Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles


Czech Republic

czechflag.gif (1510 bytes)

by

Josef Královec



1. Introduction
2. Soils and Topography
3. Climate and Agro-ecological Zones
4. Ruminant Livestock Production Systems
5. The Pasture Resource
6. Opportunities for Improvement of Fodder Resources
7. Research and Development Organizations and Personnel
8. References
9. Contacts

Appendix - species of registered grasses and legumes


1. INTRODUCTION

The Czech Republic, Czechia, lies in the very heart of Europe at the watershed of three seas, which has predestined it to take the role of a bridge between East und West. Its neighbours include not only the developed western countries, Germany to the west and Austria to the south, but also countries in process of transformation, i. e. Poland to the north and Slovakia to the east (see Figure 1).

The Czech Republic is the western part of former Czechoslovakia and consists of three historical countries: they are Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east and Silesia in the northeast. The area of the Czech Republic is 78 866 km2 (21st place in Europe) and it has a population of more than 10 million (12th place in Europe). According to the World Factbook the population in July 2006 was 10,235,455 with a growth rate of -0.06%.

czechfig1.jpg (39615 bytes)

Figure 1. Map of the Czech Republic
© Kartografie Praha

A third of the Czech territory (33 percent is occupied by forests and more than a half (54 percent) is agricultural. Table 1 gives an overview of changes in land use before and after the Velvet Revolution (November 1989). The year 1989 was the last year under socialistic conditions and the year 1993 saw the splitting of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The development has been characterized by a slight decline in arable land area and by a growing share of permanent grassland. It is a consequence of the state subsidy policy, which should influence the restructuring of Czech agriculture.

Table 1: Agricultural land use
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

 

in ‚000s of hectares

agricultural land 4,296 4,282 4,280 4,280
arable land 3,232 3,173 3,091 3,082

of which: cereals

1,670 1,607 1,696 1,647

oilseeds

110 270 294 409

potatoes

115 77 73 69

sugar beet

127 91 95 61

fodder

1,079 962 786 725
permanent grassland 828 873 953 961

of which: meadows

572 610 668 671

pastures

256 263 285 290
hop-gardens 11 11 11 11
vineyards 16 16 16 16
set aside arable land *) 3 32 57 70
*) set aside arable land means an area which is not cultivated for different reasons (economical or social) and gives no production.

Source: Statistical Yearbooks of the Czech Republic

The total extent of fallow land is not followed statistically, but it is estimated (by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the Ministry of Environment) that in 1999 it was around 300,000 hectares, mostly on less fertile soils situated in hill and foothill areas where the soils are mostly stony and shallow or wet. The share of such land is so far steady but growing and this trend will obviously continue due to the declining opportunity of putting agricultural products on the market and due to lack of money for countryside maintenance. The percentage of ploughed land has fallen to 72.2 percent, but this figure is nonetheless among the highest in Europe.

There has been a big decline in livestock numbers since 1989. During the last ten years the number of cattle fell by more than a half to 41 percent and for sheep it was even more - to 27 percent of the 1989 level. The stocking rate on 100 ha of agricultural land in livestock units fell by almost a half to 52.4 in 2000 (Table 2).

Table 2: Trends in livestock numbers 1989-2005
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

2001

2002 2003 2004 2005
 

in ‚000 head

cattle

3,481

2,512

1,866

1,574

1,582

1520 1474 1428 1397
sheep

430

254

121

84

90

96 103 116 140
Pigs n.r. 4599 4080 3688 3594 3441 3363 3127 2877
livestock units per 100 ha of agricultural land

96.8

66.3

55.9

52.4

n.r.

n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r.

Source: Statistical Yearbooks of the Czech Republic and FAOSTAT, 2006
n.r.=no record

In the late 1980s Czechoslovak agriculture was characterized by maximum concentration on production, by the attempt to use all agricultural land for intensive production and by relatively large state subsidies. Large-scale agriculture produced significant surpluses in practically all basic commodities (which were exported mostly to COMECON countries).

After the Velvet Revolution (1989) and the introduction of democratic conditions, Czech agriculture, like the whole national economy, found itself at a cross-roads. It was absolutely clear that massive redistribution, central planning and ownership along the lines of "everyone owns everything and nobody owns anything" had to be abandoned. Social demand required the acceleration of economic reforms aiming at a market economy, and the architects of economic reform decided on shock therapy, consisting of:

* radical liberalization of prices,

* the greatest possible liberalisation of foreign trade,

* rapid privatization, and

* changes in the taxation system.

The transformational changes have had a major effect on both the farm structure and the structure and dimensions of agricultural production. A part of the reform process was the restoration of the right to own land and other agricultural property, carried out under the Land Act of 1991 (the so called Restitution Act). On the basis of the law on property relationships and property claims within cooperatives, passed in 1992 (the so called Transformation Act), agricultural cooperatives were transformed into private business. Other companies, and in part also agricultural cooperatives, were formed in the course of 1993 and 1994 within the privatization of state farms. Also the number of private farmers and their share of agricultural land increased during the whole period of transformation and privatization of Czech agriculture. The current farm structure is completely different from the pre-transformation one (Table 3).

Table 3: Farm structure
 

Proportion in Czech agriculture

Average area

 

percent

ha

  1989 1997 2000 1997
private farmers 0.4 25.1 27.5 36
trading companies - 35.4 42.2 666
cooperatives 61.3 38.7 30.0 1349
state enterprises 38.3 0.8 0.3 864

Another result of the transformation process has been the reduction of the average size of farms from almost 1000 ha to 130 ha. While this means that agriculture has lost the comparative advantage of large-scale integral organization, this development on the other hand confirms the onset of new trends toward the development of multi-functional farming. Small and middle-size farms have become an irreplaceable element of the Czech countryside and tourists are finding the countryside more diverse and more attractive.

The number of workers in agriculture is about 40 percent of the pre-transformation status. Today there is only 1 worker per 5 hectares of agricultural land. On the other hand the productivity in agriculture has risen significantly. As expressed in constant 1989 prices, the gross agricultural production per worker (work productivity) has risen by about 84 % (Table 4). Real wages, however, are still far below the 1989 level.

Table 4: Workers in agriculture and gross agricultural output
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

workers

in ‚000s of persons

total in the national economy 5,403 4,848 4,947 4,732
in agriculture 507 283 232 190
gross agricultural output

in constant 1989 prices (CZK)

per person engaged in agriculture

214,202

291,303

326,951

412,288

per hectare

25,537

19,395

17,946

17,348

Source: Situation and Prospective Report: Soil. Ministry of Agriculture Prague, August 1996 and Statistical Yearbooks of the Czech Republic

The transformation of Czech agriculture is still unfinished. The changeover from large-scale production oriented towards other economies, to an agriculture fulfilling mainly extra-production functions and securing the development of the countryside will continue for many years to come. There are unlikely to be further very major changes in the structure of production in arable areas, but in mountainous and foothill regions it is absolutely necessary to create conditions for the development of extensive forms of farming, ecological farms and the ever more popular agro-tourism.

Assistance is provided to agriculture in a number of different ways. First, there are Ministry of Agriculture direct support programmes. Second, government regulation ensures that farmers are given financial incentives to maintain the countryside to a cultured standard and to develop functions of agriculture outside production. This latter type of subsidy is taking up an ever larger share of aid to agriculture and fully corresponds to the world-wide trend of encouragement for multifunctional agriculture.


2. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY

Geographically, the Czech Republic is situated on the boundary of two different mountain systems. The state borders are formed by the Šumava, the Bohemian Forest (Ceský les), the Ore Mountains (Krušné hory), the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše), the Orlické hory, and the Jeseníky. In the centre are the Czech Highlands (Ceská vysocina) and the Bohemian and Moravian Uplands (Ceskomoravská vrchovina). In the eastern part of Czechia are the West Carpathians (Západní Karpaty, i. e. the Beskydy and the White Carpathians - Bílé Karpaty). The outlines of both mentioned mountain systems are filled by valleys, the most fertile of them being the valleys of the Morava river in Moravia and the valley around the middle course of the Labe river (Polabská nížina) in Bohemia. The highest place in the country is Snežka (located in Krkonoše (Giant Mountains) at 1,602 m above sea level), the lowest place (only 115 m above sea level) is the point where the river Labe leaves the Czech Republic. A third of the Czech territory is above 500 m.

The borders of Czechia are between the latitudes of 48°33' and 51°03' north and the longitudes of 12°05' and 18° 51' east. The distance from the western and the most eastern parts is 278 km, likewise the maximum north - south distance is 493 km.

The Czech Republic has very diverse soils. According to soil genetic and agronomical classification, they can be divided into five groups. Cambisols represent the prevailing type (40 percent of total agricultural land), followed by stagno-gleyic luvisols and cambisols (20 percent), luvisols (19 percent), chernozems (11 percent) and fluvisols (10 percent). According to soil maps there are in Czechia 60 percent of middle heavy soils, 20 percent light, 15 percent heavy and 5 percent of stony soils.

The most fertile soils can be found in lowlands along the big rivers (the lower part of the Labe river in Bohemia and the Morava iver in Moravia). On the other hand, the worst (shallow and stony) soils are in higher elevations.


3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES

The climate of the Czech Republic is formed by mutual penetration and blending of oceanic and continental effects. The westerly flow is characteristic of the described region as well as intensive cyclonic activity, which causes frequent exchange of air masses with a great deal of precipitation. The maritime influence is more obvious in Bohemia, while in Moravia the continental climate is more marked. The climate is strongly affected by the altitude and by relief. Some 52,817 km2 , i.e. 67 percent, of the Czech Republic is below 500 m.

The average annual air temperature varies between 6 and 9°C and the average annual sum of precipitation between 400 and 700 mm, however with a big fluctuation in individual years.

The state territory is divided into 10 climatic regions (Table 5), described by several criteria (sum of temperatures above 10°C, moisture security, average annual temperature and average annual precipitation - all these criteria are assigned on average for each of the last fifty years of meteorological observation).

Production conditions and exploitation of agricultural land from the viewpoint of soil and climatic conditions (irrespective of administrative borders) are characterized by the means of agricultural production areas. This categorization of the territory is useful for economics and statistics and also for measures of the state and regional agricultural policy. The new framework of the agricultural production areas was created in 1996 on the basis of evaluation of agricultural soils and consists of five agricultural production areas and 21 subregions (Table 6 and the following map).

Table 5: Climatic regions

region

symbol

moisture security

average annual air temperature oC

average annual precipitation mm

very warm, dry VT 0 - 3 9 - 10 200 - 600
warm, dry T1 0 - 2 8 - 9 less than 500
warm, softly dry T2 2 - 4 4 - 8 500 - 600
warm, softly moist T3 4 - 7 7 - 9 550 - 700
softly warm, dry MT1 0 - 4 7 - 8 450 - 550
softly warm, moist MT2 4 - 10 7 - 8 550 - 700
softly warm, moist, lowland MT3 more than 10 7 - 8 700 - 900
softly warm, moist, upland MT4 more than 10 6 - 7 650 - 750
softly cold, moist MCH more than 10 5 - 6 700 - 800
cold, moist CH more than 10 less than 5 more than 800

Table 6: Definition of agricultural production areas
production area characteristics share (%)
maize production of maize, sugar beet and cereals; hot and dry climate with very fertile soils; elevation to 250 m above sea level, percentage of ploughed land 80 - 90 %,  

beet production of sugar beet and cereals; warm climate and fertile soils; elevation up to 350 m above sea level, percentage of ploughed land 80 - 90 %  

24 

cereals production of cereals; slightly warm and slightly wet climate and medium fertile soils; elevation 300 - 600 m above sea level, percentage of ploughed land 60 - 80 %  

41 

potato production of potatoes and cereals; slightly warm to slightly cold and wet climate; medium and less fertile soils; elevation 400 - 600 m above sea level, percentage of ploughed land 60 - 80 %  

18 

grass fodder production with emphasis on cattle; cold and damp climate with less fertile soils; elevation over 600 m, percentage of ploughed land under 50 %  

10

Source: Situation and Prospective Report: Soil. Ministry of Agriculture Prague, August 1996

Figure 2. Agricultural land production areas in the Czech Republic

czechfig2.jpg (29578 bytes)

(With the kind permission of the Research Institute for Agricultural Economy, Prague)

The next table shows the share of crops in individual agricultural production areas. Most grassland is in the fodder production area where cattle and sheep grazing prevails.

Table 7: Agricultural land according to production areas

status on 1. 1 . 1996

agricultural land

arable land

permanent cultures

grassland

production area

in ‚000s of ha

percentage

maize 287 85.4 10.8 3.8
sugar-beet 1,042 86.8 6.6 6.5
cereals 1,734 71.1 5.6 23.2
potato 186 74.8 2.9 22.2
grass 426 39.7 3.4 56.9
Total 4,280 73.4 5.5 21.1

Source: Situation and Prospective Report: Soil. Ministry of Agriculture Prague, August 1996


4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

4.1 Dairy and beef

Changes in both state subsidy policy and consumer demand have together led to a major fall in the production of milk and beef.

On the basis of the long-term programme of development and support of cattle rearing, the restructuring of the herd continued. Dairy breeds prevailed (87 percent). The most widespread race remains the Czech Spotted Cattle (52 percent) which are kept for combined milk and meat. The second most important race is Holstein with its distinct dairy use (40 percent). Other breeds make up the remaining 8 percent.

Most of the cattle population in Czechia in 2000 was dairy breeds kept under large-scale conditions of the agricultural cooperatives and trading companies. The supply and accessibility of modern technologies improved the conditions for introducing free housing systems for dairy cows. According to the estimates of the Ministry of Agriculture the share of this housing reached about 60 percent in 2000.

In the last ten years, herds of dairy cows have been reduced by more than 50 percent. Despite direct subsidies and in spite of the moderate improvement of the producer's position in the market, the decline of dairy cow numbers continued in 2000 under the influence of the continuing unprofitability of milk production. On the other hand there is a basic improvement in yield, which today is around an average of more than 5,000 kg of milk per cow per year and is therefore already comparable with that of some EU states.

The increase in yield is the result of the effect of targeted subsidies for dairy farming and the continual improvement in the genetic work of breeders. Unfortunately it has not yet proved possible to increase the consumption of milk and dairy products significantly, so it is necessary to export some of the production. The share of exported milk products in 2000 was almost 24 percent.

Table 8: Dairy
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

2001* 2002* 2003* 2004* 2005*
dairy cows in ‚000 head 1,248 830 702 615 483 477 459 433 439
yield litres per cow per year 3,982 3,824 4,366 5,255 5,762 5,720 5,764 5,983 6,062
milk production millions of litres 4,893.0 3,350.9 2,703.0 2,708.1 2782.9 2728.6 2645.7 2602.4 2661.0
consumption kg per person per year 91.4 75.2 59.6 59.6 n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r.

Source: Situation and Prospective Report: Milk. Ministry of Agriculture, Prague,
December 2001 and Statistical Yearbooks of the Czech Republic.
*Date for 2001-2005 from FAOSTAT, 2006
n.r.=no record

The restructuring of beef farming in the direction of a higher proportion of beef breeds is underway with a significant impetus provided by subsidy policy. Currently there are 70,000 cows in the Czech Republic not involved in market milk production and it is anticipated that this number will continue to rise.

There are 12 specialized breeds kept for production of quality beef. The most important among them are Simmental, Charolais and Aberdeen Angus, followed by Hereford, Limousin, Piemont, Salers, Aquitaine, Galloway and Highland. The number of beef cattle continues to grow, especially in less favourable areas. Conformable with the long-term perspective in cattle rearing development, grazing was supported as well as the number of cows without market milk production with the target to increase the beef production. Thus the production of quality beef and the maintenance of the countryside are solved at the same time. Simultaneously the production of organic meat increased to restore the consumers' confidence.

Beef cattle are kept at pasture during the growing season, some of them throughout the year, mainly by private farmers. Beef cattle and the cows without market milk production form 13 percent of the whole cattle population. There are more than 80,000 cows without market milk production and beef cows. Pure-bred beef cattle number more than 15,000 (19 percent of the whole population). The average daily gain was 0.76 kg by calves, 0.65 kg by heifers and 0.88 kg by fattened bulls.

Table 9: Beef
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

cows without market production in ‚000 head     47 67
beef production   524.5 390.3 293.6 208.0
supply in ‚000s of tons 518.5 390.3 306.5 227.6
consumption kg per person per year 30.0 19.8 16.1 10.9

Source: Situation and Prospective Report: Beef and Pork. Ministry of Agriculture, Prague, August 2001.

Home grown beef on the Czech market decreased gradually owing to falling cattle numbers during past years so that it was necessary to import. Nevertheless beef consumption is decreasing all the time and in 2000 it fell below 13 kg per person per year. The reason also lies in changes in consumer demands: some consumers have replaced beef in their diets with the cheaper pork while others have moved from red to white meats. A similar declining trend in beef consumption can be observed abroad, too.

Today the market for beef seems to be almost in equilibrium. The introduction of obligatory classification of abattoir-processed carcasses using SEUROP norms since 2001 will provide a further motivation for the expansion of the breeding of beef cattle. This measure should lead to a desirable price differentiation of beef according to quality.

4. 2 Sheep and goats

The sheep (and in much smaller numbers also goats) have their uses in Czechia, namely for maintaining the amenity value of the countryside. The main product - lamb - which is one of a few commodities exported to the EU - countries, is also very important.

Table 10: Sheep and goats
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

2001

2002 2003 2004
2005
 

in ‚000 head

sheep

399

254

121

84

90

96
103
116
140
goats

41

45

38

32

28.5

13.6
12.8
11.9
12.6

Source: Situation and Prospective Report - Sheep and Goats. Ministry of Agriculture, Prague, December 2000 and FAOSTAT 2006

Sheep rearing is going through big changes both in structure and economics. All these changes have negatively influenced results. The sharp fall of wool prices in 1991 caused a big decrease in sheep numbers (the share of sheep for wool production was almost 63 percent). Since 1995 the main product is lamb. Dual purpose breeds are preferred now: in 2000, 67 percent dual purpose were kept and 30 percent for lamb. Sheep are kept first of all for quality lamb and for grazing grassland mainly in fodder production areas. Almost 80 percent of sheep rearers have small herds up to 10 head, mostly for domestic use and only about 30 percent goes through slaughter to the market.

Sheep numbers are still decreasing, so the goal of subsidiary programmes is to boost the number of sheep, firstly by merging and extending flocks with a bigger number of sheep, secondly by lamb production for the local and foreign demand. A part of the systematic approach is the optimizing of pastures and the management of grazing areas to increase herbage production and to maintain the amenity value of the countryside. In 1998, the government programme (focused on sheep breeding in uplands) began, but its effects are not yet evident. The end of reduction of flocks can be expected in the coming years and since 2000 numbers have slowly begun to increase again.

Goat numbers fell in the five years from 1995 to 2000 by about 30 percent and then halved again from 2000 to 2004. No increase is expected and the only change will consist of preferences for large flocks instead of individual stock raising and in the expansion of the meat breed, especially the one appropriate for joint grazing with cattle and sheep.

4.3. Animal Health

According to data provided by the State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic, which is responsible for animal health and welfare, the health status is quite satisfactory. The Czech Republic is officially free of bovine brucellosis (since 1964), bovine tuberculosis (since 1967) and enzootic bovine leukosis (since 1996). The last occurrence of foot and mouth disease was in 1975. On the other hand, two cases of BSE were found in 2001. All slaughtered beef is examined for this disease.


5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE

It is difficult to give an overview on grassland in the Czech Republic because of the lack of information and the dearth of statistics.

Rychnovská et al. (1985) define meadows and pastures phytocenologically as plant associations and divide them according to moisture conditions into five grassland types. However, they differ very much in their productivity and fodder quality. Three of these types can be characterized by extreme conditions (stands on very wet or swampy or inundated localities with predominance of Carex spp., then dry places belonging to Nardus stricta communities, and xerophytic stands of Bromus type). These are without any economical importance and can be evaluated only from the point of view of their ecological - non-productive - functions. It is estimated they make up approximately 30 % of all grassland.

Grassland belonging to the phytocenological order of Molinio-Arrhenatheretea is most often used. It can be divided into two parts: Molinietalia and Arrhenatheretea. The productivity of Molinietalia depends on the local moisture conditions and management (both influencing the botanical composition). On light soils the stands are created mainly by Alopecurus pratensis, Festuca pratensis and Holcus lanatus and on heavier soils Deschampsia caespitosa prevails. The meadows and pastures of Arrhenatheretea could be divided into regularly double-cut meadows with a big share of cultural grass and clover species like Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca pratensis, Festuca rubra, Dactylis glomerata and Alopecurus pratensis or productive pastures with Lolium perenne, Cynosurus cristatus, Poa pratensis, Phleum pratense, Trifolium repens and on less fertile soils with Agrostis tenuis, Festuca rubra, Anthoxanthun odoratum or Briza media.

Animal production in lowlands - where most cattle are kept in stables under large scale conditions - is based on fodder from arable land. Grassland offers only a small amount of hay in these areas because of their small acreage. They are situated mostly around rivers and brooks and are not suitable for mechanized harvesting. That is why almost a quarter of arable land is under fodder crops (in 1989 it was a third). In the growing period feeding consists of fresh fodder, while in winter it is based on silage or haylage (mainly) from maize.

There is more grassland at higher altitudes. The meadows there serve for hay but the production is very often not exploited at all because there is no need of fodder. Very important is however maintaining of the countryside and that is why grazing beef cattle (and sheep) in these areas is supported by state subsidies. Under local conditions continuous grazing prevails, which is a cheap way of grassland management.

Despite the subsidies, the productivity of grassland is falling from year to year as a result of lack of fertilizers. Farmers use less fertilizers overall and almost none on grassland because of their high prices. This is shown by the decreasing yields of fodder even from arable land. Fertilizer consumption dropped from 217.8 kg pure nutrients per hectare in 1989/90 to 88.4 kg in 1999/2000 and it is clear that almost all of it is used on cereals (and oil seeds) which bring immediate profit to the farmers. Another consequence is the fall in soil nutrient supply which is evident from the results of regular soil checking provided by the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ).

Table 11: Development of hay production
 

1989

1993

1997

2000

 

t ha-1

meadows 5.35 3.34 3.67 2.95
pastures 3.48 2.18 2.54 2.15
fodder on arable land 7.56 6.72 6.26 5.66

Source: Statistical Yearbooks of the Czech Republic


6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES

Under existing conditions there is no need to improve pasture resources. In the near future, there is no chance for better utilization of grassland, either, mainly in marginal and hilly areas. In the struggle to maintain the countryside, state subsidies for grazing and rearing of cattle and sheep are given by Ministry of Agriculture and partly even by the Ministry of Environment.

A suitable alternative to the conventional agriculture and a new opportunity for farmers is organic agriculture. Areas which are managed in this way are increasing rapidly: at the end of 2000 some 563 farms were registered with more than 166,000 hectares (3.9 percent of all agricultural land) in this system. In organically managed farms grassland prevails (90 percent) and only 10 percent is arable land. Beef from these farms ("bio-beef") is sold nowadays even in supermarkets.

Provided the conditions in Czech agriculture improve, the farmers have enough knowledge and material possibilities to improve their pasture resources. An example of this is seed. According to the Act No 92/1996 Coll., on plant varieties, seed and planting material of cultivated plants, the State Variety Book of the Czech Republic is issued. It is the National List of all plant cultivars registered by reaching the requirements from the above quoted Act. There are 98 cultivars of 19 grass species and 66 cultivars of legume species listed in this book to the date of July 1st, 2001. This book is regularly published by the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ). The overview of the grass and legume species and their cultivars in Czechia can be found in Appendix 1. only grass species intended for fodder are given there, none for lawns.


7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL
Czech Agricultural University Prague,

Dept. of Fodder Crops

CZ 160 21 Praha 6 Suchdol

Tel. +420.2.24383036

Fax. +420.2.20921639

 

Doc. Dr. Jaromír ŠANTRuCEK

 

Head of Department

Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno

Dept. for Fodder Crops

Zemedelská 1

CZ 613 00 BRNO

Tel. +420.5.45133074

Fax +420.5.45133075

 

Prof. Dr. František HRABE

 

Head of Department

Agricultural Faculty of the South of Bohemia University

Dept. of Fodder Crops

Studentská 13

CZ 370 05

CESKÉ BUDEJOVICE

Tel. +420.38.7772456

 

Doc. Dr. František KLIMEŠ

 

Head of Department

Research Institute of Crop Production Prague - Ruzyne

Grassland Research Station Liberec

Rolnická 6

CZ 460 01 LIBEREC

Tel. +420.48.5103793

Fax. +420.48.5103718

e-mail:

grass@mbox.vol.cz

 

Dr. Josef FIALA

 

Manager in Office

Research Institute of Crop Production Prague - Ruzyne

Grassland Research Station Jevícko

K. H. Borovského 461

CZ 569 43 JEVÍCKO

Tel. 00420.462.327814

e-mail:

vste@iol.cz

 

Dr. Alois KOHOUTEK

 

Manager in Office


8. REFERENCES

Agriculture and agricultural cooperatives in the Czech Republic. Published by the Association of Agricultural Cooperatives and Companies of the Czech Republic, 1997 (in Czech).

Green Reports of Czech Agriculture (in Czech).

Landwirtschaft in mittel- und osteuropäischen Ländern. Potenziale und deren Ausnutzung. Proceedings from the 113th Congress of VDLUFA, Berlin 2001 (in German).

Rychnovska, M. et al., 1985. Ekologie travních porostu (Ecology of Grassland). Academia Praha (in Czech).

Situation and Prospective Reports issued by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic, Prague (in Czech).

State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic, leaflet (in Czech).

Statistical Yearbooks of the Czech Republic (in Czech and English).


9. CONTACTS

This profile was prepared by Josef Královec in November 2001. He is a grassland expert of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture BRNO Agrochemistry, Soil and Plant Nutrition Department PLZEN and can be contacted at:

(Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture BRNO

Agrochemistry, Soil and Plant Nutrition Department PLZEN)

Grassland Research Station Závišín

P.O.Box 141

CZ 353 21 MARIÁNSKÉ LÁZNE 1

Czech Republic.

Tel.: +420.602.949371

e-mail: josef.kralovec@iol.cz

[The profile was lightly edited by J.M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds in December 2001 and livestock figures were modified by S.G. Reynolds in November 2002 and October 2006.]


Appendix 1
Species and cultivars of grasses registered in the Czech Republic

Number of registerted cultivars

Czech cultivars

Foreign cultivars

Phleum pratense

6

3

3

Lolium multiflorum ssp. italicum

8

6

2

Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum

4

2

2

Lolium multiflorum x Festuca pratensis

1

1

 
Lolium multiflorum x Festuca arundinacea

5

5

 
Lolium perenne

34

9

25

Festuca rubra

6

4

2

Festruca pratensis

9

3

6

Festuca arundinacea

2

1

1

Poa palustris

1

1

 
Poa pratensis

3

1

2

Arrhenatherum elatius

2

2

 
Alopecurus pratensis

2

1

1

Phalaris canarensis

1

1

 
Agrostis gigantea

1

1

 
Dactylis polygama

1

1

 
Dactylis glomerata

9

7

2

Bromus catharicus

1

1

 
Trisetum flavescens

2

2

 

Source: National List of Varieties inscripted in the State Variety Book of the Czech Republic by July 1st, 2001. ÚKZÚZ Brno (Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture), 2001

Species and cultivars of legumes registered in the Czech Republic

Number of registerted cultivars

Czech cultivars

Foreign cultivars

Trifolium pratense

22

18

4

Trifolium incarnatum

1

1

 
Trifolium repens

17

9

8

Trifolium hybridum

3

2

1

Lotus corniculatus

3

2

1

Medicago sativa

15

9

6

Coronilla varia

1

1

 
Melilotus albus

2

2

 
Onobrychis viciifolia

1

1

 
Medicago lupulina

1

1

 

Source: National List of Varieties inscripted in the State Variety Book of the Czech Republic by July 1st, 2001. ÚKZÚZ Brno (Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture), 2001