INDONESIA



by
Dr. I. M. Nitis


I. INTRODUCTION

II. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY

III. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES

IV. RUMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

V. FORAGE AND FODDER RESOURCES

VI. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING FORAGE RESOURCES

VII. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL

VIII. REFERENCES

IX. CONTACT


I. INTRODUCTION

Indonesia is an archipelago of 14 000 islands, of which is only 7% are inhabited (BPS, 1995). The big islands are Kalimantan, Sumatra, Irian Jaya, Sulawesi and Java in that order; it is divided into 27 provinces.The population in the late 1990s was 179 400 000, third after China and India, with an annual increase of 1.98% (according to the World Factbook the July 2006 population estimate was 245,452,739 with a growth rate of 1.41%); 59% are in Java, which has only 7% of the land. Kalimantan island with only 5% of the population has 28% of the land.Although there are about 3000 dialects, the national language is Indonesian. Indonesia lies between 6o08’ N and 11o15’ S, and 94o45’ E and 141o05’ W (Fig. 1). The chain of islands from Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara appears to connect Asia with Australia but the Wallace line, through Lombok strait between Bali and Lombok, separates the fauna and flora of Asia from that of Australia.

Figure 1. Map of Indonesia

The area is 9 8000 00 km2 with 80.61% sea and only 19.39% land (BPS, 1995). Of the 1 684 000 km2 land, 66.35% is forest, 7.75% plantation, 6.68% dry-land farming and 5.01% wet-land farming (Table 1). The main forest area is found in Irian Jaya; the main plantation, dry-land and wetland areas are in West Kalimantan, East Java and West Java provinces, respectively.

In 1993 there were 21 700 000 farm households with the biggest number in Central Java (Anon, 1996). Between 1983 and 1993 farm households increased by11.46%. Based on the Indonesian Land Reform the maximum land holding of a farm household is 2.5 ha wet-land and 7.5 ha dry-land. The average is 0.2 – 0.5 ha wetland and 0.5 – 1.5 ha dry-land in the intensive farming system; while in the extensive farming system the land ownership is 1.5 – 2.5 ha and 5.5 – 7.5 ha for the wet- land and dry-land, respectively. In 1993 the agriculture gross domestic product (AGDP) was Rp 55 745 500 000, which is 18.46% of the national gross domestic product (Anon, 1996). Between 1989 and 1993 AGDP increased by 42.02%. The biggest AGDP contribution is from East Java. The AGDP contribution from farm food crop, non-farm food crop, estate crop, livestock product, forestry and fishery is 56.33%, 12.48%, 4.39%, 12.60%, 4.56% and 9.60%, respectively.

Table 1. Land use in Indonesia1

No.

Type of use

Size (ha)

Proportion (%)

Biggest province

1

Permanent forest

111 713 000

66.35

Irian Jaya

2

Plantation

13 045 811

7.75

West Kalimantan

3

Dry-land

11 244,722

6.68

East Java

4

Woodland

9 506 558

5.65

West Kalimantan

5

Wetland

8 439 305

5.01

West Java

6

Fallow land

6 920 650

4.11

West Kalimantan

7

Housing

5 005 739

2.97

East Java

8

Grassland

1 892 778

1.12

East Nusa Tenggara

9

Dyke

407 379

0.24

South Sulawesi

10

Pond

199 574

0.12

South Sumatra
  Total

168 375 516

100 

 

1)BPS (1995).

Ruminants

The native cattle are: Madura in Madura island, Bali in Bali island, Ongole in Sumba island and Aceh in Aceh special province. PO cattle are a cross between Ongole and Madura. The Kacang goat is found mainly in dry-land area and the PE goat (a cross between Etawah and native breed) mainly in wetland. Thin-tail sheep are mainly in eastern Indonesia; fat-tails in Central Java and Garut sheep mainly in West Java. Swamp buffalo are mostly in swampy and tidal land and Murrah buffalo mainly in Sumatra. Ruminant numbers and production (and imports) are summarized in Table 2. The biggest beef and goat population is in East and Central Java; most dairy cattle, buffalo and sheep are in West Java. Only 16 provinces produce milk, the three highest are West, East and Central Java are in that order.

In 1993 livestock accounted for 12.60% of the agriculture gross domestic product (BPS, 1995); from 1989 – 1993 it increased from 9.74% to 12.60%. Livestock numbers and beef & veal, buffalo meat, goat and sheep meat and total milk production for the period 1995-2005 are given in Table 2. Indonesia imports substantial numbers of live cattle (mainly from Australia for feedlot fattening prior to slaughter) as well as beef and veal and both fresh and dried milk. Imports of meat and milk and milk products have increased substantially over the period 1995-2004.

Table 2: Indonesia statistics for ruminant numbers, beef, veal, sheep, goat, buffalo meat and milk production, cattle imports and beef and veal imports for the period 1995-2005 (FAO Database 2006)

Item 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
Cattle nos 
(,000,000)
11.5
11.8
11.9
11.6
11.3
11.4
10.6
11.7
10.9
11.1
11.5
Buffalo nos.
(,000,000)
3.1
3.2
3.1
2.8
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.4
2.4
Sheep nos.
(,000,000)
7.2
7.7
7.7
7.1
7.2
7.4
7.4
7.6
7.8
8.1
8.3
Goat nos.
(,000,000)
13.2
13.8
14.2
13.6
12.7
12.6
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
13.2
Beef & veal 
prod. ( ,000 mt)
312.0
347.2
353.7
342.6
308.8
339.9
338.7
330.3
369.7
447.6
463.8
Buffalo meat prod. ( ,000 mt)
47.5
48.7
47.4
46.3
48.1
45.9
43.6
42.3
40.6
40.2
40.8
Sheep meat 
prod. (,000 mt)
38.4
39.0
41.7
34.2
32.3
33.4
44.8
68.7
80.6
66.1
66.5
Goat meat
prod. (,000 mt)
55.9
59.6
65.5
47.5
45.0
44.9
48.7
58.2
63.9
57.1
58.9
Total Milk prod.*
(,000 mt)
730.9
754.2
744.7
676.9
727.0
787.0
768.7
785.1
859.1
915.3
664.0
Cattle imports (,000 head)
254.5
408.0
438.6
111.5
278.9
309.7
202.9
171.1
247.9
280.0
n.r.
Beef & veal
imports (mt)
7,260
15,773
23,315
8,814
21,096
26,937
16,438
11,455
10,666
11.771
n.r.
Total meat imports (‘000 mt)
14.6
25.6
35.3
13.7
38.0
54.0
26.9
20.2
19.4
22.9
n.r.
Fresh milk imports ('000 mt)
2.5
2.9
3.3
3.4
8.7
5.8
8.7
8.6
11.0
12.7
n.r.
Milk equivalent imports ('000 mt)
727.3
577.3
520.3
423.1
1,184.3
1,092.2
1,099.6
1,041.7
1,132.2
1,572.1
n.r.


Source: FAO Database 2006; n.r. = no record; *Milk from cows, sheep and goats



 

II. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY

The widespread soil are Andosol, Latosol, Regosol, Rendzina, Lateritic, Litosol, Grumosol, blue Hydromorph, Alluvial and Podsol (Deptan, 1988; Muir, 1996). Andosols are quite fertile, suitable for horticulture and plantation crops such as tea in Java. Regosols of quartz sand are mainly found in Kalimantan and not suitable for dry-land farming. Grumosols are heavy with a high Ca content; in the lowlands they are used for growing crops. The five big islands consist of lowland, hilly land, upland and mountain with altitude ranges of 0 – 500, 500 – 1 000, 1 000 – 3 000 m and higher than 3 000 m, respectively (Ischak, 1994).



 

III. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES

Climate
Due to its the tropical situation, Indonesia experiences wet and dry seasons (Ischak, 1994). The dry season is from June to September when a dry wind blows from Australia. The wet season is from December to March when the moisture-laden monsoon blows from Asia and the Pacific Ocean. The transition periods are from April to May and from October to November. Rainfall ranges from 1 000 mm to 3 500 mm with 67 to 200 rainy days annually. The air temperature ranges from 14.8o C to 35.0o C with 28o C on the coast, 26o C in the hills and with 23o C in the mountains. Relative humidity ranges from 50 to 90% in the dry-land and wet land areas, respectively. Based on the length of wet and dry seasons, the climatic zone classification is as follows (Manik et al, 1977; Ischak, 1994) : Climatic zone B, nine months wet and three dry; zone C, seven months wet and five dry; zone D ,six months wet and six month dry; zone E ,five month wet and seven dry; zone F, four months wet and eight dry. In Irian Jaya, except in some mountain areas, rain every day is frequent; while in dry areas like Sumba island nine months without rain is not uncommon.

Land use classes
To identify potential land for agriculture, the land is grouped into eight classes; the risk of land degradation and the magnitude of inhibiting factors increase with the class number (Deptan, 1988). Classes I – IV are suitable for agriculture; while class V – VIII are unsuitable or costly for agriculture. The classes are:

  • Class I flat, deep soil, suitable for all kinds of agriculture; particularly food crops
  • Class II slightly sloping, sensitive to erosion. With terracing it can be used for annual and perennial crops
  • Class III sloping land, shallow soil. With terracing, cover crop and crop rotation it can be used for perennial crops
  • Class IV land with 15 – 30% slope. Food crops rotated with cover crops for forage and green manure for 3 – 5 years
  • Class V flat land, permanently waterlogged. Unsuitable for crops but can be used for forage and fodder productions
  • Class VI land with 30 – 45% slope. Unsuitable for crops. Can be used for permanent forage and fodder
  • Class VII land with 45 – 65% slope. Can be used for forage and fodder or forestry with strategic lopping to prevent soil erosion.
  • Class VIII land with more than 90% slope. It should not be used for forage, fodder and wood production, but kept as natural vegetation and protected forest.


 

IV. RUMINANT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

In 1995 the total investment in livestock was Rupees 1,105 billions comprising 40% pre-production, 35% production and 25% post production (Anon, 1996). During 1991 – 1995 there was a 77.61% increase in livestock investment. In 1993 of 21 700 000 farm households 24.81% had livestock; 82.4% were smallholders (Soehadji, 1991). Livestock numbers and details of meat and milk production were given in Table 2.

Feeding Systems
In the rice area three crops are taken each year, forage is cut and carried. In the rain-fed area stock are stall-fed in the crop season and tethered when the land is fallow. In clove and vanilla plantations stock are always stall-fed; under coconuts, oil-palm and rubber stall-feeding or tethering may be used. Free grazing is only practised on uncropped land. Cut and carry is usual in intensive food and plantation crop systems in Java; tethered grazing in semi-intensive farming in Sumatra, Sulawesi and Kalimantan islands. Free grazing is common in extensive systems in the West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara provinces. In the intensive crop area, crops are the main activity, ruminants are kept for draught and saving. In semi intensive plantations the ruminant is a weeder and manure producer. In the extensive dry-land area ruminants are the main enterprise, and food crops a side line. In the wet-land area revenue from livestock is 29% of the farm income; while in dry-land farming it is 49% (Soehadji, 1990).

Limitations

Biological
In Eastern Indonesia, where the rainy season is only three to four months, water is a limiting factor; goats are more important, since they are more efficient in using water than cattle (TSFS, 1993). Water shortage can be partially overcome by developing farm-size water catchments. Feed shortage during the dry season is not uncommon in Nusa Tenggara province. In prolonged dry seasons, which usually occur every five years ,farmers sell their livestock at very low prices. Fodder shrubs and trees have been used to overcome such feed shortage. Indigenous breeds such as Bali cattle, Madura cattle, thin-tail sheep and Kacang goats are small and grow slowly, in line with natural forage availability. In areas such as Central Java and West Sumatra, where forage and fodder have been developed, imported feeder cattle, Etawah dairy goat and/or Friesian Holstein dairy cattle have been introduced to increase productivity.

Socio-economic
In intensive farming the land is mainly used for crops, so there is little space to keep livestock and grow feed; farmers prefer small ruminants to cattle and buffalo. In the extensive system, land is not limiting, but water and feed become limiting so farmers again prefer small ruminants. Smallholders keep livestock as savings. Chickens and pigs are sold to meet daily household needs; small ruminants are sold to meet seasonal needs (e.g. school fees, clothing); large ruminants are sold to meet occasional needs (e.g. weddings, special religious ceremonies). In some areas the cow is considered a cold animal ("shoots do not die because cut by tongue"), while the goat is a hot animal ("shoots die because cut by dental pad"), so some farmers prefer cattle to goats. In Madura bulls are kept for racing; in West Java bucks are kept for fighting; in West Bali buffalo are selected for racing and in North Bali steers are kept for rhythmic walking.



 

V. FORAGE AND FODDER RESOURCES

Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963) showed that there are about 238 plant families with about 952 genera and 1 047 species in Java and Madura. In the small island of Bali there are 50 genera of grasses and ground legumes and 55 species of fodder shrubs and trees used as ruminant feed (Nitis et al., 1980).

Agroforestry, which has existed in Indonesia for 100 years and has evolved through trial and error, is not only a way of increasing the timber, energy, feed and food production, but also contributes to conservation of the environment. Depending on the dominant and specific production of its components, agroforestry can be specified into many variants (Nitis, 1997). The transition leading to dominance of either the silvicultural system, pastoral system, or agrosilvopasral system depends on ecological and socioeconomic conditions. During the land reforms of 1963 many forests were cleared for smallholder farming and many grasslands converted into semi-intensive farming, thus increasing the planting of shrubs and trees for livestock feed. Grain, pulses and tubers are the main food crops. Wild grass and legumes in food crops are considered weeds. After harvest, the field is either bare or invaded by volunteer herbaceous species. No land is specially allocated to grow forage. Grass, legumes, shrubs and trees are grown on the bunds, on sloping land along terraces and on field boundaries.

Grasses and legumes growing wild under plantation crops are thought weeds and are cleared periodically. Leguminous trees and shrubs, on the other hand, are grown as supports for vanilla, shade for coffee, or green manure for the crop. They are also grown along plantation edges and lopped periodically to prevent shading.

Based on its leaf canopy, the forest can be classified into evergreen and deciduous forests. Because light intensity becomes the first-limiting factor, forage growing under forest is shade-tolerant. In the mixed deciduous forest, the main undergrowth consists of Bambusa, Imperata, Eulalia, Casearia, Euphorbia, Acroceras, Morinda, Acacia, Poecia, Leersia and Eupatorium species. In abandoned swidden, the plants are Eulalia, Leersia, Sida, Solanum, Thysanolaena, Acroceras, Ageratum and, Bambusa. In the dry season no green forage is left, because the forest floor is covered with dried leaves, shoots and pods.

In the dry-land farming area, farmers crop the land continuously for three years then leave it fallow for four to six years. During the fallow grasses and herbs colonise the field. This fallow is used to tether cattle and goats; tethered grazing is usually very intense, so no forage is left for the dry season.

Forage and fodder in natural grassland
Natural grassland develops as a result of shifting cultivation and the degradation of climax forest (Deptan, 1988) and is maintained by overgrazing and uncontrolled burning. Large areas of grassland are found is Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Irian Jaya (Ivory and Siregar, 1984). The pasture consists of many grasses and legumes, with the commonest genera being Imperata, Paspalum, Chloris, Eleusine, Themeda, Tetrapogon, Polytrias, and Desmodium. During the dry season the land is almost bare, because of overgrazing and uncontrolled burning. Imperata cylindrica occupies 16 000 km2 and is increasing by 1 500 km2 annually (Surjani, 1970).

Critical land is that which is no longer capable of playing a role in production, hydrology, or ecology (Deptan, 1988). It develops as a result of overgrazing, continuous cultivation, bush-fires, and deforestation of marginal land. Forage in such areas is dominated by annuals, which grow quickly and produce plenty of seeds during the wet season but withers in the dry season. Shrubs and trees, grow well during the wet season but become stunted during the dry season.

Table 3. Native pasture yield (tonnes/dry matter/ha) during wet season in Bali 1)

 

Agroecology

Climatic zone

Mean 
 

B

C

D

E

F

 
Topography :
Lowland

*

1.55

1.02

1.37

1.82

1.44 +0.34

Hill

0.92

0.76

1.04

1.25

3.27

1.45 +1.04

Upland

1.31

2.10

0.68

0.33

1.91

1.27 +0.77

Land utilization: 
Wetland

2.03

0.97

1.71

0.48

2.89

1.61 +0.94

Dry-land

1.06

1.23

1.16

0.91

1.85

1.24 +0.36

Plantation

0.82

1.04

0.95

1.02

1.59

1.09 +0.29

Soil condition :
Wet

1.88

1.07

1.43

0.54

1.81

1.36 +0.55

Dry

0.79

1.28

1.26

1.39

1.18

1.18 +0.23

Mean 

1.26+0.51

1.25+0.42

1.16+0.32

0.91+0.42 

2.04+0.69

 

1)Nitis et al. (1980). * Not in lowlands.


Forage and fodder yields
Botanical composition is affected by season and land utilization (Nitis et al., 1980). In the wet season, the wet land, dry-land, and plantation areas are dominated by genera of Axonopus, Chrysopogon and Sehima, respectively; in the dry season crop land is dominated by genera of Paspalum. Yield of native pasture is affected by season, by climatic zone, topography, land utilization and soil conditions. In the wet season the highest pasture yield is in climatic zone F in the hills (Table 3); in the dry season the highest yield is in climatic zone E in the uplands (Table 4). Lopping yield (amount lopped to be fed to ruminants) of 43 species of fodder shrubs and trees in the wet season varied from 0.10 – 20.23 kg DM per tree; in the dry season the yield of 55 species varied from 0.13 – 23.24 kg DM per tree. In the wet season the highest yield of shrub and tree fodder is in climatic zone E in coastal area (Table 5); while in the dry season the highest yield is in climatic zone E in dry-land area (Table 6).

Table 4. Native pasture yield (tonnes DM/ha) during dry season in Bali province1)

 

Agroecology

Climatic zone

Mean 
 

B

C

D

E

F

 
Topography :
Lowland

*

0.92

1.29

1.37

0.80

1.09+ 0.28

Hill

0.74

1.13.

0.79

1.39

1.86

1.18 +0.46

Upland

1.86

1.24

0.37

3.54

1.30

1.46 + 1.21

Land utilization: 
Wetland

1.09

0.86

1.05

1.19

1.21

1.08 + 0.14

Dry-land

0.98

1.38

0.89

1.02

1.26

1.11 + 0.21

Plantation

0.93

0.92

1.21

1.15

1.01

1.04 + 0.13

Soil condition :
Wet

0.95

1.48

1.46

1.24

0.90

1.21 + 0.28

Dry

1.11.

1.40

0.85

1.85

1.01

1.24 + 0.39

Mean 

0.95+0.13

1.17+0.25

0.99+0.34

1.59+0.82 

1.14+0.33

 

1)Nitis et al. (1980). * Not in lowland area.
 

Table 5. Shrub and tree leaf yields (kg DM/tree) during the wet season in Bali1)

 

Agroecology

Climatic zone

Mean 
 

B

C

D

E

F

 
Topography :
Lowland

*

0.56

4.11

6.95

7.50

4.78 + 3.18

Hill

1.92

1.00

2.72

3.72

5.11

2.89 + 1.59

Upland

2.09

3.60

1.87

1.39

4.73

2.54 + 1.67

Land utilization :
Wetland

2.45

2.19

3.22

3.54

3.80

3.04 + 0.69

Dry-land

2.41

1.65

3.05

6.32

5.83

3.85 + 2.09

Plantation

4.11

5.73

2.98

3.83

4.07

4.14 + 0.99

Soil condition :
Wet

3.86

3.25

2.49

3.21

3.49

3.26 + 0.50

Dry

2.18

1.25

0.98

4.42

5.01

2.77 + 1.84

Mean 

2.72+ 0.89

2.40+ 1.71

2.68+ 0.94

4.05+ 2.01

4.94+ 1.29

 

1)Nitis et al. (1980). * Not in lowland area.


Forage and fodder quality
In the wet season, native pasture contains more crude protein (CP), major minerals K and Mg and trace minerals Zn and Mo than that in the dry season (Table 7). In the dry season the highest CP content is in native pasture in climatic zone C in the hills (Table 8). In the wet season shrub leaves contained less CP than during the dry season; while the reverse is true for tree leaves (Table 8). The highest CP content of the shrub leaves during both seasons is from the legumes Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium,; while the highest CP content of the tree leaves during the wet and dry seasons is from the legumes Wrightia calveina and Erythrina lithosperma, respectively. For Gliricidia sepium the highest CP content is in the wet land farming area; while for the Erythrina variegata the highest CP content is climatic zone B, (Table 10).

Table 6. Shrub and tree leaf yields (kg DM/tree) during the dry season in Bali1

 

Agroecology

Climatic zone

Mean 

B

C

D

E

F

Topography :
Lowland

*

4.96

4.15

4.18

6.33

4.91 + 1.70

Hill

1.23

4.08

5.01

4.52

4.98

3.96 + 1.58

Upland

2.79

3.20

3.94

1.98

4.27

3.24 + 0.91

Land utilization :
Wetland

2.23

6.94

3.97

4.76

4.11

4.40 + 1.70

Dry-land

2.55

4.89

3.36

8.35

3.39

4.51 + 2.31

Plantation

2.79

3.06

3.76

6.24

3.19

3.81 + 1.40

Soil condition :
Wet

3.22

2.38

5.26

1.29

3.73

3.18 + 1.49

Dry

1.96

2.22

5.39

4.71

4.48

3.75 + 1.56

Mean 

2.40+ 0.66

3.97+ 1.59

4.36+ 0.76

4.50+ 2.23

4.31+ 1.00

1Nitis et al. (1980). * Not in lowland area.

Table 7. Proximate and mineral compositions of native pasture in Bali1

 

Composition

Wet season2

Dry season2

 

Range

Average

Range

Average

Proximate (%) :        
Crude protein (CP)

7.73 – 18.24

12.99

5.42-17.70

11.56

Crude fibre (CF)

21.30 – 27.26

24.28

23.03-34.40

28.72

Major mineral (%) :        
Potassium (K)

2.04 - 4.81

3.43

1.85 – 3.31

2.58

Magnesium (Mg)

0.12 - 0.53

0.33

0.10 – 0.41

0.26

Trace mineral (ppm) :        
Zinc (Zn)

50.7 – 116.6

83.70

19.60-51.8

35.70

Molybdenum (Mo)

0.35 - 2.36

13.55

0.87- 3.61

2.24

         

1 Nitis et al, 1985. 2 From 15 species.

Table 8. Crude protein content (% DM) of native pasture in the dry season in Bali1

 

Agroecology

Climatic zone

Mean 
 

B

C

D

E

F

 
Topography :
Lowland

*

8.43

7.10

8.98

9.32

8.46+ 0.98 

Hill

12.52

9.38

10.76

9.16

3.73

9.11 + 3.29

Upland

12.95

13.62

11.20

9.00

4.62

10.28+ 3.63

Land utilization: 
Wetland

12.99

13.31

9.36

9.64

9.80

11.02+1.95

Dry-land

12.72

10.85

9.83

10.70

5.03

9.83 + 2.88

Plantation

12.72

12.41

11.15

7.21

4.49

9.60 + 3.60

Soil condition :
Wet

9.94

10.52

7.56

11.63

11.68

10.27+ 1.68

Dry

10.01

10.63

12.10

8.55

4.64

9.19 + 2.84

Mean 

11.98+1.38

11.14+1.84

9.88+ 1.79

9.36+ 1.34

6.66+ 3.08

9.75 + 2.64

1Nitis et al. (1980). * Not in lowland area.


Deleterious compounds found in forages and fodder are: cyanoglucosides, fluoroacetic acid, tannin, prussic acid, mimosine, latex and oxalic acid (Table 10). Some fodders such as Bauhinia variegata may cause decrease in milk yield, Bridella retusa may cause dysphagia, Albizia stipulata may cause haematuria, Ficus hispida may cause abortion and Schima wallichii may cause hair loss and skin disease (Table 11). Ways to overcome the anti-nutritive factors include supplementation, dilution, simple treatment, and rumen microbial activity (Lowry, 1989). Mimosine in Leucaena can be toxic to some ruminants if there is no 3,4 DHP – detoxifying bacteria in their rumens (Jones, 1986); ruminants can be inoculated or put in contact with resistant ruminants (Munoz and Seifert, 1991).

Table 9. Proximate composition of shrubs and tree fodders in Bali1

 

Plant

Nutrient (%)

Wet season

Dry season

   

Range

Average

Range

Average

Shrub leaf 2

CP

10.80-32.42

21.76

13.17-35.92

24.55

 

CF

9.77-24.44

17.11

14.42-35.69

25.06

 

Ash

6.72–26.55

16.64

5.07-24.27

14.67

 

TDN

31.11-88.91

60.01

5.24-90.08

47.66

Tree leaf3

CP

9.67 –33.32

21.49

8.30-31.35

19.83

 

CF

7.34 – 31.02

19.18

10.79-36.36

23.58

 

Ash

6.21 – 27.35

16.78

5.43-24.18

14.81

 

TDN

20.45 – 76.18

48.32

10.28-64.27

37.28

1 Nitis et al., (1985).
2 13 spp in wet season and 14 spp in dry season.
330 spp in wet season and 41 spp in dry season.

Utilization of forage and fodder
Roughage fed to ruminants consists of wild herbage, fodder and crop residues. Fodder is shrub and tree leaves and crop residues are straw and stover(Nitis, 1998). In Bali goats are fed more shrub and tree leaves than cattle, while buffalo are fed little (Table 12). Rice straw, corn stover and banana pseudostems are not fed to goats, but cassava tops are fed when available. Cattle in the dry-land farming are fed more leaves than those in plantations and rice areas (Table 13); in the rice areas they are fed straw; in dry-land farming and plantation areas they are fed maize stover and cassava tops.

Limitations to forage and fodder production
No land is allocated to grow livestock feed in smallholder farming area, so forage and fodder are grown on bunds, around fences, fallow and land not suitable for crops. In some places farmers have other priorities than fodder for plants. Ficus benjamina is a holy tree so it is not lopped. Imperata cylindrica is used for thatching special houses, so that it is only tether-grazed during very early regrowth after harvesting every two years. Artocarpus integra is not lopped regularly, otherwise it does not fruit. Coconut fronds are not commonly fed to livestock since the young leaf is used as accessory in ceremonies, the old fronds are used as firewood.

Pests cause little damage on properly managed forage and fodder. However a psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana) outbreak was reported in Hawaii in 1984 and in the Asia and Pacific regions in 1985 (NFTA, 1989). In seriously infested areas in Indonesia, control measures using resistant Leucaena varieties, effective predators, insecticides and management have had varying degrees of success. In some areas Gliricidia is infested with an aphid (Aphis craccivora) particularly at the onset of the rains, which causes blackening of the leaf surface and in severe cases the death of the leaf primordia and shedding of young leaves (Nitis et al. 1989). The aphid exudate causes yellowing and even death of the Cenchrus ciliaris grown with Gliricidia. Evaluation of the 16 provenances of Gliricidia sepium showed that 3 provenances (G14, G17 and N14) are quite resistant to aphid infestation (Nitis et al., 1991).



 

VI. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVING FORAGE RESOURCES

Improved planting material
The Directorate General of Livestock Service, Jakarta in 1995 distributed 2 400 000 stakes of fodder trees (Anon, 1996). During 1991 – 1995 the number of stakes distributed increased by54.73%. The province receiving most stakes was Central Java. Seeds of 17 improved grasses and 13 improved legumes have been distributed covering various climatic zone, topography, land utilization and soil condition (Anon, 1996). On-farm trials in dry-land farming in Bali showed that Gliricidia sepium as a multipurpose shrub producing fodder, cutting, firewood and seed is best planted in clusters (Nitis, et al., 1997a); for seed production it should be planted in alleys (Nitis et al., 1996).

Table 10. Crude protein (CP) content (% DM) of Gliricidia sepium and Erythrina variegata in Bali province1

 

Agroecology

G. sepium

E. variegata

Wet season Dry season Wet season Dry season
Topography :
Lowland

23.40

23.49

23.62

24.29

Hill

25.76

25.38

25.07

27.54

Upland

24.45

22.20

25.28

27.70

Land utilization :
Wet land

29.26

28.80

25.53

28.35

Dry-land

27.34

26.12

26.03

27.39

Plantation

26.53

25.95

26.09

28.48

Soil condition:
Wet

25.26

28.25

27.05

27.46

Dry

22.59

25.22

26.92

26.13

Climatic zone:
B

27.24

24.11

29.68

29.46

C

27.23

27.07

29.39

28.78

D

25.61

27.38

29.29

28.60

E

20.32

24.66

29.00

27.48

F

25.28

24.50

28.03

24.55

1)Nitis et al. (1985).

Table 11. Deleterious principles in forage and fodder1)

 

Roughage Deleterious principles
Acacia Leaf Cyanoglucosides, fluoroacetic acid, tannins (1.5%)
Banana Leaf Tannin
Cassava leaf HCN (17.5 mg/100g)
Gliricidia leaf Tannins
Leucaena Mimosine (3-hydroxy-4 [1H] – pyridone)
Young leaf

2.1 – 6.8%

Mature leaf

0.3 – 3.7%

Stems

3.7%

Seeds

7.1%

Mesquite Tannin (2.9%)
Water hyacinth Oxalic acid (2.4% dry matter)
Setaria anceps Oxalic acid

1)Devendra (1989)

Better integration
In companion cropping forage is inter-cropped with food crops. In Bali Stylosanthes guianensis under cassava increased the forage yield by 115% without affecting the tuber yield (Nitis and Suarna, 1976). The Stylosanthes aftermath produced 132% more forage than without (Nitis., 1977). Bali cattle fed Pennisetum purpureum mixed with Stylosanthes guianensis (50 : 50) gained 42% more live weight than those fed Pennisetum alone (Nitis, 1981). With a companion crop, the soil, which would be bare after harvest, is protected from the sun and wind, soil degradation is reduced, and soil fertility increased; nitrogen contributed by the Stylosanthes is equivalent to urea at 20 kg/ha in one crop season (Nitis, 1977).

Table 12. Toxic effects of the shrub and tree fodders 1)


Effect Species
Decreased milk yield Bambusa spp, Bauhinia variegata. Boehmeria regulosa, Bredula retusa, Ficus auriculata. F. semicordata, F. hispida, F. glaberrina, F. roxburghii, Grewia tiliaefolia, Prunus cerasoides, Quercus incana, Shorea robusta.
Dysphagia Bridella retusa, Buddleja asiatica, Ficus lacor, F. roxburghii
Haematuria Albizia stipulata, Ficus semicordata, F. nemoralis, Osyris wightiana, Thysanolaena maxima
Abortion Bambusa spp, Bauhinia vahlii, Ficus semicordata, F. hispida
Hair loss, skin disease

Ficus clavana, Mucuna nigricans, Schima wallichii, Shorea robusta

Photosensitization Lantana camara
Death Dolichos lablab

1)Joshi and Singh (1989), Nitis et al. (1989).

Table 13. Botanical composition (%) of roughage fed to livestock in Bali province1

 

Roughage species

Cattle

Buffalo

Goat

Grass

78

87

36

Ground legume

3

5

2

Shrub and tree leaves

15

1

61

Straw

2

3

-

Stem

1

1

-

Others

1

3

1

1) Nitis et al. (1985)

Table 14. Botanical composition (%) of the roughage fed to cattle at different land utilization in Bali province1

 

Roughage species

Wetland

Dry-land

Plantation

Grass

85

70

60

Ground legume

1

2

1

Shrub and tree leaves

6

23

15

Straw

3

1

1

Stem

1

2

1

Others

4

2

2

1) Nitis et al. (1985).


Alley cropping is growing crops between rows of frequently-pruned leguminous shrubs. The foliage can be used for green manure or livestock feed. This system has been practised in dry-land farming area in Nusa Tenggara.

Relay-cropping involves upland rice and pulses (Gutteridge, 1985). This system has been developed mainly to try to maintain productivity and to reduce soil erosion and degradation. The leguminous residue grain harvest can be used by ruminants with little or no detrimental effect to the productivity of the system. Nutrient cycling may be accelerated if the residues pass through the animals. Selection of the legume is very important, because that with the lowest harvest index will provide most forage or green manure (Pintarak et al., 1982). This system is practised in most, if not all, rain-fed dry-land farming in Indonesia

In the bench terrace system, grasses are planted along the terrace risers (KEPAS, 1988); the crop is planted on the terrace. The grass strip reduces the water abrasion of the sloping land and, when regularly cut, supplies forage. This system has been tested in hilly and upland areas in Java.

Taongya is a Burmese word meaning hill cultivation and is derived from traditional shifting cultivation. Improved taongya is growing strips of fodder shrub and trees with crops between bands of timber trees on sloping land used for forestry (Wiersum, 1982). Experiments in Indonesia showed that this system supplies more livestock feed, more food crop, and firewood to the farmer working in the forestry department. It has been developed in the forest estates in Sumatra, Irian Jaya, Sulawesi and Kalimantan.

In the Surjan system multipurpose shrubs and trees are grown along raised beds, prepared for crops, in low lying land (KEPAS, 1988); they are lopped as a fodder when other feeds are in short of supply. This system has been tested in tidal, and swampy lands in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

In the improved pasture system, improved grasses and legumes are sown alone or with the native pasture in the fallow, communal, or private grazing land and even on the critical land. Trials in Eastern Indonesia showed that over-sowing native pasture with Centrosema, Stylosanthes, Calopogonium, and Macroptilium species can increase the stocking rate six times (Till and Blair, 1982). The productivity of native pasture under coconut can be increased by improving the pasture. Trials in Bali (Rika et al., 1991) showed that forage production under coconut can be increased by introducing Arachis pintoi (Rika, pers. comm.).

Fodder banks; shrubs and trees can be planted on either the embankment of water ways, in clusters on sloping land, on critical land or fallow land or on land not used for crops (Nitis, 1986); in pure stands of leguminous or non-leguminous fodder shrubs and trees, or in combinations. Forage production is important when the stand is young and deteriorates as it matures. Young stands can be grazed but once mature a cut and carry system is more appropriate.

The home-plot system is the integration of farm yard with shrubs and trees, pasture, food crop and livestock in a small (0.25 ha at least) area (Anon, 1990). The border of the compound is planted with shrub and trees with a strip of grass inside . The area inside the border is used for housing the family, livestock shed, fodder shed, for growing food crops, forage and fodder. Feeding is the cut and carry, the system is being tested in Sumatra.

Three strata forage system; this technique of planting of grass and legumes (first stratum), shrubs (second stratum), and fodder trees (third stratum) surrounds the crops in such a way that green feed is available year round(Nitis et al., 1989). The system consists of 0.25 ha divided into a core, peripheral and circumference areas. The core is planted with the crop commonly grown by local farmers. The surrounding (peripheral) area is planted with grass and legumes; the border area is planted with shrubs and fodder trees as a third stratum. The grasses and legumes are harvested during the four-month wet season; the shrubs during the four-month early dry season. The fodder trees are harvested during the four-month late dry season. Some pertinent results of the 13 year researches are as follows (Nitis et al., 1989, TSFS Team; 1993, Nitis et al., 1994, 1997b) :

  • Food crop yield decreased 43%, because the land used to grow the cash crop is only 0.16 ha out of the 0.25 ha. However, production per unit area increased 5%.
  • Forage production increased 91% because of the presence of 0.09 ha improved pasture, 2 000 shrubs, 42 fodder trees.
  • Livestock feed contained 13% more crude protein, because the diet contained ground legumes and shrubs legumes.
  • Bali steers gained 13% more live weight and made 24% more efficient usage of the forage; the carcass contained 10% more fat and 9% more rump portion.
  • Stocking rate for the Bali steer during the wet and dry seasons increased 45% and 30%, respectively, and the carrying capacity increased 52%.
  • Time spent in caring for Bali steer was 16% less so that extra time was available for off-farm activity.
  • The reproductive cycle of the Bali cow is shorter and the calf weight at birth and at weaning is heavier.
  • By keeping one bovine and three male goats the total live weight gain was 39% more and the feed usage was 16% more efficient than by keeping two steer only.
  • Egg production and egg hatchability of the local hens increased 56% and 17%, respectively.
  • Goat and poultry integration increased the role of women in the farming system.
  • Maize and soybean fertilized with goat manure produced 7% and 11% more grain plus forage, respectively, than those fertilized with cattle manure.
  • Soil erosion decreased 51%, while soil organic matter increased 11%.
  • Firewood supply increased 5.6 times (462%)
  • Farm income increased 30% and farmer income increased 29%.

The Three Strata Farming System has been developed in the nine Forage and Fodder Development Centres. The Directorate General of Livestock Service Jakarta has used it to increase productivity in dry-land farming area

Improved management
To keep the grass, fodder shrub and tree green and in production all year around, they should be harvested twice during the 4 months wet season and twice during the 8 months dry season (Nitis et al., 1989).

In 1996 there were 27 600 farmer groups in Indonesia, consisting of 5.72, 37.71, 11.42 and 45.15% dairy cow, beef cattle, buffalo and sheep/goat farmer groups, respectively (Anon, 1996). The biggest number of dairy cattle and beef cattle farmer groups is in West Java and East Java provinces, respectively; while the biggest buffalo and small ruminant farmer groups is in North Sumatra province.

To increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the transfer and adoption of technologies, the Government has appointed 356 extension workers and 4 274 extension specialists in 1996. The biggest number of extension workers and extension specialists is in South Sulawesi and Central Java provinces, respectively.

To increase the quantity, quality and species of grass, ground legume, fodder shrub and fodder trees in line with the agro-ecological zone, the Government has established 9 Forage and Fodder Development Centre, situated in the province of Banda Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Java, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara and South Kalimantan.



 

VII. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL

Research on feeds and feeding of livestock is carried out in the Livestock Research Centre in West Java. The contact is : Dr. M. Winugroho, Balai Penelitian Ternak, P.O. Box 221, Ciawi Bogor, Indonesia [Phone (0251) 240752]. In the Faculty of Animal Husbandry the Department of Nutrition and Forage Science teaches at degree, M. Sc. and PhD. levels. There are 15 Faculties of Animal Husbandry: 2 in Sumatra, 6 in Java, 3 in Sulawesi, one each in Bali, Lombok, Timur and Ambon (Anon, 1996). The contact for the upland forage research and development is Professor Dr. Sudarmadi, Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Institute Pertanian Bogor, Komplek IPB Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia [Phone (0251) 622810 - 811].
 

    Some of the other contacts are as follows :

  • Sumatra : Ketua Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Andalas, Komplek Unand, Limau Manis, Padang, Indonesia.
  • West Java : Ketua Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Institute Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia.
  • Central Java : Ketua Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Gajah Mada, Komplek Karang Malang, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
  • East Nusa tenggara : Ketua Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Kupang, Indonesia.
  • Sulawesi : Ketua Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Hasannudin, Jl. Perintis Kemerdekaan, Ujung Pandang, Indonesia.
  • There are seven Animal Husbandry Training School located two in Sumatra, two in Java, one each in Kalimantan, Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara to represent the different agro-ecological zones (Anon, 1996).
  • There are nine Forage and Fodder Development Centres in line with the agro-ecological zones. The contact for dryland forage and fodder development is: Ir. D.H.Rihi, Balai Pembibitan Ternak dan Hijauan Makanan Ternak, Jl, Rahman Hakim No. 4, Lili, Kupang, Indonesia [Phone (0391) 32285].
  •  

     

    Some of the other contacts are as follows:

  • Sumatra : Kepala Balai Pembibitan Ternak dan Hijauan Makanan Ternak, Sinur Siborong-borong, Tapanuli Utara, Indonesia
  • Central Java : Kepala Balai Pembibitan Ternak dan Hijauan Makanan Ternak, Baturaden, Purwokerto, Indonesia.
  • East Nusa Tenggara : Kepala Balai Pembibitan Ternak dan Hijauan Makanan Ternak, Lili, Kupang, Indonesia.
  • Professional organizations working on pasture, feeds and feeding are :
  • Indonesian Agricultural Science Graduate Association (Ikatan Sarjana Ilmu-ilmu Pertanian Indonesia) with the Head Office in Jakarta and branches in all the Faculties of Animal Husbandry. The contact is : Ir. Maimunah Tuhulele, Direktorat Jendral Peternakan, Ji. Harsono RM No. 3, Ragunan, Jakarta Selantan, Indonesia [Phone (6221) 9116363. Fax. (6221) 7804166].
  • Indonesian Green Feed Association (Asosiasi Pakan Hijauan Indonesia) with Head Office in Bandung and branches in all the Departments of Nutrition and Forage Science, in the 15 Faculties of Animal Husbandry. The contact is: Professor Dr. Hasbi Tirtapradja, Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Universitas Pajajaran, Jl Raya Banung, Sumedang RM. 21, Bandung, Indonesia [Phone (0261) 798304]
  • Indonesian Nutrition Sciences Association (Asosiasi Ilmu-ilmu Nutrisi Indonesia) with Head Office in Bogor and branches in all the Department of Nutrition and Forage Science in the 15 Faculty of Animal Husbandry in Indonesia. The contact is: Professor Dr. Toha Sutardi, Jurusan Nutrisi dan Makanan Ternak, Fakultas Peternakan, Institute Pertanian Bogor, Kampus IBP Darmaga, Bogor, Indonesia [Phone (0251) 626877. Fax (0251) 622841].


 

VIII. REFERENCES

Anon. (1990). Production and utilization of shrubs legumes in the tropics. ACIAR workshop on Production and utilization of shrub legume in the tropics. Indonesia, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Preprint. 110 pp.

Anon. (1996) Baku Statistik Peternakan. Direktorat Jendral Peternakan, Jakarta. 116 hal.

Backer, C.A. and Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C. (1963). Flora of Java. The Netherlands. N.V.P. Noordhoff, Groningen, 648 pp.

BPS (1995). Statistical year book of Indonesia. Ed. Statistical Evaluation and Report Division. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, Indonesia 589 pp.

Deptan R. I. (1988). Potensi dan pembudidayaan pada lahan kritis. Seminar Nasional Pola Pengembangan lahan kritis. Universitas Udayana, Denpasar, Bali. 21 hal.

Devendra, C. (1989). The use of shrubs and tree fodders by ruminant. Proc. of a workshop on Shrubs and tree fodders for farm animals. IDRC – 276e. p. 42 – 60.

FAO (1991). Agroforestry in the Philippines. by R. C.Bayabas. In W. Mellink, Y.S. Rao, K.G. Mac Dicken, eds. Agroforestry in Asia and the Pacific. FAO-RAPA Pub. 1991/5. P.138 – 147. Rome

Fleury, J.M. (1985). Trees takes to the fields. IDRC Report 14 (1) : 18 – 20.

Gutteridge, R.C. (1985). Forage crop for rice-based farming systems. Report of the 16th Asian Rice Farming Systems Working Group Meeting. Bangladesh. P. 311 – 324.

ILCA (1988). International Livestock Centre. Annual report 1987. Ethiopia. 46 pp.

Ischak (1994). Geografi 1 : Buku pelajaran untuk sekolah Menengah Umum. PT Intan Pawiwara, Pub. Klaten, Indonesia. 290 hal.

Ivory, D. A., and Siregar, M. E. (1984). Forage research in Indonesia : Past and present. Asian Pasture. FFTC Book series No.25 p.12 – 29.

Jones, R. J. (1986). Leucaena toxicity and the ruminant degradation of mimosine. Nutrition Abstracts and reviews. 58b : 111 – 119.

Joshi, N. P., and Sigh, S. B. (1989). Availability and use of shrubs and tree fodders in Nepal. Proc. of a workshop on Shrub and tree fodders for farm animals. IDRC – 276e. p 211 – 220.

KEPAS (1988). Pedoman usaha tani konservasi tanah lahan kering : zone agroekosistem batuan kapur. Badan Litbang Pertanian Jakarta. 68 hal.

Lowry, J. B. (1989). Toxic factors and problems : method of alleviating these in animals. Proc. International workshop on Shrubs and tree fodders for farm animals. IDRC – 276e. p 26 – 88.

Manidool, C. (1984). Pasture under coconut in Thailand. Asian Pasture. FFTC Book Series, No.25. p. 204 – 214.

Manik, G., Raka, Haryana, I. G. N., dan Ramli (1977). Pembagian iklim di daerah Bali berdasarkan pembagian iklim Schmidt dan Ferguson. Bull. FKHP. Unud. No.081.

Moog, F. A. (1985). Forages in integrated food cropping systems. ACIAR proc. No.12. p. 152 – 156.

Muir, M. (1996). Tanah-tanah utama Indonesia. Karasteristik, klasifikasi dan pemanfaatannya. PT. Dunia Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. 346 hal.

Munoz, A.M., and Seifert, S.H. (1991). Studies on the toxicity of L. leucocephala in goats in Northeast Mexico. Animal Research and Development. Institute for Scientific Cooperation. Tubingen, F.R.G. p. 43 – 56.

NFTA (1989). Leucaena research report. Section 1. Contributed paper on the leucaena phsyllid. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association. Vol. 10 : 1 – 16.

Nitis, I.M. (1977). Stylosanthes as companion crop to cassava. Final report to IFS, Sweden. 88 pp.

Nitis, I.M. (1981). Performance of Bali cattle fed grass supplemented with stylosanthes. Final report to IFS, Sweden. 43 pp.

Nitis, I.M. (1986). Production systems based on tree cropping. Proc. of workshop on Small ruminant production systems in South and Southeast Asia. IDRC – 256 e. p.101-107.

Nitis, I.M. (1997). Silvipastural systems in tropical context. XVIII Intern. Grassland Congress 2000. Canada. 112 pp.

Nitis, I.M. (1998). Non-concentional roughages in tropical land sub-tropical Asian-Australasian countries. Preprint. VIII World concefence on animal production. Soul, Korea. 21 pp.

Nitis, I.M., and Suarna, M. (1976). Undersowing cassava with stylo grown under coconut. Proc. 4th Symposium Intern. Soc. of Tropical root crops, Colombias. p.98 – 108.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., Putra, S. Pemayun, T.G.O., and Puger, A.W. (1994) Growth and reproductive performance of Bali heifer under Three strata forage system. Technical Report prepared for FAO, Rome. 32 pp.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Puger, A.W., Sukanten, W., and Putra, S. (1996). Farm level seed production of a top performing Gliricidia sepium in dry-land farming area in Bali, Indonesia. Technical Report prepared for FAO, Rome. 36 pp.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Pemayun, T.G.O., Sukanten, W., and Puger, A.W. (1997b). Second gestation and second calf nursing of Bali cow under Three strata forage system. Progress Report to Futaba, Japan. 36 pp.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., and Puger, A.W. (1997a).Productivity of dry-land farming area under different gliricidia planting and lopping system in Bali. Progress Report to ICRAF, Kenya. 35 pp.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., and Putra, S. (1991). Gliricidia provenance evaluation in dry-land farming area in Bali. Report to IDRC, Canada. 112 pp.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Suarna, M., Sukanten, W., Putra, S., and Arga, W. (1989). Three strata forage system for cattle feeds and feeding in dry-land farming area in Bali. Final report to IDRC, Canada. 252 pp.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Sudana, I.B., Sutji, N., and Sarka, I.G.N. (1980). Survei data makanan ternak di Bali, FKHP, Universitas Udayana, Denpasar. 216 hal.

Nitis, I.M., Lana, K., Susila, T.G.O., Sukanten, W. and Uchida, S. (1985).Chemical composition of the grass, shrub and tree leaves in Bali. Supplementary Report to IDRC. Report No. 1. 97 pp.

Pintarak, A., Sawbankam, T., Boonchee, S., Singkata, V., and Hoult, E. (1982). Proc. 2nd conference on Soil and water conservation and management. Khon Khaen, Thailand.

Rika, I.K., Mendra, I.K., Gusti Oka, M. and M.G. Oka Nurjaya (1991) New forage species for coconut plantations in Bali. In: Forages for Plantation Crops (edit. Shelton, H.M. and Stur, W.W. 1991 ACIAR Proc. No. 32, 41-44.

Soehadji (1990). Kebijaksanaan pemeliharran ternak khususnya sapi bali dalam pembangunan peternakan. Proc. Seminar natisonal Sapi Bali. Universitas Udayana, Denpasar. Hal. A1 – A10.

Soehadji (1991). Kebijaksanaan pengembangan sapi potong di Indonesia. Proc. Seminar nasional sapi Bali. Universitas Hasannudin, Ujung Pandang. Hal. 1 – 32.

Surjani, M. (1970). Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) : Pattern of growth as related to its problem of control. BIOTROP Bull. No.1.

Till, A.R., and Blair, G.J. (1982). Cattle production from pastures in eastern Indonesia. Proc. Animal production and heath in the tropics. University Pertanian Malaysia Pub. p. 343 – 346.

TSFS Team (1993). Gliricidia for goat feeds and feeding in the three strata forage system. Final report to IDRC, Canada. Centre file 90 - 0263, 227 pp.

Wiersum, K.F. (1982). Tree gardening and taongya on Java : Example of agroforestry technique in humid tropics. Agroforestry system. 1 : 53 – 70.



 

IX. CONTACT

This profile was written by Professor Dr. I. M. Nitis in 1999.

Address:
Head Research and Development, 
Three Strata Forage System Project, 
Department of Nutrition and Tropical Forage Science, 
Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia.
Phone : 62 361 224164. FAX : 62 361 236021.

[The profile was edited by J. M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds in 1999 and some statistics were updated by S.G. Reynolds in October 2006].