Calliandra calothyrsus

Scientific name

Calliandra calothyrsus Meissner

Common name

In the native range: cabello de angel ("angel’s hair"), barbe sol ("the sun’s beard")

Indonesia: calliandra merah ("red calliandra")

Origin

Guatemala, Central America

Botany

Family: Mimosoideae

Multi-stemmed shrub reaches an height of 4 – 6 m, but in favourite conditions can Calliandra calothyrsus reaches a height of 10 – 12 m (Satjapradja and Sukandi, 1981; NTAF, 1988). The leaves divided into many straight leaftes and can get up to 20 cm long and 15 cm wide, which folds againts the stem at night. The flowers are purlish red flowers and mature over months. The pods take 2- 4 month to develop. In mature stage are the pods about 14 cm long and 2 cm wide, which are straight, medium brown and contain 8 – 12 ovules, which are up to 8 mm long (Winrock International, 1999).

Ecology

Calliandra calothyrsus performes best in lower altitudes (< 1500 m), but can grow up to 2000 m (Satjapradja and Sukandi, 1981; NTAF, 1988). The optimum amount of rain is between 2000 and 4000 mm, but it can grow in areas with much less rain (NTAF, 1988). It occurs in areas with 2 – 4 month dry season (<50mm/month rainfall), but it has been found in areas with dry seasons f up to 6 month.. It has been observed that lower mean annual temperatures of 20 ºC has a negative effect on Calliandra calothyrsus. It can grow in many different kind of soils, including acids soils (to pH 5.0), but does not tolerate water logging. It is not particulate tolerant of shade (Winrock International, 1999).

 

Major uses and functions

Honeyproduction (Satjapradja and Sukandi, 1981), fuelwood, land reclamation, green manure, animal fodder, pulpwood (Winrock International, 1999).

Feeding value

The chemical composition of Calliandra calothyrsus is shown in table 1. The tannin content in Calliandra calothyrsus is realtively hihg compared to other legume trees and some results are therefore listed in table 2.

Tabel 1. is the chemical composition of leaves, green pods, seeds and small stem shown from Calliandra calothyrsus.

Reference

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

10

10

6

Sample

leaves

green pods

seeds

stem

(<8 mm )

 

Mean

SD

     

OM

938

30

891

863

968

NDF

418

82

707

259

635

ADF

235

51

523

197

494

Hemicellulose

128

     

141

ADF-lignin

102

66

     

Lignin

150

       

N

36

5

17.9

36.3

29.1

ADF-N

12

6

     

NDF-N

29

1

     

total fat

9

       

P

2

       

S

2

       

Amino acids (g/ 16 g N)

         

Aspartic acids

11

4

10.0

12.7

8.7

Threonine

4

1

3.8

7.2

2.7

Serine

5

0

4.6

7.9

4.4

Glutamic acid

12

7

8.5

15.6

5.1

Proline

9

       

Glycine

5

2

2.1

3.6

3.3

Alanine

5

1

3.8

5.0

3.1

Valine

6

1

5.1

5.8

4.3

Isoleucine

4

1

3.9

4.7

2.6

Leucine

7

2

6.7

9.0

4.2

Tyrosine

4

1

2.7

4.6

1.8

Phenylalanine

5

1

6.6

5.9

2.6

Histidine

2

1

1.6

3.5

1.5

Lysine

6

2

3.9

8.2

3.5

Arginine

6

2

4.0

6.7

3.0

Cystine

1

0

1.0

1.6

0.8

Methionine

1

1

1.0

1.5

1.1

1) Ahn et al. 1989 2) Kamatali et al., 1992 3) Kaitho et al., 1993 4) Dzowela et al., 1995 5) Perez-Maldonado et al. 1996 6) Salawu et al., 1997 7) Nherera et al. 1998 8) Maasdorp et al. 1999 9) Merkel et al., 1999a 10) Salawu et al. 1999

Table 2. Total phenolic,hydrolysable and condensed tannins in Calliandra calothyrsus masured in different studies.

Sample description

leaves and small twigs

Reference

Protein precipitating capacity (mm g-1 DM)

9.6

6

Total phenolics, g kg-1 DM

181.8

1

Hydrolysable tannin, g kg-1 DM

68

2

Condensed tannins:

   

Free (butanol - HCl), g kg-1 DM

15.4 - 47.1

1, 4

Free (vanillin - HCl), g kg-1 DM

8.4 – 127

1, 2, 3, 4, 5

Protein-bound, g kg-1 DM

12.2

4

Fibre-bound, g kg-1 DM

15.7

4

1) Ahn et al. (1989) 2) Kaitho et al.(1993) 3) Dzowela et al. (1995) 4) Perez-Maldonado and Norton (1996) 5) Salawu et al. (1997) 6) Maasdorp et al. (1999).

Other studies, which have measured condensed tannins in calliandra are Merkel et al.(1999a), Kamatali et al. (1992), and Nherera et al. (1998).

The in sacco (24 hours) N degradation for Calliandra calothyrsus has been found to be only 35.9 % (freeze dried) and 46.9% (oven dried). The low N degradation has been associated with the high total condensed tannin content found in Calliandra calothyrsus, which can bind to protein from the feed. Only a smaller portion (29%) of the protein that bypasses has been found to be utilised by the animal (Perez-Maldonado and Norton, 1994). This has also been shown by a low apparent N digestibility (ADN). With an inclusion of about 30 % in the diet did Robertson (1988, cited by Shelton et al., 1996), Waterfall (1993, cited by Shelton et al., 1996) and Nherera et al. (1998) find an ADN of 18.3 %, 31.5 % and 56.0%, respectively, which is low but indicates also a high variability. Feeding Calliandra calothyrsus ad libitum resulted in an ADN of only 13.0% (Waterfall, 1993, cited by Shelton et al., 1996).

The dry matter digestibility (in sacco) has also been found to be very low for Calliandra calothyrsus, where Ahn et al. (1989) found a digestibility of 52.7 % for freeze dried sample and 45.9 % for oven dried samples. Similar low values ( 41 - 55.0%) were found by Salawu et al. (1997), Merkel et al. (1999a) and Robertson (1988 cited by Shelton et al., 1996).

Drying of Calliandra calothyrsus was shown to have a negative effect on the voluntary feed intake, which was associated with lower in sacco digestibility found. However, there have not been found any problems with acceptability, when fed as a supplement (30 – 40%). Drying also had a negative effect on the productivity, as can be seen in table 3.

Table 3. Organic matter intake (per unit metabloic weigh), organic matter digestibility (calliandra), nitrogen digestibility (calliandra), liveweight gain, and wool production in sheep fed different mixtures of buffelgrass hay and calliandra (Ibrahim, 1994 cited by Palmer and Ibrahim, 1996)

   

Calliandra digestibility (%)

   

% Calliandra calothyrsus

OM intake

(g DM/kg W0.75)

OM

N

Liveweight gain

Wool production

0

38a

   

- 27a

35a

16 (F)

45b

58

51

2ab

53ab

28 (F)

48bc

63

62

39cd

76cd

35 (F)

54c

62

55

52d

106d

27 (W)

51bc

59

57

25bc

69bc

Means within colums with different letters differ significantly (p<0.05)

Abbrevation: F= given fresh (% on DM basis), W= given wilted (% on DM basis)

Even though Calliandra calothyrsus has been judged as a fodder tree with a low fodder value, due to it’s low digestibility and high phenol content have there also been found some positiv effects on the productivity.

The growth rate of lambs fed air dried Calliandra calothyrsus (18.2 g DM/ W0.75) and maize stover ad libitum was 44.2 g per day and higher compared to lambs supplemented with L. esculenta, L. diversifolia and L. pallida (Nherera et al., 1998).

An experiment in North Queensland with a stocking rate of five steers per hectar grazing Calliandra calothyrsus and Brachiarira decumbens found a liveweigth gain of 0.9 kg/head/day. From this trial it was concluded that Calliandra calothyrsus has a potential as a component in grazing systems (Palmer and Ibrahim, 1996).

In Kenya has Calliandra calothyrsus been fed to lactating cows in either addition or as a replacement for commercial concentrates (dairy meal). Three kg of fresh leaves and edible stems (~1 kg DM) of Calliandra calothyrsus could replace about one kg dairy meal and still give the same milk yield with a crude protein content of 16%. The Calliandra calothyrsus suppelment furthermore increased the butterfat content of about 10 % (Paterson et al., 1996). In another study there was found that Calliandra calothrysus only could replace 20 % of coconut oil meal in concentrate rations for ruminants fed a low quality roughage such as rice straw (Perera and Perera, 1996).

Adding polyethylene glycol (PEG) to Calliandra calothyrsus gave no positive effect resluted in terms ogf milk production, where the Calliandra calothyrsus supplemented diet gave the same results as the control, which was grass hay while supplementation of L. leucocephala and A. boliviana (Maasdorp et al., 1999).

General recommendation on feeding: Calliandra should preferably be offered fresh and only make 30 – 40 % of the diet, due to its low digestibility caused by condensed tannins.

 

Reference used in the text above

Ahn, J. H., Robertson, B. M., Elliot, R., Gutteridge, R. C., Ford, C. W. (1989). Quality assessment of tropical browse legumes: tannin content and protein degradation. Animal Feed Science and Technology 27, pp. 147 – 156.

Dzowela, B. H., Hove, L., Topps, J. H., Mafongoya, P. L. (1995). Nutritional and anti-nutritional characters and rumen degradability of dry matter and nitrogen for some multipurpose tree species with potential for agroforestry in Zimbabwe. Animal Feed Science Technology 55, 207 – 214.

Kaitho, R. J., Tamminga, S. and Bruchem, J. (1993). Rumen degradation and in vivo digestibility of dried Calliandra calothyrsus leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 43, pp. 19 – 30.


Kamatali, P., Teller, E., Vanbelle, M., Collignon, G. and Foulon, M. (1992). In situ degradability of organic matter, crude protein and cell wall of various tree forages. Animal Production 55, pp. 29 – 34.

Maasdrop, B. V., Muchenje, V., Titterton, M. (1999). Palatability and effect on dairy cow milk yield of dried fodder from the forage trees Acacia boliviana, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala. Animal Feed Science and Technology 77, 49 – 59.

Merkel, R. C., Pond, K. R., Burns, J. C., Fisher, D. S. (1999a). Intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of three tropical tree leguems I. As sole feeds compared to Asystasia intrusa and Brachiaria brizantha. Animal Feed Science and Technology 82, pp. 91 – 106.

NFTA (Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association) (1988). Calliandra calothyrsus – an indonesian favorite goes pan-tropic. A periodic publication of NFTA.

Nherera, F. V., Ndlovu, L. R. and Dzowela, B. H. (1998). Utilisation of Leucaena diversifolia, Leucaena esculenta, Leucaena pallida and Calliandra calothyrsus as nitrogen supplements for growing goats fed maize stover. Animal Feed Science and Technology 74, pp. 15 – 28.

Palmer, B. and Ibrahim, T. M. (1996). Calliandra calothyrsus forage for tropics – a current assessment. ). In: Evans, D.O. (eds.) Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (USA), International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra, Bogor (Indonesia), 23-27 Jan 1996 / Winrock International Inst. for Agricultural Development, Morrilton, AR (USA); Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta (Indonesia). Agency for Forestry Research and Development; Overseas Development Administration, London (United Kingdom)., pp. 251 – 259.

Paterson, R. T., Roothaert, R. L., Nyaata, O. Z., Akyeampong, E. and Hove, L. (1996). Experience with Calliandra calothyrsus as a feed for livestock in Africa. In: Evans, D.O. (eds.) Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (USA), International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra, Bogor (Indonesia), 23-27 Jan 1996 / Winrock International Inst. for Agricultural Development, Morrilton, AR (USA); Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta (Indonesia). Agency for Forestry Research and Development; Overseas Development Administration, London (United Kingdom)., pp. 195 - 209.

Perera, A. N. F. and Perera, E. R. K. (1996). Use of Calliandra calothyrsus leaf meal as a substitute for coconut oil meal for ruminants In: Evans, D.O. (eds.) Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (USA), International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra, Bogor (Indonesia), 23-27 Jan 1996 / Winrock International Inst. for Agricultural Development, Morrilton, AR (USA); Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta (Indonesia). Agency for Forestry Research and Development; Overseas Development Administration, London (United Kingdom)., pp. 245 – 250.


Perez-Maldonado, R. A. and Norton, B. W. (1996). The effects of condensed tannins from Desmodium intortum and Calliandra calothyrsus on protein and carbohydrate digestion in sheep and goats. British Journal of Nutrition 76, pp. 515 – 533.

Salawu, M. B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C. S. and Roothaert, R. L. (1999). Composition and degradability of different fractions of Calliandra leaves, pods and seeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology 77, pp. 181 – 199.

Salawu, M. B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C. S., Maasdorp, B. (1997). Assessment of the nutritive value of Calliandra calothyrsus: its chemical composition and the influence of tannins, pipecolic acid and polyethylene glycol on in vitro organic matter digestibility. Animal Feed Science and Technology 69, pp. 207 – 217.

Satjapradja, O. and Sukandi, T. (1981). Agroforestry with red Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus). Ind. Agric. Res. Dev. J. Vol. 3 (3), pp. 85 – 88.

Shelton, H. M., Norton, B. W., Mullen, B. F., Gutteridge, R. C. and Dart, P. J. (1996). Utilization and nutritive value of Calliandra calothyrsus for forage: A review of research at the University of Queensland. ). In: Evans, D.O. (eds.) Forest, Farm and Community Tree Research Reports (USA), International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra, Bogor (Indonesia), 23-27 Jan 1996 / Winrock International Inst. for Agricultural Development, Morrilton, AR (USA); Ministry of Forestry, Jakarta (Indonesia). Agency for Forestry Research and Development; Overseas Development Administration, London (United Kingdom)., pp. 210 – 221.

Winrock International (1999).

http://www.winrock.org/forestry/factpub/FACTSH/C_calothyrsus.htm

 

 

Literature reviews on Calliandra calothyrsus

National Academy of Sciences (1980). Firewood Crops. Shrub and Tree Species for Energy Production. Report of an Ad Hoc panel of the Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation, Board on Science and Technology for International Development, Comission on International Relations. Washingtonm, USA. pp. 36 – 37.

Satjapradja, O. and Sukandi, T. (1981). Agroforestry with red Calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsus). Ind. Agric. Res. Dev. J. Vol. 3 (3), pp. 85 – 88.

NFTA (Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association) (1988). Calliandra calothyrsus – an indonesian favorite goes pan-tropic. A periodic publication of NFTA.

Evans, D.O. (ed) (1996). International Workshop on the Genus Calliandra. Proceedings in Bogor (Indonesia), 23-27 Jan 1996, Forest, Farm, and Community Tree Research Reports Special Issue. Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development. London (United Kingdom)., 268 p.

Powell, M. (ed) (1996). Calliandra calothyrsus production and use: a field manual. FACT Net, Winrock International, Morrilton, Arkansas, USA.; the Taiwan Forestry Research Institute; and the Council of Agriculture, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China, 62 p.

Duke, J. A. (1997). http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Calliandra_calothyrsus.html#Uses


Winrock International (1999). http://www.winrock.org/forestry/factpub/FACTSH/C_calothyrsus.htm

Other references which are including Calliandra calothyrsus

Balogun, R. O., Jones, R. J., Holmes, J. H. G. (1998). Diegestibility of some tropical browse species varying in tannin content. Animal Feed Science and Technology 76, pp. 77 – 88.

Dzowela, B. H., Hove, L., Maasdrop, B. V. and Mafongoya, P. L. (1997). Recent work on the establishment, production and utilization of multipurpose trees as a feed resource in Zimbabwe. Animal Feed Science Technology 69, pp. 1 – 15.

Jones, R. J., LeFeuvre, R. P., Playne, M. J. (1992). Losses of dry matter, nitrogen, minerals and fibre fractions from nylon bags containing Leucaena leucocephala and two Calliandra species in the rumen. Animal Feed Science and Technology 37 (3-4), pp. 297 – 307.

Maasdorp, B. V., Muchenje, V. and Titterton, M. (1999). Palatability and effect on dairy cow milk yield of dried fodder from the forage trees Acacia boliviana, Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala. Animal Feed Science and technology 77, pp. 49 – 59.

Masama, E., Topps, J. H., Ngongoni, N. T., Maasdrop, B. V. (1997). Effects of supplementation with foliage from the tree legumes Acacia angustissima¸ Cajanus cajan, Calliandra calthyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala on feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen metabolism of sheep given maize stover ad libitum. Animal Feed Science and Technology 69, pp. 233 – 240.

McSweeny, C. S., Palmer, B., Kennedy, P. M. and Krause, D. (1998). Effect of Calliandra tannins on rumen microbial function. Animal Production in Australia 22, pp. 289.

Merkel, R. C., Pond, K. R., Burns, J. C., Fisher, D. S. (1999b). Intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization of three tropical tree leguems II. As protein supplements. Animal Feed Science and Technology 82, pp. 107 – 120.

Onim, J. F. M., Otenio, K and Getz, W. (1991). Border effects on maize grain yields by leucaena, sesbania and calliandra in alley cropping system. In: SR-CRSP Resident Scientists in Kenya (eds.) Proceedings of the nineth small ruminant – CRSP scientific workshop. 27th and 28th February 1991, Ketri-Muguga, Kenya, pp. 95 – 101.

Palmer, B. and Schlink, A. C. (1992). The effect of drying on intake and rate of digestion of the shrub legume Calliandra calothyrsus. Tropical Grasslands 26, pp. 89 – 93.

Paterson, R. T., Kaiuki, I. W. and Roothaert, R. L. (1996). Calliandra for cows in Kenya. Agroforestry Today, pp. 20 – 21.

Salawu, M. B., Acamovic, T., Stewart, C. S., Hvelplund, T. and Weisbjerg, M. R. (1999). The disappearance of dry matter, nitrogen and amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract from Calliandra leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 79, 289 – 300.

Wood, C. D. and Plumb, V. E. (1995). Evaluation of assays for phenolic compounds on the basis of in vitro gas production by rumen micro-organisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology 56, pp. 195 – 206.