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Photo 5. Bare sands and fringing salt tolerant grasses in the great Makgadikgadi Pans in N Central Botswana. A large proportion of this landscape is bare open white sands that are occasionally flooded after heavy thundershowers. The pans are relic lake beds, and are also highly saline, so very little grows on the pans themselves. Certain grasses such as Odyssea paucinervis, and Sporobolus spicatus are able to colonize areas with drifting sands that lie above the seasonal flood level in fine sandy soils. Interestingly, where salt is being extracted commercially in the Pans, there is a change from a salt-water to a fresh-water regime. This change is accompanied by significant changes in plant species composition and biomass - from low to high species number and biomass.