by both the national and state governments. Each state has a Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources with Livestock or Veterinary Divisions which operate state farms and provide technical and veterinary assistance to livestock raisers. At the federal level, the Federal Livestock Department, which is part of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, has offices in each state and coordinates livestock development and animal health controls.

Basic data for the country as a whole and for the study area are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Background data for Nigeria.


Whole Country

Study Area

Area

913 100 km²

400 000 km²

Latitude

4°-14° N

4°-11° N

Longitude

3°-15° E

3°-11° E

Population


number

77 000 000

44 000 000a


density

84.3/km²

110/km²

Livestock numbers


cattle

8 235 000

766 000


sheep

18 099 000

1 900 000


goats

23 146 000

5 520 000

a. Estimate

Sources: For population, OAU, 1978; for livestock numbers, Nigeria, Federal Office of Statistics, 1977; for sheep in the study area, Sellers, 1978.

Figure 1. Administrative divisions, boundary of study zone and location of research centres, multiplication herds and development projects.

There is a forest climate in the southern part of the country, below the seventh parallel in the west and the sixth parallel in the east, with annual rainfall between 1 800 and 3 000 mm. Moving north, there is a derived savanna zone, Guinean savanna, Sudanian savanna and finally a Sahelian zone in the northeast, south of Lake Chad. There is generally one rainy season throughout the country, extending from April to October in the south and for a shorter period to the north.

Approximately 600 000 to 700 000 km² are infested with tsetse, or 75% of the entire country, including 25% infested only seasonally and 50% infested throughout the year. Since 1956, the Nigerian government has made substantial efforts to clear infested areas in the north, and by 1975 approximately 186 000 km had been cleared, nearly doubling the previous tsetse-free area.

According to the OAU/STRC tsetse distribution map (1977), Kano and Bornu States are free of tsetse, while Plateau, Kaduna, Bauchi, Gongola and Sokoto States are partly infested and Niger is completely infested As these eight states have no trypanotolerant cattle, except for a small Muturu population in Plateau, they are not included in the study. The remaining 11 states, which are tsetse infested, form the study area: Ondo, Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Bendel, Anambra, Imo, Rivers, Cross Rivers, Benue and Kwara.

2. Livestock numbers and distribution

Out of a total cattle population of 766 000 in these 11 states in 1974/75, about 300 000 were of the trypanotolerant breeds. The rest were Zebu kept in sedentary or transhumant herds or slaughter stock en route to the southern markets. In the country as a whole, 96% of the cattle are Zebu, kept primarily in the north. The main Zebu breeds are White Fulani, Sokote Gudali, Red Mbororo and Shuwa Arab.

Table 2 shows the distribution of the three major breeds of trypanotolerant cattle in the 11 states of the study area. These figures were readjusted between 1975 and 1977 according to the new state boundaries and differ slightly from those of 1974/75 (Nigeria, Federal Office of Statistics, 1977).

The figures for Muturu given in Table 2 are based on information from the veterinary and livestock services, but they seem to be underestimates. There are generally thought to be between 100 000 and 120 000 Muturu in the study area. This population was sharply reduced during the Nigerian civil war and is said to be decreasing still. In the western states, the Muturu are threatened by absorption due to crossbreeding with N'Dama. It is widely reported that Muturu are mainly kept in the forest zone, but large concentrations of these cattle are also found in the southern derived savanna areas, as shown in Figure 2. In Chapter 2 of volume 1, a distinction is made between Forest Muturu and Savanna Muturu. From field observations it would seem that the estimated total of 120 000 can be divided roughly into 38 000 Forest and 82 000 Savanna types.

Table 2. Distribution of trypanotolerant cattle ('000).

State

Total Number

Muturu

N'Dama

Ketekua

Ogun

20

2

1

-

Ondo

30

3

4

-

Oyo

100

2

6

-

Lagos

5

1

1

-

Bendel

18

5

1

-

Anambra

50

10

0.35

-

Imo

20

3

-

-

Rivers

0.5

-

0.15

-

Cross Rivers

23

4

0.10

-

Benue

150

25

0.20

-

Kwara

250

2

1

-

Total

666.5

57

14.80

150-180

a. Distribution by state unknown.
Source: Information from country visit.

N'Dama are kept mainly on government ranches and on a few commercial farms in the derived savanna and Guinean zones. Some are also found in the forest zone, however, in Lagos and Ogun States. N'Dama bulls have been distributed to small commercial farms by the government livestock services for upgrading Muturu and Keteku herds.

Keteku are found mainly in the derived savanna and Guinean zones of Kwara and Oyo States in the west, as shown in Figure 2. Similar ecological zones exist in Benue, Plateau and Anambra States, but very few Keteku are found there because the local people have traditionally kept pure Muturu herds which play a role in their traditional ceremonies.

The boundaries of the Zebu areas are difficult to define precisely, and the line given in Figure 2 is rather arbitrary. In fact, there are large transitional zones, mainly in the west, with mixed populations of Keteku and White Fulani Zebu, and there are transhumant Zebu herds in trypanotolerant areas and even sedentary herds maintained with regular or occasional treatment with trypanocidal drugs. Substantial Zebu herds are also found on the Obuda plateau in southeastern Cross River State and in the foothills of the Adamawa plateau in southeastern Gongola State, as these two areas are free of tsetse.

A number of Ghana Shorthorn were imported in the eerily 1940s, but they seem to have vanished, along with the Biu of Boanu and the Yola of Adamawa which were mentioned by Mason (1951).

Figure 2. Cattle breed distribution.

The national census of 1974/75 reported a sheep population of 5.5 million in the study area, along with an equal number of goats. Sellers (1978), however, estimated the sheep population of the 11 states at 1.9 million. Observations made during the country visit suggest that goats outnumber sheep in Nigeria by a ratio of about three to one, which suggests that Sellers's lower estimate for sheep is probably more accurate. For the country as a whole, there are an estimated 3 million trypanotolerant sheep and 6 million trypanotolerant goats, including some of the animals in the eight states which form an intermediate zone between the trypanotolerant dwarf breeds in the south and the larger Sahelian breeds in the north.

3. Cattle

3.1 BREED DESCRIPTIONS

3.1.1 Muturu

Muturu is the most common name in Nigeria for a breed which is also known as Dwarf West African Shorthorn, or as Pagan in a small area of the former Benue Plateau State. The breed is described in chapter 3 of volume 1, where a distinction is made between the Forest Muturu, which is the true Dwarf West African Shorthorn, and the Savanna Muturu (see Figures 3.35 and 3.40, volume 1).

The coat colour is generally black or black-and-white. Black is more common in the forest zones and black-and-white in the savanna areas.

Muturu kept at Nsukka under ranch conditions with a small dry-season supplementation were measured in 1977 as follows:


Number

Age in Years

Weight (kg)

Height at Withers (cm)

Heart Girth (cm)

Body Length (cm)

Females

27

4

140

88

130

96.5

Males

5

4

141

95

125

86.0

These figures seem rather low, especially for the small sample of males. The Vom Substation of the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) recorded average weights of 160 to 170 kg for adult cows under ranching conditions with no tsetse challenge.

W. Ferguson (1966) reported a heat tolerance among Muturu of only 65%, based on the Rhoad test. This low figure was derived mainly from their sensitivity to solar radiation, rather than to ambient temperature. Their temperament depends on how they are managed: they are docile under village conditions but rather wild on the ranches. Muturu are not used as draught animals in Nigeria.

3.1.1.1 Performance Traits. The age of bulls at first service is between four and five years under village conditions. W. Ferguson (1967) recorded an average age at first calving of 26 months at Ado Ekiti Livestock Investigation Centre (LIC) in Ondo State under unrestricted mating conditions. At the NITR Substation at Vom, which is in a tsetse-free zone, the average age at first calving was 21 months with dry-season supplementation (Roberts and Gray, 1973a). In village herds, however, the average is between four and five years.

Calving intervals can be as short as 11 to 13 months under intensive ranching or research station conditions (W. Ferguson, 1967; Olutogun, 1976; Oyenuga, 1967; and Roberts and Gray, 1973a), but is generally from 18 to 24 months under village conditions. Calving occurs throughout the year. Mortality rates of only 2% are reported from research stations, and the mortality rates under village conditions are also very low.

Body weights of Muturu at different ages have been obtained from three locations, as presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Body weights of Muturu cattle.




Ado Ekiti LIC

NITR Substation at Vom

Upper Ogun Ranch

females

males

females

males

males

kg

kg

n

kg

n

kg

kg

Birth

11

11

8

14 ± 2

7

14 ± 2

16

6 months

58

56

18

61 ± 11

17

71 ± 13

87

12 months

92

91

9

94 ± 12

14

108 ± 11

119

18 months

178

113

3

110 ± 19

10

147 ± 24

-

24 months

136

114

-

-

-

-

-

36 months

177

196

-

-

-

-

-

Sources: For Ado Ekiti, W. Ferguson, 1967 and Olutogun, 1976; for Vom, Roberts and Gray, 1973a; for Upper Ogun, Olutogun, 1976.

Information on the cattle at Ado Ekiti was recorded from 1952 to 1957 under natural grazing conditions with forage supplementation during the dry season. Information on the cattle at Vom was recorded from 1964 to 1976 under natural grazing in a high-altitude tsetse free zone, also with dry-season supplementation, and information on the cattle at Upper Ogun was recorded from 1954 to 1955 under natural grazing conditions.

An average milk production of 421 kg was recorded over 216 days before 1969 at Ado Ekiti (Olaloku, 1976). Dressing out percentages for Muturu range from 50 to 53% (W. Ferguson, 1967; Nigeria, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Western State, 1967).

3.1.1.2 Productivity Index. Table 4 summarizes estimates of the main production traits required to build up a productivity index for Muturu covering the total weight of one-year-old calf plus the liveweight equivalent of milk produced per 100 kg of cow maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for three production environments - meat production under village conditions in a light tsetse challenge area (information from country visit), meat production under station conditions in a light tsetse challenge area (W Ferguson, 1967) and meat production under station conditions with a particularly high level of management in a tsetse-free area (Roberts and Gray, 1973a).

Table 4. Muturu productivity indices.

Parameter


Production Environment

Village/light
challenge/meat

Station/light
challenge/meat

Station/tsetse
free/meat

Cow viability (%)

95

95

100

Calving percentage

57

92.4

95.9

Calf viability to one year (%)

85

90+

95

Calf weight at one year (kg)

80

91.5

100.8

Annual milked out yield (kg)

-

-


Productivity indexa per cow per year (kg)

39.8

78.0

91.8

Cow weight (kg)

150

177

183

Productivity indexa per 100 kg cow maintained per year (kg)

26.5

44.1

50.2

a. Total weight of one-year-old calf plus liveweight equivalent of milk produced.

Sources: For column 1, information from country visit; for column 2, W. Ferguson, 1967; for column 3, Roberts and Gray, 1973.

3.1.2 N'Dama

N'Dama were first imported into Nigeria from Guinea in 1939 and kept at Ilorin Farm in Kwara State in order to study their adaptability. In 1942, additional N'Dama were imported from Guinea and a more substantial breeding programme was initiated at Fashola Farm in Oyo State. Since then, more N'Dama have been imported from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Zaire.

The breed is described in more detail in chapter 3 of volume 1 and in the reports on the countries where it originates. Generally, N'Dama seem well adapted to high ambient temperature, moderate humidity and moderate solar radiation. They usually graze in the open at midday without seeking shade. They are docile under village conditions, but wild on the ranches. They are not used as draught animals in Nigeria.

The N'Dama breed has been chosen by the Nigerian government to be used for upbreeding the Muturu and Keteku herds. This policy has been widely accepted by commercial farmers, as indicated by the fact that prices for N'Dama breeding stock have become very high, up to N 600 (US $ 1 000) for heifers and N 1 000 (US $ 1 660) for bulls.

3.1.2.1 Performance Traits. The age of bulls at first service is between three and four years on farms and ranches. Olutogun (1976) reports an average age at first calving of 47.6 months under natural savanna grazing conditions in Oyo State; under the same conditions Akinokun (1970) reports an average of 40.5 months and Claus (1976) 41 months. On some commercial farms in Kwara State, if N'Dama heifers are not pregnant between 30 and 39 months, they are culled.

Olutogun (1976), Akinokun (1970) and Claus (1976) report calving intervals of 472 to 570 days for N'Dama on natural savanna pasture. Roberts and Gray (1973a) report an average calving interval of 363 days in a tsetse-free high-altitude zone. Calves are born throughout the year, with a peak from November to March. On government ranches, calving rates vary from 54 to 78%. Mortality rates are said to be low at around 2 to 3%.

The body weights of N'Dama males and steers at two government facilities are given in Table 5. The animals at Upper Ogun Ranch in Oyo State were maintained on natural pasture grazing, the males during 1960/61 and the steers from 1954 to 1956 At the NITR Substation at Vom, the animals were kept under natural grazing conditions with dry-season supplementation from 1966 to 1968. As previously mentioned, this substation is in a tsetse-free high-altitude zone.

At Upper Ogun Ranch, 604 steers were raised from birth to 40 months on natural pasture grazing without supplementation between 1957 and 1963. Their final weight averaged 283 ± 19 kg, with an average daily gain of 221 g (Steinbach and Balogun, 1973). Steers born during the early part of the rainy season (March April) averaged a daily weight gain 14 g higher than those born during the dry season (December - January). Steers finished during the dry season averaged a daily weight gain 10 g higher than those finished during the rainy season, irrespective of their month of birth.

The Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (1967) reports an average carcass weight of 127 kg for two-year-old N'Dama steers slaughtered at an average liveweight of 250 kg, giving a dressing out percentage of 51%.

Table 5. Body weights of N'Dama.




Upper Ogun Ranch

NITR Substation at Vom

males

steers

males

steers

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

Birth

305

18 ± 2

20

17

7

18 ± 3

9

16 ± 4

6 months

287

109 ± 17

20

85

10

95 ± 12

14

92 ± 14

12 months

232

164 ± 24

20

140

8

137 ± 14

12

125 ± 22

18 months

155

202 ± 24

20

183

6

192 ± 16

5

166 ± 22

24 months

103

246 ± 32

20

220





36 months



20

262





48 months

94

259 ± 36







Sources: For males at Upper Ogun, Olutogun, 1976; for steers at Upper Ogun, Hill and Upton, 1964 and Dettmers and Hill, 1974; for Vom, Roberts and Gray, 1973a.

3.1.2.2 Productivity Index. Table 6 summarizes estimates of the main production traits required to build up a productivity index for N'Dama covering the total weight of one-year-old calf plus the liveweight equivalent of milk produced per 100 kg of cow maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for two production environments, meat production under ranch conditions in a medium tsetse challenge area and meat production under station conditions with a high level of management in a tsetse-free area.

Table 6. N'Dama productivity indices.

Parameter


Production Environment

Ranch/medium challenge/meat

Station/tsetse free/meat

Cow viability (%)

99

100

Calving percentage

58

100

Calf viability to one year (%)

95

97

Calf weight at one year (kg)

156

131

Annual milked out yield (kg)

-

-

Productivity indexa per cow per year (kg)

86.4

127.8

Cow weight (kg)

260

266

Productivity indexa per 100 kg cow maintained per year (kg)

33.2

48.1

a. Total weight of one-year-old calf plus liveweight equivalent of milk produced.

Sources: For ranch environment, Olutogun, 1976; for station environment, Roberts and Gray, 1973a.

3.1.3 Keteku

The cattle most widely known as Keteku in Nigeria are also sometimes called Kataku, Ketari, Borgu, Borgawa or Kaiama. Mason (1951) and Faulkner and Epstein (1957) refer to this breed as a natural crossbred between Muturu and White Fulani Zebu, with some N'Dama blood. Gates (1952) and Olutogun (1976) consider the Keteku a cross between the Muturu and the White Fulani only, which seems more likely. As an extension of the large Borgou population in Benin, the Keteku seem to have been in western Nigeria for a long time and can be regarded as a native breed (see Figures 3.51 and 3.59, volume 1).

Faulkner and Epstein (1957) and Oyenuga (1967) give the following average weights and measurements for adult Keteku:


weight (kg)

height at withers (cm)

body length (cm)

heart girth (cm)

females

295

113

130

153

males

330

115

143

166

In the drier northern parts of Kwara State, the Keteku are said to be larger and taller than they are further south. They are found in settled Fulani herds, in small village dairy schemes and on the government ranches. They tend to he docile under village conditions, but fairly wild under ranch conditions.

3.1.3.1 Performance Traits. The age of bulls at first service is around four years. The age at first calving averaged 47 months among 353 heifers kept at Upper Ogun Ranch from 1954 to 1974, and 38 months for another group of 214 heifers kept on the same ranch from 1958 to 1960. These ages are about the same as those reported for N'Dama heifers, but farmers in Kwara State generally consider the Keteku to be relatively late breeders. For example, one farmer reported culling N'Dama and Muturu heifers between 30 and 39 months if they were not pregnant, but waiting to cull Keteku heifers at 48 to 57 months, based on previous experience.

Calves are horn throughout the year, with a slight peak during the dry season. Mean calving intervals of 578 days were recorded at Upper Ogun Ranch from a sample of 537 observations from 1954 to 1974. Among the 192 first intervals, the average was 673 days (Olutogun, 1976). Of 550 calving intervals reported by Claus (1976) from 1958 to 1969, the average length was 491 days.

At Upper Ogun Ranch, the mortality rates of Keteku, N'Dama and Keteku x N'Dama calves averaged 4.6% to weaning and total herd mortality averaged 2.2% from 1957 to 1975 (Olutogun, 1976).

Average Keteku body weights recorded at Upper Ogun Ranch are given in Table 7. The weights of males were recorded during 1960/61, and the birth weights of females were recorded from 1952 to 1973. The weights of steers were recorded from 1954 to 1956.

Table 7. Body weights of Keteku on natural pasture grazing at Upper Ogun Ranch.



Males

Females

Steers

n

kg

n

kg

n

kg

Birth

220

18 ± 2

1 179

18

6

18

6 months

-

-

-

-

6

76

12 months

18

149 ± 19

5

131

6

142

18 months

10

174 ± 25

-

-

6

176

24 months

18

214 ± 28

-

-

6

214

36 months

-

-

-

-

6

256

48 months

28

273 ± 37

-

-



Sources: For males and females, Olutogun, 1976; for steers, Hill and Upton, 1974.

Carcass weights of two-year-old Keteku steers slaughtered at an average liveweight of 274 kg averaged 127 kg, giving a dressing out percentage of 51% (Nigeria, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 1967).

3.1.4 N'Dama x Keteku Crosses

N'Dama x Keteku crossbreeding has begun recently under government initiative and is assuming increasing importance on small commercial ranches in Kwara and Oyo States. Breeding and management are the same as for N'Dama.

3.1.4.1 Performance Traits. The age at first calving averaged 43 months among 372 heifers at Upper Ogun Ranch from 1952 to 1974, and an unnamed ranch recorded an average age at first calving of 39 months for 126 heifers from 1958 to 1968. Both groups were kept on natural pasture grazing. An average calving interval of 548 days was recorded from 969 observations at Upper Ogun Ranch, with an average of 615 for first intervals (Olutogun, 1976). On the unnamed ranch, an average calving interval of 472 days was recorded from 292 observations (Claus, 1976).

Table 8 gives average body weights for N'Dama x Keteku crossbreds on natural pasture grazing at Upper Ogun Ranch. The figures for males were obtained during 1960/61 and those for steers from 1954 to 1956.

Table 8. Body weights of N'Dama x Keteku crossbreds.



Males

Steers

n

kg

n

kg

Birth

60

18 ± 2

12

17

6 months

-

-

12

79

12 months

66

145 ± 21

12

127

18 months

111

178 ± 22

12

173

24 months

31

204 ± 31

12

208

36 months

-

-

12

270

48 months

68

295 ± 28

-

-

Sources: For males, Olutogun, 1976; for steers, Hill and Upton, 1964.

3.2 DISEASE

IBAR (1978) listed cattle diseases found in Nigeria, though chiefly among the Zebu in the northern livestock areas, as follows: foot-and-mouth disease, rabies, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), anthrax, streptothricosis, anaplasmosis, piroplasmosis and trypanosomiasis. Rinderpest is under control, and lumpy skin disease was reported recently.

T. vivax is the most important pathogenic trypanosome found among cattle in Nigeria, followed by T. congolense and T. brucei. T. theileri is also found occasionally together with T. vivax or T. congolense. In the southern states, 90% of the trypanosomiasis among domestic cattle is caused by T. vivax (Esuruoso, 1973).

Muturu cattle generally do not receive any veterinary treatment, as diseases and premature mortality are uncommon. The most important cause of deaths among young stock is helminthiasis, and there have been sporadic outbreaks of anthrax, as reported by W. Ferguson (1966).

N'Dama kept on farms and ranches are vaccinated fairly regularly against the common diseases, and also dewormed and sprayed against ticks. Cases of heartwater, foot-and-mouth and piroplasmosis have been reported among N'Dama herds, and one five-year study of settled herds in the western states indicated a brucellosis infection rate of up to 60% (Esuruoso, 1973). Brucellosis is likely to be carried to other herds through the sale of N'Dama bulls to farmers. In general, no treatment is carried out against trypanosomiasis, though a few ranches and commercial farms are starting prophylactic programmes to avoid weight losses. Hill and Esuruoso (personal communication) have stressed the apparent high resistance of N'Dama to streptothricosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis.

Olutogun (1976) mentions that Keteku are susceptible to streptothricosis, while N'Dama are not. Cases of heartwater and foot-and-mouth disease are reported among both Keteku and N'Dama, and a survey carried out on government ranches found brucellosis among both breeds (Esuruoso, 1973). Depending on the level of Zebu blood, the Keteku and more susceptible to traypanosomiasis than N'Dama or Muturu kept in the same areas.

The main disease problems among Zebu cattle in southern Nigeria are trypanosomiasis, streptothricosis, tick-borne diseases and helminthiasis.

3.3 HERD MANAGEMENT AND COMPOSITION

Three distinct herd management systems are found in Nigeria: village husbandry, commercial farming or ranching and transhumant husbandry.

3.3.1 Village Husbandry

According to the National Agriculture Sample Census (Nigeria, Federal Office of Statistics, 1977), only 0.3% of all rural households in western and south-eastern Nigeria keep cattle, with an average of four animals per household and rarely over 10. Cattle herds are generally concentrated in a few villages, with neighbouring villages owning no cattle at all. In addition, veterinary officers in Kwara State mentioned a few private herds of 50 to 60 cattle.

These herds are generally composed of Muturu cattle, or Muturu x N'Dama crossbreds in the western states. They are kept together with West African Dwarf or Djallonké sheep and goats, mainly by agricultural people such as the Ibo, Tiv and Idomo in the east and the Egun and some of the Yoruba in the west. It is generally believed that the meat of humpless cattle tastes better than that of the Zebu, though they are never kept as a regular source of income or meat supply. They are principally used for ceremonies, particularly funerals. Manure is collected occasionally, but not on a regular basis.

The prices obtained for Muturu cattle are high: for adult females, N 350 to 340 (US $ 580 to 720) in Benue State in 1978 and N 250 to 350 (US $ 410 to 580) in Bendel State

In Ogun, Oyo, Ondo and Kwara States, Muturu are often upgraded with N'Dama bulls to increase their size. This breeding programme is supported by the government (see Figure 3.65, volume 1).

Village cattle are rarely herded, except sometimes in the savanna areas by hired Fulani herdsmen during the cropping season. The cattle generally gather together for the night in an open place in the village, though they are sometimes tethered in family compounds or put in a small hut or kraal. When Muturu hulls are used, they usually come from the same village herd. The animals are grazed on roadside grass, natural pasture and fallows, and they are fed household wastes and crop residues. No mineral salts are given. The animals are not castrated or weaned systematically and they are rarely milked.

3.3.2 Commercial Farming or Ranching

This sector includes commercial farms and government breeding or multiplication ranches, generally keeping Keteku or N'Dama cattle.

The commercial farms carry out breeding operations, as well as short-term fattening of Keteku or White Fulani Zebu. Herds are usually 80 to 200 head and are mainly Keteku, though crossbreeding with N'Dama bulls is increasing. The animals are usually herded by hired Fulani herdsmen on natural pastures, often with some dry-season supplementation with fodder or crop residues. Mineral concentrates are usually given throughout the year. The breeding stock are usually housed at night, and the weaning and fattening stock kept in paddocks. The animals are usually weaned, castrated and sprayed against tick-borne diseases, and the Fulani herdsmen often practice milking.

The government ranches are mainly concerned with the multiplication of N'Dama cattle through the production of female breeding stock and improved bulls. The animals have generally been kept on fenced natural pastures, though this system is increasingly being replaced by herding. They are weaned and sprayed regularly, though castration is rapidly being abandoned because of the demand for bulls.

Mineral licks are given throughout the year, and the animals are sometimes grazed on artificial pastures or given fodder or crop residues during the dry season. Officially, they are not milked. Herd compositions vary widely on different ranches.

3.3.3 Nomadic and Transhumant Husbandry

Seasonal transhumance is practised with Keteku cattle in the Guinean savanna zone, though most of the more nomadic herds are composed of White Fulani Zebu. The animals are treated against trypanosomiasis on a regular or occasional basis.

4. Sheep and goats

4.1 BREED DESCRIPTION

4.1.1 Sheep

West African Dwarf sheep account for 17% of the national sheep population, and they are found further north than the trypanotolerant cattle breeds. Sheep in the drier northern parts of the tsetse zone tend to be taller and heavier than the sheep in the humid forest areas. The breed is described in chapter 3 of volume 1, Studies have been carried out at Ibadan and Ife University Farms, as reported by Dettmers and Hill (1974), Dettmers and Loosli (1974), Matthewman (1977), Dettmers, Igoche and Akinkuolie (1976), Ademosun (1973), Oyenuga (1967), Adu et al. (1974), Adeleye and Oguntona (1975) and Adebambo et al. (1974).

4.1.1.1 Performance Traits. Under village conditions, the age of rams at first service is usually from 1.5 to 2.0 years, and the average age of ewes at first lambing is the same. High prolificacy was recorded at Ibadan University Farm, with 8 % triplets and 40 to 56% twins. Lambing intervals under village conditions are about one year, but they averaged 268 days at Ibadan University Farm (Dettmers and Hill, 1974).

Mortality under village conditions was recorded at about 15% up to weaning and 11% among adults, including deaths from traffic accidents (Matthewman, 1977). However, these figures are probably underestimates, due to the sampling method used. Milk production has been recorded over a 10-week lactation at 22 kg with 75% of the Agricultural Research Council (ARC) energy standard and 38 kg with the full ARC energy standard. This was calculated by weighing lambs before and after suckling and hand milking one day a week.

Body weights recorded from 1950 to 1959 and slaughter weights and dressing out percentages from 1973 and 1974 at Ibadan University Farm are given in Tables 9 and 10.

Table 9. Body weights of sheep at Ibadan University Farm.



Females

Males

n

kg

n

kg

Birth

158

1.7

147

1.7

3 months

84

7

94

9

6 months

72

11

67

12

12 months

51

16

25

19

18 months

45

19

18

23

24 months

30

24

17

24

36 months

18

24

4

31

Source: Oyenuga, 1967.

Table 10. Slaughter weights and dressing out percentages of sheep at Ibadan University Farm.



A

B

C

Ewes

Ewes

Rams

Ewes

Rams

Ewes

Rams

Rams

Age (months)

24-48

60

15

5-6

5-6

12-14

12-14

9

Slaughter weight (kg)




9.8

9.4

16

25

24

Dressing out %

44

41

39

46a

46a

44a

44a

51

Type of fattening




Cynodon nlensfuensis + 0.5 kg concentrate


a. Hot carcass weights on the basis of liveweight after starving.

Sources: For A, Dettmers and Hill, 1974; for B. Adeleye and Oguntona, 1975; for C, Adebambo et al., 1974.

4.1.1.2 Index of Productivity. Table 11 summarizes estimates of the major production traits of sheep required to build up a productivity index based on the total weight of five-month-old lamb produced per 10 kg of ewe maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for station conditions with low tsetse challenge and village conditions with medium tsetse challenge.

Table 11. Sheep productivity estimates.

Parameter

Station/low challenge

Village/medium challenge

Ewe viability (%)

90a

94

Lambing percentage

194

173

Lamb viability to one year (%)

85a

78

Lamb weight at five months (kg)

10.9

10

Productivity indexb per ewe per year (kg)

18.9

13.9

Ewe weight (kg)

24

22

Productivity indexb per 10 kg ewe maintained per year (kg)

7.9

6.3

a. Estimate.
b. Total weight of five-month lamb produced.
Sources: Information obtained on country visit; Matthewman, 1977.

4.1.2 Goats

The West African Dwarf goat, found in the study area, is described in chapter 3 of volume 1. Studies of this breed have been made by Mecha (1975), Sellers et al. (n. d.), Oluwasanmi et al. (1966), Matthewman (1977) and Ademosun (1973). (See Figures 3.77, 3.79 and 3.81, volume 1).

Oyenuga (1967) reports that West African Dwarf goats generally measure 40 to 50 cm at the shoulder and weigh 18 to 20 kg, while Matthewman (1977) reports that animals near Ibadan measure 40 to 60 cm at the shoulder and weigh 20 to 30 kg. Mecha (1975) measured a sample of 1 348 adult goats collected from several areas in the eastern and western states. He found that 6.2% measured less than 40 cm, with an average height of 37.3 cm, 67.5% measured 40 to 50 cm with an average height of 44.6 cm, and 26.3% measured more than 50 cm, with an average height of 53.1 cm.

There is no doubt that goats in the very humid areas of southern Nigeria tend to be smaller than those in the drier savanna areas further north. However, the goats in the northern parts of the study area could be influenced by crossbreeding with the Sahelian breeds.

4.1.2.1 Production Traits. Matthewman (1977) reports that the age of young males at first service is often under one year. The age at first kidding can be as low as 13 months on research stations and up to 18 months under village conditions. Kidding rates recorded in 1975/76 for two villages and in 1971/72 at the University of Ife, all in Oyo State, are given in Table 12.

Table 12. Kidding rates.


Fashola Village

Jago Village

University of Ife

Mean kidding percentage (number kids per 100 kidding females)

159

151

-

Kidding % (1st parturition)

100

107

-

Kidding % (2nd parturition)

164

165

-

Kidding % (3rd parturition)

150

167

-

Kidding % (4/5/6th parturition)

200

200

-

Mean percentage single births

27

34

35

Mean percentage twin births

67

62

55

Mean percentage triplet births

6

5

10

Sources: For villages, Matthewman, 1977; for University of Ife, Ademosun, 1973.

Mecha (1975) reports that medium-sized goats are more prolific than dwarf goats. He found that the larger animals had shorter kidding intervals and gave birth to twins more frequently.

Matthewman (1977) recorded annual mortality rates of 15% up to weaning and 10 to 15% among adult animals in two villages near Ibadan, including deaths from road accidents. However, he emphasizes that these figures are underestimates, due to the sampling methods employed.

Weights of a sample of Dwarf goats which were stall fed and given minerals at the University of Ife in 1971/72 under zero grazing conditions are reported by Ademosun (1973) as follows (kg):


Birth

2 months

3 months

4 months

6 months

females

1.4

5.0

6.0

6.5

8.0

males

1.6

5.0

7.0

7.0

9.0

Mba et al. (1974) carried out a three-week fattening trial with 12 castrated goats, 6 to 8 months old and weighing 7 to 15 kg at the outset. With urea as the source of nitrogen, the mean daily weight gain was 36 g, and with groundout cake it was 31 g. Cold carcass dressing out percentages were 47% with urea and 49% with groundnut cake.

4.1.2.2 Index of Productivity. Table 13 summarizes estimates of the major production traits of goats required to build up a productivity index based on the total weight of five-month-old kid produced per 10 kg of female goat maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for production under village conditions in a medium tsetse challenge area.

Table 13. Goat productivity estimates.

Parameter


Production Environment

Village/medium challenge

Female viability (%)

81

Kidding percentage

232

Kid viability to one year (%)

78

Kid weight at five months (kg)

7.5

Productivity indexa per female goat per year (kg)

15.2

Female weight (kg)

19

Productivity indexa per 10 kg female goat maintained per year (kg)

7.9

a. Total weight of five-month-old kid produced.
Source: Matthewman, 1977.

4.2 DISEASE

Disease is generally recognized as the major constraint on sheep and goat production in the humid zone. The most important diseases affecting small ruminants in Nigeria are Peste des petite ruminants (PPR), mycoplasmosis, pasteurellosis, helminthiasis and ectoparasites (Sellers, 1978). IBAR (1978) also mentions blue tongue, sheep pox and contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

4.3 FLOCK MANAGEMENT AND COMPOSITION

4.3.1 Sheep

According to the National Agriculture Sample Census carried out in 1974-75 (Nigeria, Federal Office of Statistics, 1977), between 5 and 10% of all rural households in the southern states keep sheep, usually from 4 to 13. The average composition of village flocks is given in Table 14 for four areas, all in Oyo State. At Fashola and Jago villages, the flocks were observed during 1975/76, at Uboma village during 1963/64 and at Eruha Village in 1974.

Matthewman (1977) concludes from his survey of two villages that 90% of the farmers who keep sheep view their flocks as an investment or a source of cash, and only 5% primarily as a source of food. Although adult sheep are slaughtered occasionally in the village for traditional ceremonies, 90% of the male lambs and 40% of the females are sold at local markets at weaning. The annual offtake of adult sheep, either for sale or for slaughter at home, is estimated at 19%. Similarly, Oluwasanmi et al. (1966) conclude that sheep are more important in the villages of eastern Nigeria as a source of income than as a family food supply.

Table 14. Average composition of sheep flocks in four villages (%).


Fashola Village

Jago Village

Uboma Village

Eruha Village

Adult males (%)

8

0

-

17

Adult females (%)

63

67

-

47

Young (%)

24

33

-

33

All males (%)

-

-

18

-

All females (%)

-

-

82

-

Sources: For Fashola and Jago, Matthewman, 1977; for Uboma, Oluwasanmi et al., 1966; for Eruha, Sellers et al., n.d.

Sheep are not herded, but they are sometimes tethered during the cropping season. They graze on crop stubble, village pastures and along the roadsides and are often given maize stalks, bean husks, yam peelings or cassava. The cassava is sometimes bought especially for the sheep. In the eastern states, supplementation is less common. Sheep are not weaned or castrated systematically, and sheep manure is not collected. They are seldom housed, and in general are not valued as highly as goats.

4.3.2 Goats

The National Agriculture Sample Census (Nigeria, Federal Office of Statistics, 1977) indicates that a much higher proportion of households in the southern states keep goats than sheep. Household goat flocks usually consist of 2 to 7 animals. Percentages of households with goats and the average size of household flocks are given in Table 15 for the former states of the study area.

Table 15. Household goat flocks.

Former State

% of Households with Goats

Average Number of Goats Kept

Western

41

4.3

Mid-Western

42

6.2

Rivers

24

17.9

South East

50

5.6

East Central I

32

4.6

Lagos

43

3.0

Benue Plateau

61

6.5

Source: Nigeria, Federal Office of Statistics, 1977.

Typical compositions of the goat flocks in four villages of Oyo State are given in Table 16. The flocks in Fashola and Jago villages were observed during 1975/76, those in Uboma village during 1963/64 and those in Eruwa village during the rainy season of 1974.

Table 16. Average composition of goat flocks in four villages (%).


Fashola Village

Jago Village

Uboma Village

Eruwa Village

Adult males (%)

6

2

-

15

Adult females (%)

59

63

-

51

Young (%)

35

35

-

34

All Males (%)

-

-

25

-

All Females (%)

-

-

75

-

Sources: For Fashola and Jago, Matthewman, 1977; for Uboma, Oluwasanmi et al., 1966; for Eruwa, Sellers et al., n.d.

Among female goats in two villages observed by Matthewman (1977), 29 and 39% were not yet mature, 44 and 49% had kidded one or two times, 22 and 15% had kidded three or four times, and 5 and 4% had kidded five or six times.

Husbandry practices are very similar for goats as for sheep, though goats are much more widely kept. Goats, along with poultry, are by far the most important animal among households in the humid and semi-humid tsetse-infested areas.

5. Research and development activities

5.1 RESEARCH CENTRES

5.1.1 University of Ibadan

The location of the University of Ibadan in Oyo State is shown by 1 in Figure 1. The University Farm keeps about 300 N'Dama, White Fulani Zebu, German Black Pied, German Brown and crossbred cattle and about 300 Dwarf West African sheep on 25 ha, including 4 ha of artificial pastures. The Animal Science Department is carrying out a number of research projects covering:

a. aspects of grazing and food intake on various pasture combinations with German Brown x N'Dama crossbreds,

b. supplement requirements for growth of N'Dama, White Fulani Zebu, German Brown, German Black Pied and N'Dama x German Brown crossbreds,

c. physiological analysis of the reproductive performance of N'Dama and Muturu at the Fashola Stock Farm,

d. revision of N'Dama body measurements,

e. growth rates for N'Dama on natural and artificial pastures, and

f. birthweights of N'Dama at Fashola Stock Farm.

In addition, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine is working on the production of an antigen for T. vivax and plans to study trypanotolerance among N'Dama.

5.1.2 University of Ife

The University of Ife includes a University Farm where research work is carried out by the Animal Science Department. The location is shown by 2 in Figure 1. There is a cattle herd of 115, made up of 85 N'Dama, 6 Muturu and 24 crossbreds among N'Dama, White Fulani Zebu and Muturu. The Goat Unit keeps 54 West African Dwarf goats, 23 mixed goats from Maiduguri in Bornu State in the north and 20 Saanen Dairy x West African Dwarf crossbreds The Sheep Unit keeps 172 West African Dwarf sheep and 54 West African Dwarf x Permer crossbreds. The Permer breed in turn is a cross between Marino and Persian Blackhead.

Research work is underway on the preweaning performance of N'Dama at Upper Ogun Ranch and the production performance of N'Dama, N'Dama x White Fulani Zebu crossbreds and West African Dwarf sheep and goats at the University Farm.

5.1.3 University of Nigeria, Nsukka

Research work is being carried out by the Animal Science Department of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka on the growth and reproduction of N'Dama, Muturu and Boran cattle and the reproduction of local sheep and goats. The University Farm includes 67.5 ha of natural pasture, with another 18 ha to be fenced. As of April 1978, there were 128 N'Dama, 39 Muturu, 48 Boran and 6 White Fulani Zebu. The Sheep and Goat Unit included 80 West African Dwarf ewes and 30 West African Dwarf female goats. The location of the farm is shown by 3 in Figure 1.

5.1.4 Nigerian Institute of Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) Substation at Vom

The location of the Nigerian Institute of Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR) Substation at Vom is shown by · 4 in Figure 1. The Institute itself is located at Kaduna (P.M.B. 2077), as shown by +5 in Figure 1.

At the Vom Substation, 47 N'Dama, 25 Muturu, 15 White Fulani Zebu and 6 White Fulani x N'Dama crossbreds are kept on 50 ha of natural pasture. The growth of N'Dama, Muturu and White Fulani Zebu is being studied under different feeding regimes with and without tsetse challenge. The growth of trypano-susceptible Yankasi sheep and Red Sokoto goats is also being studied with and without tsetse challenge. Birth records are kept of individual animals and body temperatures are recorded daily.

5.1.5 Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Division of the Federal Livestock Department at Kaduna

The Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Division of the Federal Livestock Department at Kaduna (P. M. B. 2012) carries out tsetse eradication projects throughout the country. This division is also in charge of tsetse infestation surveys and the identification of pathogenic trypanosomes. The location of the headquarters is shown by +6 in Figure 1.

5.1.6 Institute of Agricultural Research and Training of the University of Ife

The Agriculture Department of the University of Ife includes an Institute of Agricultural Research and Training at Moor Plantation near Ibadan. The location of the Institute is shown by · 7 in Figure 1.

In 1975, the Institute purchased N'Dama, Keteku, Muturu and White Fulani Zebu cattle in order to carry out milking trials. Beef cattle trials have also been conducted, aimed mainly at identifying favourable grazing systems on natural pastures and suitable grass and legume combinations for artificial pastures.

5.1.7 ILCA Small Ruminants Programme

The ILCA Small Ruminants Programme (c/o IITA, P. M. B. 5320, Ibadan) was initiated in 1978 to investigate strategies for improving the productivity of sheep and goats through increased labour and capital inputs at the village level. More intensive management systems are compared on an experimental basis, as well as specific innovations introduced into traditional systems. The returns achieved are compared with those obtained from similar investments in crop production.

Experimental sites are located at Fashola in Oyo State and at Ikenne in Ogun State. The location of the programme's headquarters is shown by · 8 in Figure 1.

5.1.8 National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI)

The National Animal Production Research Institute is located at Shika in Kaduna State, as shown by · 9 in Figure 1. So far, only productivity studies of the Zebu breeds have been carried out, but the Institute plans to extend its research activities into southern Nigeria, focussing on the N'Dama and Muturu.

5.2 MULTIPLICATION HERDS

Fourteen important multiplication herds which work with trypanotolerant breeds in Nigeria are described in Table 15. In addition, a number of smaller government farms under the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources carry out multiplication work with herds of less than 100 cattle. These farms are found at Imara, Ikenne and Odeda in Ogun State, Osara in Kwara State and Bori, Yenagoa and Degema in Rivers State. There are also two government model farms at Ikoto-Efanga and Obio-Akfa in Cross Rivers State. All of these farms are working with N'Dama cattle.

Table 15a. Multiplication herds.

Name

Upper Ogun Ranch

Fashola Stock Farm

Shaki Livestock Station

Ogboro Station

Ado-Ekiti Livestock Investigation Centre

Akunu Cattle Ranch

Oka-Ako Cattle Ranch

Location (and reference in Figure 1)

Ogun State 10

Oyo State 11

Oyo State 12

Oyo State 13

Ondo State 14

Ondo State 15

Ondo State 16

Organization responsible

Western Livestock Company (Ibadan)

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Ibadan)


Western Livestock Company (Ibadan)

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Akure)

Western Livestock Company (Ibadan)

Western Livestock Company (Ibadan)

Size

10 000 ha

550 ha (mainly artificial pasture)

800 ha

8 000 ha under development

600 ha artificial and improved pastures

8 000 ha

11 250 ha under development

Breeds and numbers

3 180 N'Dama as of April 1978, 1 130 Keteku and crosses

420 N'Dama as of April 1978, 320 Keteku and crosses

280 N'Dama and crosses, 60 Keteku as of April 1978

140 N'Dama as of April 1978

315 N'Dama as of April 1978, 100 Keteku, 60 Muturu, 190 crosses, 50 Zebu and European cattle, 75 local sheep

1 740 N'Dama as of April 1978

410 N'Dama and N'Dama x Keteku crosses as of April 1978

Objectives

N'Dama multiplication sale of breeding stock, commercial beef production. Data recording: individual records available.

N'Dama multiplication and sale of breeding stock. Individual records available.

Production of breeding stock. Individual records available.

N'Dama multiplication herd to be increased to 4 000 head. Individual records available.

Production of Keteku and N'Dama breeding stock. Plans to specialise in dairy cattle only. Individual records available.

N'Dama multiplication and production of breeding stock. Individual records available.

N'Dama multiplication herd to be increased to 5 000 head. Individual records available.

External aid

Development finance partly by IBRD Livestock Development Project loan



Development financed partly by IBRD Livestock Development Project loan


Development financed partly by IBRD Livestock Development Project loan

Development financed partly by IBRD Livestock Development Project loan

Table 15b. Multiplication herds.

Name

Pota Cattle Ranch

Igarra Cattle Ranch

Ezillo Nkalagu State Farm

Raav Livestock Investigation and Breeding Centre

Kaiama Livestock Station

Shao Livestock Station

Ubiadja Goat Farm

Location (and reference in Figure 1)

Lagos State 17

Bendel State 18

Anambra State 19

Benue State 20

Kwara State 21

Kwara State 22

Bendel State 23

Organization responsible

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Ikeja)

Benel Food Production Board (Benin City)

Agricultural Development Corporation (P. M. B. 1024, Enugu)

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Maburdi)

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Ilorin)

Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources (Ilorin)

Board of Food Production Corporation (Benin City)

Size

approx. 4 000 ha

1 600 ha

2 400 ha + 320 ha artificial pasture

5 400 ha under development

approx. 500 ha

approx. 400 ha


Breeds and numbers

550 N'Dama as of April 1975, 170 Muturu and crosses

625 N'Dama as of May 1978, 60 Muturu, 20 Zebu and Keteku

225 N'Dama as of May 1978, 140 Muturu' 30 Wadara and crosses, 35 Kenana and crosses, 80 White Fulani Zebu and crosses

205 N'Dama as of April 1978

135 Keteku as of April 1978

95 N'Dama as of April 1978, 35 Keteku

150 West African Dwarf goats including crosses with northern breeds, 25 West African Dwarf sheep including crosses with northern breeds

Objectives

N'Dama multiplication, production of breeding bulls.

Multiplication and production of feeder stock Individual records available (birth register).

Commercial beef production, multiplication of N'Dama, milk production (Kenana), crossbreeding experiments with Zebu, N'Dama and Muturu. Herd level records available.

N'Dama multiplication and production of breeding stock. Herd level records available.

Production of breeding stock. Herd level records available.

N'Dama multiplication and production of breeding stock. Herd level records available.

Multiplication flock to be increased. Flock level records available.

External aid








5.3 DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES

The Third National Development Plan covers the period from 1975 to 1980 and includes an estimated total expenditure of N 344 046 191 (US $ 573 410 000) for the livestock sector, allocated through the state and federal governments. The greater part of these funds is directed towards projects to increase the productivity of the large Zebu stock in the country. Substantial funds are also allocated to the development of the dairy industry, based on imported exotic breeds (mainly Friesian, but also Brown Swiss) and their crosses with White Fulani Zebu. Zebu production and dairy enterprises based on exotic breeds are being developed in southern Nigeria, as well as in the north, on the basis of tsetse eradication in limited areas or prophylaxis and treatment for trypanosomiasis or a combination of both.

The only activities included in the Plan which focus entirely or mainly on trypanotolerant cattle in the tsetse areas concern the establishment or expansion of N'Dama herds on government farms and ranches. The total budgetary allocation is approximately N 13 693 000 (US $ 22 821 670), or 4% of all expenditure in the livestock sector. The policy on the development of sheep and goat production in the tsetse areas expressed in the Plan is to 'encourage research on the improvement of the indigenous breeds of sheep and goats through crossbreeding with suitable exotic breeds of high productivity'.

Other livestock development projects cover both trypanotolerant and trypano-susceptible livestock, making it difficult to specify the level of expenditures directed to each. The Nigeria Livestock Development Project, funded jointly by the World Bank (IBRD) for the period 1977 to 1989, is directed by the Livestock Project Unit at Kaduna, indicated by 24 in Figure 1. The project aims to improve Zebu production in the northern states and to establish fattening operations in Oyo and Ondo States based on Zebu stock. The provision of veterinary services is also included.

Five breeding or multiplication ranches are also being established or developed under this project in the southern states, aimed at increasing the production of N'Dama and N'Dama x Keteku slaughter stock and N'Dama breeding stock. These are directed by the Western Livestock Company at Ibadan (P.M.B. 5435), with headquarters shown by 25 in Figure 1. Two new ranches have been started, Ogboro and Oke Ako, and a third, Meko, is still in the planning stage, while two existing ranches, Upper Orun in Oyo State and Akunu in Ondo State, are being further developed.

Finally, a feasibility study was initiated in April 1978, with funding from the World Bank, for an integrated rural development project in Benue State called the Ayangba Agricultural Development Project. This project includes the improvement and expansion of veterinary services, aimed at both trypanotolerant and trypano-susceptible cattle, and the improvement of local West African Dwarf goats at the Idah Goat Farm through crossbreeding with exotic breeds or stock from northern Nigeria.

6. Selected bibliography

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Adegbola, A A (1975). 'Techniques for livestock development in relation to Nigeria'. In Proceedings of the Third World Conference on Animal Production. Sydney, University of Sydney Press, pp. 345-350.

Adeleye, L O A and Oguntona, E (1975). 'Effects of age and sex on liveweight and body composition of the West African Dwarf sheep.' Nigerian J. Anim. Prod. 2 (2), pp. 264-269.

Ademosun, A A (1973). 'The development of the livestock industry in Nigeria. Ruminants'. In Proceedings of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria. 10, pp. 1320.

Adepoju, A (1974). 'Effect of urea supplementation in dry season feed for N'Dama cattle'. Nigerian J. Anim. Prod. 1 (1), p. 92.

Adu, J F, Olaloku, E A and Oyenuga V A (1974). 'The effects of energy intake during late pregnancy on lamb birth weights and lactation of Nigerian Dwarf sheep'. Nigerian J. Anim. Prod. 1 (2), pp. 151-161.

Akinokun, O (1970). 'A preliminary study of age at first calving and calving interval of a herd of N'Dama cattle'. Nigerian Agric. J. 7, (2), pp. 148-151.

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Bates, J D, Howze, G. Abercrombie, F A and van Blake H (1975). A review of USAID projects in four major livestock producing states in Nigeria: An assessment of range management. Research Triangle Park, N. Carolina (USA), Research Triangle Institute, 171 p.

Brinckman, W L and Adu, I F (n.d). 'The problems of goat production in the savannah regions of Nigeria'. Zaria, National Animal Production Research Institute, 5p.

Chandler, R L (1952). 'Comparative tolerance of West African N'Dama cattle to trypanosomiasis'. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 46, pp. 127-134.

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Dettmers, A and Loosli, J K (1974). 'Live performance and carcass traits in West African sheep'. Nigerian J. Anim. Prod. 1 (1), p. 108

Dettmers A and Hill, D H (1974). 'Animal breeding in Nigeria'. In First World Congress on Genetics applied to Livestock Production. Volume 3. Madrid, pp. 811-820.

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Esuruoso, G O (1973). 'The Epizootiology, prevalence and economic aspects of bovine trypanosomiasis in Nigeria'. Paper presented at the 77th U.S. Animal Health Association Meeting, St. Louis.

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Esuruoso, G O (1975). 'Outbreaks of trypanosomiasis in N'Dama cattle in western Nigeria'. Bull. Animal Health Prod. Africa 23, pp. 323-332.

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FAO (1966). Agricultural development in Nigeria 1965-1980. Rome, 512p.

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