Indonesia is an archipelago of 14 000 islands, of which is only 7% are inhabited (BPS, 1995). The big islands are Kalimantan, Sumatra, Irian Jaya, Sulawesi and Java in that order; it is divided into 27 provinces.The population is 179 400 000, third after China and India, with an annual increase of 1.98%; 59% are in Java, which has only 7% of the land. Kalimantan island with only 5% of the population has 28% of the land.Although there are about 3000 dialects, the national language is Indonesian. Indonesia lies between 6o08 N and 11o15 S, and 94o45 E and 141o05 W (Fig. 1). The chain of islands from Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara appears to connect Asia with Australia but the Wallace line, through Lombok strait between Bali and Lombok, separates the fauna and flora of Asia from that of Australia.
The area is 9 8000 00 km2 with 80.61% sea and only 19.39% land (BPS, 1995). Of the 1 684 000 km2 land, 66.35% is forest, 7.75% plantation, 6.68% dry-land farming and 5.01% wet-land farming (Table 1). The main forest area is found in Irian Jaya; the main plantation, dry-land and wetland areas are in West Kalimantan, East Java and West Java provinces, respectively.
In 1993 there were 21 700 000 farm households with the biggest number in Central Java (Anon, 1996). Between 1983 and 1993 farm households increased by11.46%. Based on the Indonesian Land Reform the maximum land holding of a farm household is 2.5 ha wet-land and 7.5 ha dry-land. The average is 0.2 0.5 ha wetland and 0.5 1.5 ha dry-land in the intensive farming system; while in the extensive farming system the land ownership is 1.5 2.5 ha and 5.5 7.5 ha for the wet- land and dry-land, respectively. In 1993 the agriculture gross domestic product (AGDP) was Rp 55 745 500 000, which is 18.46% of the national gross domestic product (Anon, 1996). Between 1989 and 1993 AGDP increased by 42.02%. The biggest AGDP contribution is from East Java. The AGDP contribution from farm food crop, non-farm food crop, estate crop, livestock product, forestry and fishery is 56.33%, 12.48%, 4.39%, 12.60%, 4.56% and 9.60%, respectively.
The native cattle are: Madura in Madura island, Bali in Bali island, Ongole in Sumba island and Aceh in Aceh special province. PO cattle are a cross between Ongole and Madura. The Kacang goat is found mainly in dry-land area and the PE goat (a cross between Etawah and native breed) mainly in wetland. Thin-tail sheep are mainly in eastern Indonesia; fat-tails in Central Java and Garut sheep mainly in West Java. Swamp buffalo are mostly in swampy and tidal land and Murrah buffalo mainly in Sumatra. Ruminant numbers and production (and imports) are summarized in Table 2. The biggest beef and goat population is in East and Central Java; most dairy cattle, buffalo and sheep are in West Java. Only 16 provinces produce milk, the three highest are West, East and Central Java are in that order.
In 1993 livestock accounted for 12.60% of the agriculture gross domestic product (BPS, 1995); from 1989 1993 it increased from 9.74% to 12.60%.
Table 2: Indonesia statistics for ruminant numbers, beef, veal, sheep, goat, buffalo meat and milk production, cattle imports and beef and veal imports for the period 1992-2001 (FAO Database 2002)
Source: FAO Database 2002; n.r. = no record
The widespread soil are Andosol,
Latosol, Regosol, Rendzina, Lateritic, Litosol, Grumosol, blue Hydromorph, Alluvial and
Podsol (Deptan, 1988; Muir, 1996). Andosols are quite fertile, suitable for horticulture
and plantation crops such as tea in Java. Regosols of quartz sand are mainly found in
Kalimantan and not suitable for dry-land farming. Grumosols are heavy with a high Ca
content; in the lowlands they are used for growing crops. The five big islands consist of
lowland, hilly land, upland and mountain with altitude ranges of 0 500, 500
1 000, 1 000 3 000 m and higher than 3 000 m, respectively (Ischak, 1994).
Land use classes
In 1995 the total investment in livestock was Rupees 1,105 billions comprising 40% pre-production, 35% production and 25% post production (Anon, 1996). During 1991 1995 there was a 77.61% increase in livestock investment. In 1993 of 21 700 000 farm households 24.81% had livestock; 82.4% were smallholders (Soehadji, 1991).
Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963) showed that there are about 238 plant families with about 952 genera and 1 047 species in Java and Madura. In the small island of Bali there are 50 genera of grasses and ground legumes and 55 species of fodder shrubs and trees used as ruminant feed (Nitis et al., 1980).
Agroforestry, which has existed in Indonesia for 100 years and has evolved through trial and error, is not only a way of increasing the timber, energy, feed and food production, but also contributes to conservation of the environment. Depending on the dominant and specific production of its components, agroforestry can be specified into many variants (Nitis, 1997). The transition leading to dominance of either the silvicultural system, pastoral system, or agrosilvopasral system depends on ecological and socioeconomic conditions. During the land reforms of 1963 many forests were cleared for smallholder farming and many grasslands converted into semi-intensive farming, thus increasing the planting of shrubs and trees for livestock feed. Grain, pulses and tubers are the main food crops. Wild grass and legumes in food crops are considered weeds. After harvest, the field is either bare or invaded by volunteer herbaceous species. No land is specially allocated to grow forage. Grass, legumes, shrubs and trees are grown on the bunds, on sloping land along terraces and on field boundaries.
Grasses and legumes growing wild under plantation crops are thought weeds and are cleared periodically. Leguminous trees and shrubs, on the other hand, are grown as supports for vanilla, shade for coffee, or green manure for the crop. They are also grown along plantation edges and lopped periodically to prevent shading.
Based on its leaf canopy, the forest can be classified into evergreen and deciduous forests. Because light intensity becomes the first-limiting factor, forage growing under forest is shade-tolerant. In the mixed deciduous forest, the main undergrowth consists of Bambusa, Imperata, Eulalia, Casearia, Euphorbia, Acroceras, Morinda, Acacia, Poecia, Leersia and Eupatorium species. In abandoned swidden, the plants are Eulalia, Leersia, Sida, Solanum, Thysanolaena, Acroceras, Ageratum and, Bambusa. In the dry season no green forage is left, because the forest floor is covered with dried leaves, shoots and pods.
In the dry-land farming area, farmers crop the land continuously for three years then leave it fallow for four to six years. During the fallow grasses and herbs colonise the field. This fallow is used to tether cattle and goats; tethered grazing is usually very intense, so no forage is left for the dry season.
Forage and fodder in natural
Critical land is that which is no longer capable of playing a role in production, hydrology, or ecology (Deptan, 1988). It develops as a result of overgrazing, continuous cultivation, bush-fires, and deforestation of marginal land. Forage in such areas is dominated by annuals, which grow quickly and produce plenty of seeds during the wet season but withers in the dry season. Shrubs and trees, grow well during the wet season but become stunted during the dry season.
Utilization of forage and fodder
Limitations to forage and fodder
Pests cause little damage on
properly managed forage and fodder. However a psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana)
outbreak was reported in Hawaii in 1984 and in the Asia and Pacific regions in 1985 (NFTA,
1989). In seriously infested areas in Indonesia, control measures using resistant Leucaena
varieties, effective predators, insecticides and management have had varying degrees of
success. In some areas Gliricidia is infested with an aphid (Aphis craccivora)
particularly at the onset of the rains, which causes blackening of the leaf surface and in
severe cases the death of the leaf primordia and shedding of young leaves (Nitis et al.
1989). The aphid exudate causes yellowing and even death of the Cenchrus ciliaris
grown with Gliricidia. Evaluation of the 16 provenances of Gliricidia sepium
showed that 3 provenances (G14, G17 and N14) are quite resistant to aphid infestation
(Nitis et al., 1991).
Improved planting material
Relay-cropping involves upland rice and pulses (Gutteridge, 1985). This system has been developed mainly to try to maintain productivity and to reduce soil erosion and degradation. The leguminous residue grain harvest can be used by ruminants with little or no detrimental effect to the productivity of the system. Nutrient cycling may be accelerated if the residues pass through the animals. Selection of the legume is very important, because that with the lowest harvest index will provide most forage or green manure (Pintarak et al., 1982). This system is practised in most, if not all, rain-fed dry-land farming in Indonesia
Taongya is a Burmese word meaning hill cultivation and is derived from traditional shifting cultivation. Improved taongya is growing strips of fodder shrub and trees with crops between bands of timber trees on sloping land used for forestry (Wiersum, 1982). Experiments in Indonesia showed that this system supplies more livestock feed, more food crop, and firewood to the farmer working in the forestry department. It has been developed in the forest estates in Sumatra, Irian Jaya, Sulawesi and Kalimantan.
In the Surjan system multipurpose shrubs and trees are grown along raised beds, prepared for crops, in low lying land (KEPAS, 1988); they are lopped as a fodder when other feeds are in short of supply. This system has been tested in tidal, and swampy lands in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
In the improved pasture system, improved grasses and legumes are sown alone or with the native pasture in the fallow, communal, or private grazing land and even on the critical land. Trials in Eastern Indonesia showed that over-sowing native pasture with Centrosema, Stylosanthes, Calopogonium, and Macroptilium species can increase the stocking rate six times (Till and Blair, 1982). The productivity of native pasture under coconut can be increased by improving the pasture. Trials in Bali (Rika et al., 1991) showed that forage production under coconut can be increased by introducing Arachis pintoi (Rika, pers. comm.).
Fodder banks; shrubs and trees can be planted on either the embankment of water ways, in clusters on sloping land, on critical land or fallow land or on land not used for crops (Nitis, 1986); in pure stands of leguminous or non-leguminous fodder shrubs and trees, or in combinations. Forage production is important when the stand is young and deteriorates as it matures. Young stands can be grazed but once mature a cut and carry system is more appropriate.
The home-plot system is the integration of farm yard with shrubs and trees, pasture, food crop and livestock in a small (0.25 ha at least) area (Anon, 1990). The border of the compound is planted with shrub and trees with a strip of grass inside . The area inside the border is used for housing the family, livestock shed, fodder shed, for growing food crops, forage and fodder. Feeding is the cut and carry, the system is being tested in Sumatra.
Three strata forage system; this technique of planting of grass and legumes (first stratum), shrubs (second stratum), and fodder trees (third stratum) surrounds the crops in such a way that green feed is available year round(Nitis et al., 1989). The system consists of 0.25 ha divided into a core, peripheral and circumference areas. The core is planted with the crop commonly grown by local farmers. The surrounding (peripheral) area is planted with grass and legumes; the border area is planted with shrubs and fodder trees as a third stratum. The grasses and legumes are harvested during the four-month wet season; the shrubs during the four-month early dry season. The fodder trees are harvested during the four-month late dry season. Some pertinent results of the 13 year researches are as follows (Nitis et al., 1989, TSFS Team; 1993, Nitis et al., 1994, 1997b) :
The Three Strata Farming System has been developed in the nine Forage and Fodder Development Centres. The Directorate General of Livestock Service Jakarta has used it to increase productivity in dry-land farming area
In 1996 there were 27 600 farmer groups in Indonesia, consisting of 5.72, 37.71, 11.42 and 45.15% dairy cow, beef cattle, buffalo and sheep/goat farmer groups, respectively (Anon, 1996). The biggest number of dairy cattle and beef cattle farmer groups is in West Java and East Java provinces, respectively; while the biggest buffalo and small ruminant farmer groups is in North Sumatra province.
To increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfer and adoption of technologies, the Government has appointed 356 extension workers and 4 274 extension specialists in 1996. The biggest number of extension workers and extension specialists is in South Sulawesi and Central Java provinces, respectively.
To increase the quantity, quality
and species of grass, ground legume, fodder shrub and fodder trees in line with the
agro-ecological zone, the Government has established 9 Forage and Fodder Development
Centre, situated in the province of Banda Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South
Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara and South
Research on feeds and feeding of
livestock is carried out in the Livestock Research Centre in West Java. The contact is :
Dr. M. Winugroho, Balai Penelitian Ternak, P.O. Box 221, Ciawi Bogor, Indonesia [Phone
(0251) 240752]. In the Faculty of Animal Husbandry the Department of Nutrition and Forage
Science teaches at degree, M. Sc. and PhD. levels. There are 15 Faculties of Animal
Husbandry: 2 in Sumatra, 6 in Java, 3 in Sulawesi, one each in Bali, Lombok, Timur and
Ambon (Anon, 1996). The contact for the upland forage research and development is
Professor Dr. Sudarmadi, Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Institute Pertanian Bogor,
Komplek IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia [Phone (0251) 622810 - 811].
Some of the other contacts are as follows :
Some of the other contacts are as follows:
Anon. (1990). Production and utilization of shrubs legumes in the tropics. ACIAR workshop on Production and utilization of shrub legume in the tropics. Indonesia, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Preprint. 110 pp.
Anon. (1996) Baku Statistik Peternakan. Direktorat Jendral Peternakan, Jakarta. 116 hal.
Backer, C.A. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1963). Flora of Java. The Netherlands. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, 648 pp.
BPS (1995). Statistical year book of Indonesia. Ed. Statistical Evaluation and Report Division. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, Indonesia 589 pp.
Deptan R. I. (1988). Potensi dan pembudidayaan pada lahan kritis. Seminar Nasional Pola Pengembangan lahan kritis. Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Bali. 21 hal.
Devendra, C. (1989). The use of shrubs and tree fodders by ruminant. Proc. of a workshop on Shrubs and tree fodders for farm animals. IDRC 276e. p. 42 60.
FAO (1991). Agroforestry in the Philippines. by R. C.Bayabas. In W. Mellink, Y.S. Rao, K.G. Mac Dicken, eds. Agroforestry in Asia and the Pacific. FAO-RAPA Pub. 1991/5. P.138 147. Rome
Fleury, J.M. (1985). Trees takes to the fields. IDRC Report 14 (1) : 18 20.
Gutteridge, R.C. (1985). Forage crop for rice-based farming systems. Report of the 16th Asian Rice Farming Systems Working Group Meeting. Bangladesh. P. 311 324.
ILCA (1988). International Livestock Centre. Annual report 1987. Ethiopia. 46 pp.
Ischak (1994). Geografi 1 : Buku pelajaran untuk sekolah Menengah Umum. PT Intan Pawiwara, Pub. Klaten, Indonesia. 290 hal.
Ivory, D. A., and Siregar, M. E. (1984). Forage research in Indonesia : Past and present. Asian Pasture. FFTC Book series No.25 p.12 29.
Jones, R. J. (1986). Leucaena toxicity and the ruminant degradation of mimosine. Nutrition Abstracts and reviews. 58b : 111 119.
Joshi, N. P., and Sigh, S. B. (1989). Availability and use of shrubs and tree fodders in Nepal. Proc. of a workshop on Shrub and tree fodders for farm animals. IDRC 276e. p 211 220.
KEPAS (1988). Pedoman usaha tani konservasi tanah lahan kering : zone agroekosistem batuan kapur. Badan Litbang Pertanian Jakarta. 68 hal.
Lowry, J. B. (1989). Toxic factors and problems : method of alleviating these in animals. Proc. International workshop on Shrubs and tree fodders for farm animals. IDRC 276e. p 26 88.
Manidool, C. (1984). Pasture under coconut in Thailand. Asian Pasture. FFTC Book Series, No.25. p. 204 214.
Manik, G., Raka, Haryana, I. G. N., dan Ramli (1977). Pembagian iklim di daerah Bali berdasarkan pembagian iklim Schmidt dan Ferguson. Bull. FKHP. Unud. No.081.
Moog, F. A. (1985). Forages in integrated food cropping systems. ACIAR proc. No.12. p. 152 156.
Muir, M. (1996). Tanah-tanah utama Indonesia. Karasteristik, klasifikasi dan pemanfaatannya. PT. Dunia Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. 346 hal.
Munoz, A.M., and Seifert, S.H. (1991). Studies on the toxicity of L. leucocephala in goats in Northeast Mexico. Animal Research and Development. Institute for Scientific Cooperation. Tubingen, F.R.G. p. 43 56.
NFTA (1989). Leucaena research report. Section 1. Contributed paper on the leucaena phsyllid. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association. Vol. 10 : 1 16.
Nitis, I.M. (1977). Stylosanthes as companion crop to cassava. Final report to IFS, Sweden. 88 pp.
Nitis, I.M. (1981). Performance of Bali cattle fed grass supplemented with stylosanthes. Final report to IFS, Sweden. 43 pp.
Nitis, I.M. (1986). Production systems based on tree cropping. Proc. of workshop on Small ruminant production systems in South and Southeast Asia. IDRC 256 e. p.101-107.
Nitis, I.M. (1997). Silvipastural systems in tropical context. XVIII Intern. Grassland Congress 2000. Canada. 112 pp.
Nitis, I.M. (1998). Non-concentional roughages in tropical land sub-tropical Asian-Australasian countries. Preprint. VIII World concefence on animal production. Soul, Korea. 21 pp.
Nitis, I.M., and Suarna, M. (1976). Undersowing cassava with stylo grown under coconut. Proc. 4th Symposium Intern. Soc. of Tropical root crops, Colombias. p.98 108.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., Putra, S. Pemayun, T.G.O., and Puger, A.W. (1994) Growth and reproductive performance of Bali heifer under Three strata forage system. Technical Report prepared for FAO, Rome. 32 pp.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Puger, A.W., Sukanten, W., and Putra, S. (1996). Farm level seed production of a top performing Gliricidia sepium in dry-land farming area in Bali, Indonesia. Technical Report prepared for FAO, Rome. 36 pp.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Pemayun, T.G.O., Sukanten, W., and Puger, A.W. (1997b). Second gestation and second calf nursing of Bali cow under Three strata forage system. Progress Report to Futaba, Japan. 36 pp.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., and Puger, A.W. (1997a).Productivity of dry-land farming area under different gliricidia planting and lopping system in Bali. Progress Report to ICRAF, Kenya. 35 pp.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., and Putra, S. (1991). Gliricidia provenance evaluation in dry-land farming area in Bali. Report to IDRC, Canada. 112 pp.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., Putra, S., and Arga, W. (1989). Three strata forage system for cattle feeds and feeding in dry-land farming area in Bali. Final report to IDRC, Canada. 252 pp.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Sudana, I.B., Sutji, N., and Sarka, I.G.N. (1980). Survei data makanan ternak di Bali, FKHP, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar. 216 hal.
Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Susila, T.G.O., Sukanten, W. and Uchida, S. (1985).Chemical composition of the grass, shrub and tree leaves in Bali. Supplementary Report to IDRC. Report No. 1. 97 pp.
Pintarak, A., Sawbankam, T., Boonchee, S., Singkata, V., and Hoult, E. (1982). Proc. 2nd conference on Soil and water conservation and management. Khon Khaen, Thailand.
Rika, I.K., Mendra, I.K., Gusti Oka, M. and M.G. Oka Nurjaya (1991) New forage species for coconut plantations in Bali. In: Forages for Plantation Crops (edit. Shelton, H.M. and Stur, W.W. 1991 ACIAR Proc. No. 32, 41-44.
Soehadji (1990). Kebijaksanaan pemeliharran ternak khususnya sapi bali dalam pembangunan peternakan. Proc. Seminar natisonal Sapi Bali. Universitas Udayana, Denpasar. Hal. A1 A10.
Soehadji (1991). Kebijaksanaan pengembangan sapi potong di Indonesia. Proc. Seminar nasional sapi Bali. Universitas Hasannudin, Ujung Pandang. Hal. 1 32.
Surjani, M. (1970). Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) : Pattern of growth as related to its problem of control. BIOTROP Bull. No.1.
Till, A.R., and Blair, G.J. (1982). Cattle production from pastures in eastern Indonesia. Proc. Animal production and heath in the tropics. University Pertanian Malaysia Pub. p. 343 346.
TSFS Team (1993). Gliricidia for goat feeds and feeding in the three strata forage system. Final report to IDRC, Canada. Centre file 90 - 0263, 227 pp.
Wiersum, K.F. (1982). Tree
gardening and taongya on Java : Example of agroforestry technique in humid tropics. Agroforestry
system. 1 : 53 70.
This profile was written by Professor Dr. I. M. Nitis in 1999.
It was edited by J. M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds and some statistics were updated by S.G. Reynolds in November 2002.