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Chapter 14 - Cameroon


1. Background
2. Livestock numbers and distribution
3. Cattle
4. Sheep and goats
5. Research and development activities
6. Selected bibliography

1. Background

The United Republic of Cameroon lies on the west coast of Africa, with Nigeria to the west, Chad and Central African Republic to the east and Congo, Gabon and Equatorial Guinea to the south. The country is divided into seven provinces, with its capital at Yaoundé. Northwest and Southwest Provinces comprise the English-speaking former West Cameroon, while the other five provinces comprise the French-speaking former East Cameroon. Each province is divided into several departments, which are sub-divided into arrondissements and further into districts. The administrative boundaries are shown in Figure 1.

The Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries includes a Direction of Veterinary Services and a Direction of Animal Production and has offices at the provincial and departmental levels. North Province is divided into two Secteurs Provinciaux d'Elevage, North Livestock Sector, with headquarters at Maroua, and Centre Livestock Sector, with headquarters at Ngaoundéré, which includes the Adamawa Plateau. This division has been made because this province accounts for 2.2 million cattle, or 75% of the national herd.

Basic data for the country as a whole are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Background data for Cameroon.

Area

475 000 km²

Latitude

2°-13° N

Longitude

9°-16° E

Population


number

7 600 2000


density

16/km²

Livestock numbers


cattle

2 917 000


sheep and goats

3 653 000

Sources: For population, OAU, 1978; for livestock numbers, Cameroon, Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries, 1977.

Figure 1. Administrative divisions and location of research centres and development

The southern part of the country has a forest climate with two rainy seasons, from March to June and from August to November. The annual rainfall is between 1 500 and 4 000 mm. Moving north, the climate changes to Guinean, then Sahelo-Sudanian and to Sahelian in the extreme north. There is one rainy season from April to October in the Guinean zone, becoming shorter in the north - from May to October in the Sahelo-Sudanian zone and from June to September in the Sahelian zone. Annual rainfall is 1 400 to 1 700 mm in the Guinean zone, 800 to 1-400 mm in the Sahelo-Sudanian zone and around 600 in the Sahelian zone.

According to the OAU/STRC tsetse distribution map (1977), tsetse is widespread throughout the country except in the area north of Garoua and in certain high-altitude areas on the Adamawa Plateau and in the west and southwest. Figure 2 shows the approximate boundaries of the infested areas.

G. tachinoides and G. morsitans are found on the Adamawa Plateau just to the north, while G. tachinoides is found further north in the valley of the Benoue River and its tributaries and in parts of the Logone River valley. G. fusca, G. fuscipes and G. palpalis are chiefly found south of the Adamawa Plateau, while G. tabaniformis, G. nigrofusca, G. pallicera and G. caliginea are found in the forest zone.

The Adamawa Plateau, at over 1 000 m, used to be considered free of tsetse, but in feet is heavily infested with G. morsitans submorsitans (Boutrais, 1974; Eyidi, 1971). The OAU/STRC map indicates that more than half of the plateau is infested. For this reason, Fulani and Mbororo Zebu herds have been removed from vast areas of pasture, particularly in the northwestern part of the plateau. A special tsetse eradication campaign was initiated in 1976/77 in this area as part of the national livestock development project (Banser, 1977).

A number of eradication campaigns have also been undertaken against G. tachinoides in North Livestock Sector. These campaigns have been carried out in the Benoué, Logone and Moyokebbi valleys and towards the Nigerian border around Mayotiel (Eyidi, 1971; Gruvel, Fernagut and Simeon, 1970; Gruvel, Troncy and Tibayrenc, 1970).

2. Livestock numbers and distribution

Official estimates of the livestock population in the seven provinces are given in Table 2 for 1977.

2.1 CATTLE

Table 2 shows that 75.4% of the national herd is found in North Province. Another 16.6% is found in West and Northwest Provinces, which include high-altitude pasture lands extending to the Adamaoua Plateau. The cattle in these provinces, which together constitute 92% of the national herd, are generally Fulani or Mbororo Zebu kept in the areas which are free of tsetse or only lightly infested. In the highland areas, such as the Manengouba Mountains near Nkongsambia, settled Zebu herds can be found as far south as the fifth parallel. Dry-season transhumance is practised in Centre South and East Provinces, which account for 8% of the national herd. There are also a few cattle in relatively settled herds just south of the Adamawa Plateau, near Yoko in Centre South Province and near Garoua-Boulai in East Province. These are also Zebu cattle, often of the Mbororo breed.

Table 2. Livestock numbers and distribution in 1977.

Provinces and Capitals


Cattle

Sheep & Goats

Number

% of National Total

Estimated Humpless Cattle Population

Number

% of National Total

North


North Livestock







Sector (Maroua)

1 100 000

37.7

5 000-6 000a

1 500 000

41.2


Centre Livestock







Sector (Ngaoundéré)

1 100 000

37.7

negligible

350 000

9.6

West (Bafoussam)

126 000

4.3

< 1 000b

750 000

20.5

Northwest (Bamenda)

360 000

12.3

< 1 000b

200 000

5.5

Southwest (Buea)

5 000

0.2

< 1 000b

20 000

0.3

Littoral (Douala)

250



200 000

5.5

Centre South (Yaoundé)

70 000

2.4

< 1 000c

500 000

13.7

East (Bertoua)

156 000

5.4

< 1 000c

133 400

3.7

Total

2 917 250

100.0

6 000-8 000

3 653 400

100.0

a. Found in two pockets maintained by the Kapsiki and Doayo people.
b. Bakosi and Muturu in two isolated pockets and a few N'Dama.
c. A few N'Dama.

Source: Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries.

The distribution of cattle in Cameroon thus appears paradoxical: although more than 80% of the country seems to be infested with tsetse, more than 99% of the national herd is made up of non-trypanotolerant Zebu cattle.

A number of factors at least partly explain the presence of Zebu cattle in the tsetse-infested areas. For one thing, in some areas the tsetse challenge is slight and only seasonal. Cameroon has a high-altitude region, called the Cameroon Dorsal, which starts with Mount Cameroon in the southwest and extends to the Adamawa Plateau. These highland areas have a very light tsetse infestation or none at all, and they serve as a seasonal retreat for transhumant Zebu herds, allowing them to take advantage of pastures at other times which are only seasonally infested. In addition, Zebu cattle are given chemo-prophylactic treatment for trypanosomiasis on a large scale in Cameroon, which allows them to survive in lightly infested areas. Finally, the government has carried out intensive tsetse eradication programmes around the country, most recently in Adamawa.

Figure 2. Cattle numbers and breed distribution.

These factors explain, at least in part, how the Zebu herds in Cameroon are able to survive. They do not indicate why so little use has been made of the trypanotolerant breeds.

2.2 SHEEP AND GOATS

Table 2 shows that 50.8% of the sheep and goats in Cameroon are found in North Province and another 26% in West and Northwest Provinces. Southwest, Littoral, Centre South and East Provinces, all of which are infested with tsetse, account for 853 400 sheep and goats, or 23.2% of the national flock, with 500 000 of these in Centre South Province

No figures are available by species, but Vallerand and Branckaert (1975) suggest there are three goats for every two sheep in Cameroon. It is possible to estimate the sheep and goat populations in the four southern provinces using this formula, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Estimated sheep and goat populations in the southern provinces.

Province

Sheep

Goats

Centre South

200 000

300 000

Littoral

80 000

120 000

East

80 000

120 000

Southwest

8 000

12 000

Source: Compiled by the authors.

3. Cattle

3.1 BREED DESCRIPTION

There are very few trypanotolerant cattle in Cameroon and very little information on their numbers or characters. Five groups were identified during the country visit, as shown in Figure 2. There are Kapsiki, or Kirdi, cattle in very localized herds in North Province around Mokolo, There are also very localized herds of Doayo, or Namshi, cattle in North Province towards Poli. In Southwest Province there are localized herds of Bakosi cattle around Bangem and 'Muturu' cattle towards Buea and Victoria. Finally, small numbers of N'Dama have been introduced in Cameroon and are widely scattered in several provinces.

3.1.1 Kapsiki or Kirdi

The Kapsiki people keep humpless cattle in the Mandara Hills (1 000 m) along the Nigerian border in Margui-Wandala Department of North Province, between Mokolo and Bourrah. Apparently there are very few herds on the Nigerian side of the border. This area is a fairly uneven plateau where tsetse infestation is likely to be very light, if it exists at all.

The Kapsiki are classified among the 'Kirdi', a general term used by the Fulani for non-Moslem pagans. They are traditionally cattle owners, and cattle play an important role in their customs and ceremonies.

The cattle they keep are a humpless type, similar to other Savanna West African Shorthorn populations such as the Baoulé and Ghana Shorthorn. They are rather small, measuring 1.00 to 1.10 m at withers, with horns of medium length (20 to 40 em) and usually a black or black-and-white coat (see Figure 3.41, volume I). Transhumant Zebu herds are also brought into the area during the dry season, and some Zebu or crossbred bulls were seen with Kapsiki herds during the field visits. Traces of crossbreeding can be seen, such as the relatively long horns on some animals.

The Director of North Livestock Sector has estimated the number of cattle in the Mandara Hills as follows (personal communication):


1975-76

1976-77

1977-78

Mokolo area

3 042

5 036

7 186

Bourrah area

1 056

1 046

1 241

Total

4 098

6 082

8 427

These herds are stable or even expanding, but they include an increasing number of Zebus. The number of relatively pure Kapsiki is probably around 3 000.

3.1.1.1 Performance Traits. No precise records of performance are available, but the Kapsiki are known to be fairly prolific, but not early maturing. Their longevity is excellent. Measurements were made of ten animals at Roumsiki, in the heart of the Kapsiki area, as presented in Table 4.

Nothing is known about the trypanotolerance of these cattle as the area where they are found is apparently free of tsetse.

3.1.1.2 Management. Individual households generally own only five to ten cattle or sometimes fewer. These are brought together in village herds, tended by children. They are herded together in the grazing areas during the day and penned together at night, or sent back to the households to be penned in their compounds. They are never milked and have only recently started to be used as draught animals.

Table 4. Measurements of adult Kapsiki cattle.


6 Adult Cows

4 Adult Bulls and Oxen

Height at withers (cm)

100-109

105-110

Heart girth (cm)

130-145

148-160

Scapulo-ischial length (cm)

115-132

135-145

Estimated weight (kg)

170

200

Source: Information from country visit.

Cattle play an important role in traditional Kapsiki society. They are not exploited commercially, hut are used for dowries and slaughtered for special feasts. At least one animal must be slaughtered for a funeral, and the hide used to wrap the body.

Other so-called Kirdi groups in northern Cameroon, such as the Mafa or Meri, kept humpless cattle in the past. These animals have completely disappeared for various reasons, such as population movements towards the mountains, lack of grazing land, or absorption by other breeds. These groups still sometimes keep a 'boeuf de case', one animal slaughtered every four years at Mere on special occasions, but this tends to be a Zebu bought from the Fulani.

3.1.2 Doayo (or Namshi)

The Doayo people, pejoratively called Namshi (or Namji) by the Fulani, keep humpless cattle in a small area on the northwestern foothills (500 to 900 m) of Poli Mountain, in Bénoué in Garoua Department of North Province. This area is infested with tsetse, probably the G. morsitans or G. tachinoides species. The people are traditional cattle keepers, and cattle play an important role in their social and cultural life.

The appearance of the Doayo varies widely, but observation of several typical herds in the field indicates that they should be classified as a Savanna West African Shorthorn breed, such as the Baoulé. Epstein's (1971) classification of the Doayo as a longhorn breed cannot be sustained. These are small cattle, measuring only 97 to 110 em at withers, with mainly uniform black, black-and-white or spotted black coats, though brown or spotted brown coats also occur (see Figure 3.42, volume 1). Crossbreeding with Zebu has been fairly extensive and a number of N'Dama have also been introduced into the area for crossbreeding.

3.1.2.1 Performance Traits. Doayo cattle appear to be prolific, early maturing and of excellent longevity. Two herds were studied for some time at Poli and at Finyole, and first calving was found to be at around three years with a calving interval of about one year. Average measurements for ten typical animals are given in Table 5.

Table 5. Measurements of adult Doayo cattle.


6 Cows

4 Oxen

Height at withers (cm)

97-106

100-110

Heart girth (cm)

125-140

140-159

Scapulo-ischial length (cm)

110-130

125-145

Estimated weight (kg)

150

180-210

Source: Information from country visit.

3.1.2.2 Management. The animals belonging to each household are herded together by herdsmen from the village. They are never milked, and the use of draught oxen has only recently been introduced.

The cattle are not exploited commercially, but are kept for social and religious purposes. Several animals are usually slaughtered at a funeral, depending on the importance of the deceased, and the skins are used to wrap the body.

Doayo cattle are without doubt trypanotolerant. They maintain condition well during the dry season, but tradition prevents the expansion of the herds. The population is stable or decreasing, and the breed is increasingly threatened by crossbreeding.

3.1.3 Bakosi

Information on Bakosi cattle was collected either during the country visit or has been drawn from Ejédépang-Kogé (1978). The Bakosi people are found in southwestern Cameroon, west of Nkongsamba On the border between Southwest and Littoral Provinces. Their cattle-rearing areas, however, seem to he limited to the northeastern part of their territory, on the western slopes of Mount Manangouba in the Bangem Arrondissement of Southwest Province. It is a high-altitude area with a very humid climate, including both forest and savanna vegetation. The level of tsetse infestation is not fully known, but there are probably no tsetse in the higher-altitude areas and varying degrees of infestation in the forests.

The Bakosi people are traditionally cattle keepers. According to legend, Ngoe, the ancestor of the Bakosi, found cattle and began keeping them in herds. The Bakosi cattle are said to be descendants of the forest antelope or of a cross between the antelope and the dwarf forest buffalo.

The Bakosi cattle are of the shorthorn type, about 110 cm at withers like the Kapsiki. Coats vary from black to white, but more than half are brown or black (see Figure 3.43, volume 1). There are more Mhororo Zebu in this area than there are humpless cattle, and crossbreeding is fairly common.

There are no official estimates of the size of the Bakosi cattle population, hut most sources suggest that there are several hundred. Ejédépang-Kogé (1978) counted 60 cows, which is obviously a minimum. This breed is disappearing, due to the increasing cultivation of commercial crops such as coffee. The same situation has been observed among cattle of neighbouring groups such as the Bamiléké.

The Bakosi cattle seem to be becoming smaller and less fertile, due to isolation and inbreeding. The calving interval is from 18 to 24 months.

These cattle are neither herded nor milked. One animal may have several owners, with each person said to own one or more legs.

3.1.4 'Muturu' of Cameroon

There are a few 'Muturu' cattle in Cameroon, probably a few hundred at the most, at the foot of Mount Cameroon between Buea and Victoria in Southwest Province. The local name for this breed is 'Bakweri', or they may be called 'Muturu' as in Nigeria. It is not clear whether these animals have been in the area for some time or whether they were introduced from Nigeria fairly recently.

The 'Muturu' se-em to be typical Dwarf West African Shorthorn. Adult cows measure 95 to 100 cm at withers, and the horns are short or sometimes rudimentary (see Figure 3.39, volume 1). They are sometimes kept on palm plantations where they graze a legume which grows under the palm trees, kudzu or Pueraria phaseolides.

3.1.5 N'Dama

A few N'Dama were introduced into Cameroon in 1960, and the herd was multiplied at Kounden Station in the Bamoun area of Foumban Department, West Province. This station is free of tsetse, and the N'Dama in Cameroon have generally been distributed in tsetse-free zones.

There are probably fewer than 1 000 N'Dama in all, scattered around the country on government stations and farms, on missions and on private farms. Small numbers are found in Poli and Mbé in North Province, in Nkolbisson, Obala and Ntui in Centre South Province and in Batouri and Bétare in East Province.

Efforts to introduce N'Dama cattle in Cameroon have never been followed up: as of the end of 1977, there were no development programmes in the country including an N'Dama component. According to the Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries, the multiplication herd at Kounden Station and most of the settled herds throughout the country have disappared.

3.2 DISEASE

There is very little precise information about diseases among humpless cattle in Cameroon because the efforts of the Veterinary Services are aimed exclusively at the Zebu herds, which are more numerous and which require a variety of veterinary treatments. The humpless cattle seem to be well adapted to their environment and resistant to most diseases. The only treatment they seem to have received is vaccinations over the past few years. In the Doayo area, there are traditional accounts of periodic epidemics, probably of rinderpest or contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), and most animals now seem to be vaccinated against these diseases. Trypanosomiasis does not seem to be a serious problem.

4. Sheep and goats

4.1 BREED DESCRIPTION

The sheep and goats of southern Cameroon seem to be of the typical Djallonké or West African Dwarf type. The sheep on the Adamawa Plateau are of this type, but tend to be larger, while in the extreme north the sheep are intermediate between the Djallonké and the Sahelian types.

Sheep and goats are found throughout the country, particularly in the villages of the humid forest areas in the south. They seem to be very well adapted to diverse ecological conditions, from the humid forests to the high-altitude zones.

4.1.1 Sheep

The West African Dwarf sheep in Cameroon vary widely in appearance. Epstein (1971) describes three types, one with a tan coat and black belly, as well as the typical black and black-and-white. In fact, there is only one type of sheep in southern Cameroon, but with variable coat colour. Mason carried out a survey of 397 sheep in Centre South Province in 1977, and reported coat colours as shown in Table 6.

4.1.1.1 Performance Traits. Vallerand and Branckaert (1975) report performance traits of sheep at Nkolbisson Station in Centre South Province near Yaoundé. Among 85 ewes, the average age at first lambing was 17 months from 1966 to 1977 and prolificacy was 117% from 1966 to 1974. The lambing interval averaged 8 months, not including 10 to 11% of the intervals which were over 13 months.

Table 6. Coat colours of sheep in Centre South Province.

Colour

Number

% of Total

Black

150

37.8

Black-and-white

131

33.0

White

18

4.5

Tan with black belly

41

10.3

Tan with black belly and white patches

15

3.8

Other tricolours

6

1.5

Tan

2

0.5

Tan-and-white

25

6.3

Light tan-and-white

7

1.8

Tan-and-black

2

0.5

Total

397

100.0

Source: Information from country visit.

Birth weights averaged 2.3 kg for female single births and 2.5 for males. Among twins, the birth weights averaged 1.8 kg for females and 2.0 for males. Daily weight gains from birth to 30 days averaged 115 g for single births and 85 g for twins at the station from 1965 to 1969, compared with an average of 80 g on small farms. From 1970 to 1973, daily weight gains at the station averaged 134 g for single births and 112 g for twins. Daily weight gains from 30 to 150 days at the station with supplementary feeding were 57 to 79 g for females and 64 to 85 g for males, compared with 45 g for females and 52 g for males on small farms. The rate of weight gain at the station depended on the type of concentrates fed, as did the age at which the animals reached 20 kg. This varied from 8.5 to 10.9 months for females and from 7.3 to 9.6 months for males. Slaughter weights varied from 18 to 28 kg and dressing out percentages (hot carcass) from 44.5 to 53.5%.

4.1.1.2 Index of Productivity. Table 7 summarizes estimates of the major production traits required to build up a productivity index based on the total weight of five-month-old lamb produced per 10 kg of ewe maintained per year. This productivity index has been derived for production under station conditions in a very low tsetse challenge area.

4.1.2 Goats

According to Branckaert and Vallerand (1969), adult goats in Cameroon average 45 cm height at withers and weights average 18 kg for females and 20 kg for males. They are generally black or black-and-white.

Table 7. Sheep productivity estimates.

Parameter

Production Environment Station/very low challenge

Ewe viability (%)

95a

Lambing percentage

175

Lamb viability to one year (%)

80

Lamb weight at five months (kg)

13

Productivity indexb per ewe per year (kg)

18.7

Ewe weight (kg)

25

Productivity indexb per 10 kg ewe maintained per year (kg)

7.5

a. Estimate.
b. Total weight of five-month-old lamb produced.
Source: Information from country visit.

4.2 DISEASE

Respiratory diseases, toxicosis and maternal agalactia are the principal causes of death among sheep and goats in Cameroon, according to Vallerand and Branckaert (1975).

4.3 MANAGEMENT AND FLOCK COMPOSITION

The typical composition of sheep flocks in southern Cameroon kept under village conditions is 40% adult ewes, 4% adult rams, 30% lambs under eight months and 26% lambs over eight months (Vallerand and Branckaert, 1975). Sheep and goats generally roam freely near the village during the day, returning at night when they are sometimes kept in a special hut. Sheep are slaughtered on special occasions and are sometimes given away or sold. According to Vallerand and Branckaert (1975), 35% of the sheep offtake is consumed at home, 25% is given to visitors, 20% is sold and another 20% is given as dowries.

5. Research and development activities

5.1 RESEARCH

Three research stations in Cameroon are described in Table 8. Most of the research work carried out in the country is on non-trypanotolerant livestock, however.

Table 8. Research centres.

Name

Wakwa Station (B. P. 65, Ngaoundéré)

Bambui Station

Nkolbisson Farm

Location (and reference in Figure 1)

Ngaoundéré 1

Northwest of Pamenda 2

Yaoundé 3

Organization responsible

Headquarters of the Institut de Recherche Zootechnique (IRZ) under the Office Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique (ONAREST)

IRZ

Département de Zootechnie of the Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agriculture, Yaoundé University

Breeds and numbers

About 1 800 cattle

About 500 cattle

50 cattle: 20 N'Dama and 10 Brown Swiss cows. About 40 ewes (some crosses with Romanov).

Objectives

Selection of Fulani Zebu of the Adamawa type. Crossbreeding Brahman x Fulani Zebu to produce Wakwa. Milking herds composed of Holstein and various crossbreeds. Research on pasture and forage crops.

Meat programme with Zebus. Dairy herds of Holstein and Jersey. Research on pasture land.

This farm is mainly a demonstration farm for the students of ENSA. Programmes are actually very limited due to the lack of space. The farm could be moved to Dschang (Western Province), which would allow development of a milk hard in particular.

External aid

France



5.2 DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS

The main livestock development project is being carried out by the Société de Développement des Productions Animales (SODEPA) which comes under the Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries. The headquarters are at Yaoundé (B. P. 1410), shown by 4 in Figure 1.

This project involves the development of three ranches and construction of two abbatoirs. Traditional farmers are also given credit and other assistance and training is carried out. The project is not especially concerned with the trypanotolerant breeds, but includes a special mission concerned with tsetse eradication. Assistance is provided by the World Bank and GTZ.

A Study of the Development of Livestock in the North Cameroon was carried out in 197576, with assistance from USAID and FAO, covering North Province except Adamawa. This study included a tsetse eradication component, but no work was carried out on trypanotolerant cattle.

Finally, a cattle production scheme is projected in the SOCAPALM palm tree plantations at M' Bongo and Ezéka. A study of this project was carried out by SEDES (Tyc et. al., 1977).

6. Selected bibliography

Abdoulaye, M (1969). 'Bilan des cinq dernières années au Cameroun: Situation actuelle, perspective d'avenir'. In IEMVT. Colloque sur l'élevage. Fort Lamy, pp. 40-44.

Banser, J T (1977). 'Annual report of tsetse eradication component: Cameroon Livestock Development Project'. Project No. 983 CM. Ngaoundere, Special Mission for Tsetse Eradication, 15p.

Boutrais, J (1974). 'Les conditions naturelles de l'élevage sur le plateau de l'Adamaoua (Cameroun)'. Cahiers ORSTOM Ser. Sail Hum. 11 (2), pp. 145-198.

Branckaert, R (1968). 'Etude sommaire de l'élevage en République Fédérale du Cameroun: Situation actuelle, perspective d'avenir', Yaoundé, Ecole Supérieure d'Agriculture, 62p.

Branckaert, R and Ferguson, D S (1973). 'Investigation of the intensive feeding of Wakwa and N'Dama x Wakwa crosses utilizing dried brewers' grains in derived and Guinea savanna zone in Cameroon'. In IEMVT. Colloque embouche intensive des bovine en pays tropicaux. Dakar, pp. 151-158.

Branckaert, R and Vallerand, F (1969). 'Production de viande à partir des petite ruminants en Afrique centrale'. In IEMVT. Colloque sur l'élevage,. Fort Lamy, pp. 884-895.

Branckaert, R and Vallerand, F (1972). 'Utilisation des dréches de brasserie désséchées dans l'alimentation animale en régions équatoriales et tropicales'. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. 25, pp. 101-107.

Cameroon, Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries (1976). Proposition d'une étude préliminaire pour l'experimentation du grand élevage dans les zones humides des côtières du Cameroun. Rome, AGROTEC.

Cameroon, Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries (1977). Troisième conseil de l'élevage, et des pêches maritimes: Recommendations. Yaoundé.

Cameroon, Secrétariat d'Etat à L'Elevage, Cameroun Oriental (1962, 1963). Rapport annuel. Yaoundé.

Ejédépang-Kodé, S N (1978). 'Bakosi livestock'. Report prepared for UNEP/FAO Project on Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Yaoundé, 31p.

Eyidi, N (1971). 'Contrôle et prophylaxie des trypanosomiases au Cameroun Oriental'. Bull. Off. Int. Epiz. 76, pp. 291-299.

FAO (1971). Mission centrafrique: Rapport sur le secteur agricole en République Fédérale du Cameroun. DDA:MISC/71/3. Rome, 58p.

Ferguson, D S (1973). 'The potential for the stratification of the cattle industry in Cameroun and Central Africa'. In IEMVT. Colloque embouche intensive des bovine en pays tropicaux. Dakar, pp. 251-260.

Georges, M (1965). La culture attelée et la modernisation rurale dans le Nord Cameroun. Paris, BDPA, 362p.

Gruvel, J. Fernagut, R and Simeon, M (1970). 'Exécution d'une campagne de lutte continue contre les glossines au Nord Cameroun dans les vallées du Mayo-Kebbi et de la Bénoué'. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. 23, pp. 93-99.

Gruvel, J. Troncy, P M and Tihayrenc, R (1970). 'Contribution à la connaissance de la distribution des glossines au Nord Cameroun'. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. 23, pp. 83-91.

Lacrouts, M (1963). Report on the problems concerning cattle-raising and cattle and meat trade in the occidental Cameroun'. 86p.

Lacrouts, M and Sarniguet, J (1965). Le cheptel bovin du Cameroun: Exploitation commercialisation, perspectives d'avenir. Volumes 1 and 2. Paris, Ministère de la Coopération, 404p.

Rageau, J and Adam, J P (1953). 'Répartition des glossines au Cameroun francais'. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays trop. 6, pp. 73-76.

Tyc, J. Hadji-Thomas, A and Quesnel, M (1977). Projet d'élevage bovin sur les plantations SOCAPALM de M'Bongo et Ezéka. Paris, SEDES, 41p.

USAID/FAC and Cameroon, Ministry of Animal Breeding and Industries (1974). 'Terms of reference for the design of an integrated livestock production project for Northern Cameroun (excluding Adamaoua)'. Yaoundé, 108p.

Vallerand, F and Branckaert, R (1975). 'La race ovine Djallonké au Cameroun: Potentialités zootechniques, conditions d'élevage, avenir'. Rev. Elev. Med. Vet. Pays Trop. 28, pp. 423-518.

World Bank (1974). Appraisal of the livestock Development Project, Cameroun. Report No. 295-CM. Washington, D.C.


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