Sierra Leone is on the west coast of Africa between 6o 55’ N and 10 o00’ N. The Republic of Guinea borders it on the north and northeast, and the Republic of Liberia borders it on the east and southeast. On the west and southwest, the Atlantic Ocean extends approximately 340 km. (Figure 1a). There are four administrative regions: Northern Province, Eastern Province, Southern Province and the Western Area; which are further divided into fourteen districts (Figure 1b). The country covers a total land area of 72 325 km2. Nearly 75% of the total land area is arable. Approximately 56% of the land is below 150 m. above sea level. Upland and lowland ecologies make up 78% and 22% respectively of the arable land area (Table 1). The uplands are composed of forest, savannah woodlands and grasslands while the lowlands comprise 690 000 hectares (ha.) of inland valley swamps, 145 000 ha. of ‘bolilands’ (or large, saucer-shaped basins), 130 000 ha. of riverine grasslands; and 200 000 ha. of mangrove swamps.
Sierra Leone became independent from Britain on April 27, 1961 and attained Republic status on April 19, 1971. Since the mid-1980s, the country has suffered dramatic economic decline and political instability. It went through five military coups (1967-1991), and a 10-year civil conflict from 1991-2002.
The population was 4.8 million in 2004, and was predicted to reach 5.5 million in July 2012 (SSL, 2007; CIA, 2012). There were more females (51.4%) than males (48.4%) in 2004. The estimated population growth rate in 2012 was 2.3% (CIA, 2012). About 62% of the population lives in rural areas and depends on agriculture for food and income. Seventy percent of the population lives in absolute poverty, especially in Kailahun and Bombali districts (Figure 2). Life expectancy at birth is estimated at 56 years, and adult literacy level was 48% for men and 27% for women in 2007 (SSL, 2007). There are 18 ethnic groups, of which the Teme, Mende and Limba account for 35%, 32% and 8% respectively (Figure 3). Ethnic alien groups include the Lebanese, Indians, French, Germans and Swiss.
Sierra Leone is well endowed with natural resources (Figure 4). In 2011, the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP, purchasing power parity) was estimated at U$ 5.16 billion growing at a rate of 5.3%, with a GDP per capita of US$ 900 (CIA, 2012). Agriculture, services and industry contributed 51.5%, 26.5% and 22% respectively of the national GDP in 2011.
The agricultural sector (see Figure 4), comprising food crops, tree crops, fishery, livestock, and forestry sub-sectors is the backbone of Sierra Leone’s economy. Nearly two-thirds of the population depends on the sector for its livelihood (Braima et al., 2006; SSL, 2007; SSL, 2009). The crops sub-sector dominates the agricultural GDP with 33% in 2010 (SSL, 2010). Most farmers produce a wide range of rainfed food and tree crops, predominantly using the slash-and-burn or shifting cultivation farming system (SSL, 2007).
The major food crops are rice, cassava, maize, millet, sorghum, sweet potato, and groundnut. They are produced by smallholders with an average land holding averaging from 0.5-2.0 hectares. Rice is the most important crop, cultivated by nearly 85% of farmers, with an estimated annual consumption of 76 kg per person (Catling, 1992; SSL, 2007; IRRI, 2004). Cassava is the second most important crop. The tubers and leaves are consumed by households and cassava products (gari, flour and chips), are in high demand in urban areas. Production of food crops, especially rice and maize increased during 2008-2010 (Table 2). Oil palm is the main tree crop. Other perennial crops are citrus, cocoa, coffee, coconut and sugarcane. Crop yields are generally low due to: limited access to agricultural inputs, low levels of mechanization, pest and disease problems, lack of markets and market information, labour shortages and a weak private sector.
The soil resources of Sierra Leone have been summarized in earlier reports (Dijkerman, 1969; Bationo et al., 2006). The soils belong to five orders (and several series): Oxisols, Inceptisols, Entisols, Ultisols and Spodosols (Table 3). Oxisols are the most widespread followed by Inceptisols and Entisols. Ultisols and Spodosols are also present but are rare. The soils can also be generally classified into three main groups as shown in Figure 5: lithosols, ferrallitic and hydromorphic or swamp soils.
Oxisols (or Ferralsols): are the common soils on the gently undulating uplands and in the inland swamps. They are strongly weathered and leached soils with low ability to supply nutrients to plants and capacity to retain nutrients (cation exchange capacities, CEC; Bationo et al., 2006,). Due to their low CEC, inorganic fertilizers, especially nitrogen is required in small amounts to avoid leaching because the soils occur in high rainfall regions. They contain free iron and aluminium oxides that fix phosphate fertilizers. Other constraints of oxisols include: deficiency in calcium, magnesium and potassium; presence of aluminium which can be toxic to many plant species, and deficiency of molybdenum required for the growth of legumes. They are usually deep, well-drained red or yellow soils with good structure, and deep profile, and uniform properties with depth.
Inceptisols: also widespread and occur on steep slopes where erosion is active and in areas of recent alluvium. They are slightly more developed than the entisols and are less strongly weathered and leached than oxisols. The subsoil contains some weatherable materials. Inceptisols are richer in plant nutrients and have higher CEC than Oxisols. They include some poorly drained gley soils without well-developed horizons.
Entisols: are common on some sandy beach ridges and in poorly drained swamps or lagoons that are waterlogged throughout the year. They are sandy, young soils, limited in minerals in which the horizons are only slightly developed or undeveloped. They include recently deposited alluvial materials and some young soils on inert and resistant parent materials.
Ultisols or acrisols: have a high water holding capacity, but the higher density of the second horizon may limit biological activity and root penetration. Although these soils are less weathered than ferralsols, mineral reserves are low. Leaching is a problem in these soils and boron and manganese are also deficient. High aluminum content may lead to phosphate fixation. The structure of the surface soil is weak and internal drainage may be hampered by the compact texture of the horizon below the surface soil.
Hydromorphic or swamp soils: the most frequent of the swamp soils are the water-logged, gray hydromorphic soils. They are found in the floors of valleys, which are flooded in the rainy season. They are extremely deficient in plant nutrients, and are among the least productive soils in Sierra Leone. However, if drained and fertilized, they can be used for producing rice and other crops.
The physical features of Sierra Leone are shown in Figure 6. The four main physical regions are: (i) the Coastal Plains, (ii) the Interior Plains, (iii) the Interior Plateau and (iv) Freetown Peninsula Mountains and hills.
The coastal plain is a strip of about 40 km wide adjoining the coast and running parallel to it. Most of it is less than 15 m above sea level. The topography is nearly flat. It consists of sandy beach ridges and lagoons, mangrove swamps, alluvial grassland flood plains, raised beaches and coastal terraces.
Interior plains or lowlands region makes up about half of the country. It is a strip about 100 km wide adjoining and running parallel to the east of the coastal plain. It rises gently from an elevation of 40 m in the west to 150 m in the northeast. Most of the area is largely swamp.
The interior plateau and hill region covers the north-eastern half of the country, and is part of the Guinean Highlands. It consists mainly of elevated plateau country, between elevations of 300-600 m above sea level. It is the most extensive physical region and includes the greatest variety of land forms. The Interior Plateau is dissected by the main rivers flowing westward towards the sea. In the central area and near the Guinea border, a number of hills and mountains, including the Kambui, Nimini, and Gori hills and the Sula, Kangari, Loma, Tingi, and Wara mountains rise above the general level of this region. Further south-east in the upper Moa river basin, the elevations decrease to only about 150 m and 300 m.
The Freetown peninsula consists of three roughly parallel ranges of highlands that are narrow but extend about 30 km south of Freetown. The hills and mountains in the highlands rise impressively from 200 m to 1 000 m above the low-lying narrow coastal area. The Sugar Loaf and Picket Hills are the highest. They developed from basic and ultra-basic rocks, and hills of acid rock origin.
Sierra Leone has a tropical climate with two pronounced seasons: a wet season from May to October, and a dry season from November to April. Rainfall is highest in the coastal areas, 3 000-5 000 mm per year (Figure 7).This decreases inland and at the eastern boarder of the country the average rainfall is 2 000-2 500 mm per annum. Rainfall decreases to between 2 930 mm to 2 540 mm in the north of the country.
The major agro-ecological zones (AEZs), vegetation types and associated uses are summarized in Table 4. The vegetation zones can be broadly classified into forest, savannah woodland and the swamps or marsh (Figure 8). Sierra Leone was originally a forested country with over 60% of its land covered by closed forest, the rest being woodland savannah of the guinea type. Currently, about 70% of its forest has been lost due to human activities - clearing for use in ‘slash-and-burn’ or shifting cultivation farming, timber and firewood. Patches of rain forest can be found scattered in the northern, eastern and southern provinces (Figure 8).
Forest: forest ecosystems can be divided into closed forest and transition or secondary forest. The closed forest can further be sub-divided into evergreen and semi-deciduous forests. The evergreen forest is characterized by trees about 30 m tall with a closed canopy growing in areas with abundant rainfall of at least 3 000 mm per year which is well distributed throughout the year. The semi-deciduous forest has similar characteristics to the rain forest, but with a greater proportion of deciduous forest trees. Herbaceous layers which may include a few specialized grasses occur over a variable portion of the forest floor. A number of timber trees are present in the rain forest, such as the African mahogany (Khaya ivorensis and K. grandifoliola), the scented sapele wood (Entandrophragma cylindricum) and iroko (Chlorophora excels). There are also economic cash crops such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), cocoa (Theobroma cacao) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis).
Savannah woodland : is mostly found in the Northern Province towards Guinea, especially in Koinadugu, Bombali and Kono districts. There is also a strip of savannah along the coast of Bonthe and Pujehun districts (Figure 8). It is comprised of the derived Guinea and the Sudan savannah zones. In the northern region where 60% of the cattle and small ruminant population is concentrated, over 9 000 km,2 of land has been left bare due to overgrazing. There are no attempts at any form of range and pasture management; bush fires continue to affect about 200 000 hectares of savannah woodlands annually.
Swamps or marsh : are mostly found along the coast in the Southern Province (Figure 8). The vegetation is mainly mangroves, scattered patches of bushes and savannah woodland. They are divided into: inland valley swamps, mangrove swamps, and bolilands. Several factors, including hydrological conditions, such as the frequency and duration of flooding, depth of the water level, soil type, and physiography determine the vegetation and composition of plant communities.
Cattle production is the main livestock activity in the country. Cattle ownership is concentrated in five percent of the farming population, notably within the Fula and Mandingo ethnic groups. Although some non-Fula ethnic groups own cattle, they often entrust their livestock to the Fula on pay or produce-sharing arrangements. The main sources of cattle are from Guinea and the international cattle market at Gbini (Photo 1).
N’Dama crossbreds: a small number of Sahiwals were imported from Kenya in 1974 and bred as pure and crossbred with N’Dama at Teko to improve the milk yield of the N’Dama. The crossbreds calved earlier and had higher calf mortality rates than the pure breeds (Table 8). Birth weight and daily weight gain of the crossbreds were also higher than the pure N’Dama but lower than the Sahiwals. Jersey cattle have recently been introduced for crossbreeding with N’Dama. Reproductive performance of the first generation N’Dama x Jersey crosses is being monitored (Michael Abdullai, personal communication). Sahelian cows were imported from Mali by Njala University Farm and a few farmers after the war. However, most of them died from trypanosomiasis and poor management (including a lack of shelter to protect them from the rains).
Sheep and goats
Compared to cattle, small ruminants are widely spread, owned by many ethnic groups, and are reared by households in all districts in the country, but the percent of households owning sheep and goats is relatively higher in the Northern Province, especially Koinadgu, Kambi, Bombali and Port Loko districts than the other provinces (Table 6). Generally, households keep only a few sheep and goats for meat, except the Fulani in the north whose flocks tend to be larger. The predominant breeds are the trypanotolerant West African Dwarf (WAD) and Djallonké (Trail et al., 1980; Ngegba, 1988) as shown in Photos 3 and 4. There are a considerable number of the larger Sahelian goat and crosses between the WAD and the Sahelian goats.
Data is limited on the performance of sheep and goats in Sierra Leone. The long-term trend in the sheep population showed that the number of sheep declined during the civil war (Table 5), but has increased sharply in recent years. Age at first lambing of local sheep at the Musaia Stock Farm ranged between 15-18 months FAO (1971). Prolificacy was 141%, with two lambings a year. Mortality rates among lambs ranged from 16-67% per year.
The civil war seems to have had little or no effect on the goat population (Table 5). The number of goats increased slowly during, and sharply after the war. Milk yield potential of local goats was recorded at the Teko station. Average milk production was 25 kg over a lactation period of 56 days, i.e., 0.45 kg per day (Trail et al., 1980). Lactations ranged from 24 to 111 days, with a maximum yield per lactation of 46 kg.
Ruminant husbandry systems
Management systems for cattle, sheep and goats include the traditional free-roaming or village system, pastoral, agro-pastoral, integrated ruminant-tree crop plantation, and peri-urban/urban more intensive systems (Sumberg and Cassaday, 1984; Hoste, 1992; Ngegba, 1988).
Traditional, village or extensive: Most cattle, sheep and goats are kept in free-roaming flocks in villages and their environs scavenging for feed, and may or may not be tethered during the cropping season. Owners of the free-roaming animals provide little or no supplementary feed, housing, health care and breeding management. Mortalities from pest and diseases are high. For example, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) can decimate a whole village flock of goats. Tethering is common in communities where the free-roaming system is disruptive to crop production, and where farmers have small number of animals, and limited access to land. It involves seasonal tethering of individual animals in the compound or in areas where forages are available for in situ grazing. Forage may also be cut-and-carried to tethered animals.
Pastoralism: N’Dama herds under Fulani management are common in the Northern Province. The herds of cattle move from place to place in search of better grazing. Cattle are usually tended by the owner or a member of his family. Herding is continuous during the rains but much more casual in the dry season. They tend to graze on the hills and fallow lands during the rains. In the dry season, they are brought back to cultivated areas where they graze in swamps, rice fields and various areas which they cannot access during the wet season. The herds are gathered in the evening, and are either penned or tethered. Cows are milked regularly (Photo 5). The average herd may consist of 20 to 30 cows (FAO, 1971). In the north the herds tend to be larger, with a maximum of 50 to 150 heads. Crop damage from cattle occurs during the dry season resulting in conflicts between crop farmers and cattle herdsmen.
Mixed crop-livestock farming: Integrated crop-livestock production is practiced in almost all agro-ecological zones and provinces in Sierra Leone. Under this system, the crop and livestock enterprises are integrated components of a single farming system. The level of integration is, however, closer in the savannah than the forest zone. Agro-pastoralism and integrated tree crop-ruminant production systems are the main mixed crop-livestock types.
Heifer integrated crop-livestock project: Heifer International started a 5-year project to promote integrated crop-livestock farming at Regent, Morthaim, Baoma, Makomba and Crossing in the western rural districts (HI, 2009). Farmers were trained in improved crop and livestock production. They were given seeds of improved rice and groundnuts as well as a number of either sheep or goats. The animals were kept in zero-grazed, raised platforms made of thatch and wood scraps (Photo 6). The sheep and goat manure was used as organic fertilizer for the crops, and the crop residues and by-products were used as feed for the animals in the dry season.
Peri-urban and urban systems: Rearing of cattle, sheep and goats in and around cities in Sierra Leone has become a very popular activity since the civil war. For example, in 2007 about 4-5% of households in Bo and Bonthe cities in the Southern Province, and in Makeni town in the Northern Province reared sheep and goats (Table 6). The peri-urban livestock population has been growing, partly because when people moved into towns during and after the civil war, some moved together with their livestock. Management of animals in the peri-urban and urban production units may be either semi-intensive or intensive. Feeding is based on cut-and-carry forages, household waste, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. The animals are also grazed freely or tethered to graze by road sides where possible. The peri-urban and urban production units supply fattened rams and bucks for the expanding urban markets, especially during religious festivities.
Challenges of livestock production
Constraints to ruminant production in Sierra Leone have been outlined in various reports (MAFFS, 2004, 2007; Alieu, 2005; Ngegba, 1988). They include:
Strategies to improve ruminant production
The Government’s Agricultural Sector Review and Agricultural Development Strategy (2004) and Agricultural Sector Policy (2007) outlined strategies to address constraints facing the ruminant industry. They include:
In a position paper on sheep and goat production in Sierra Leone, Ngegba (1988) recommended the following strategies to increase smallholder sheep and goat production:
Finally, a Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) working group on livestock (Woldt et al., 2009) suggested the following “quick wins” in animal services:
There are four major feed resources of importance and relevance to ruminant feeding in Sierra Leone. These are: natural pasture and fallow land, sown pasture, fodder shrubs and trees, and crop residues and stubbles.
In Sierra Leone, artificially re-vegetated and managed grazing resources are not common. Consequently, ruminant livestock depend on grazing natural pasture resources or savannah woodland comprising mainly of the derived, Guinea and Sudan savannahs (Table 4), for feed.
Derived savannah: is an expanding zone along forest fringes where grassland or savannah woodland is gradually replacing forest as a result of human interference (Rose-Innes, 1977). This zone was originally the drier part of the high forest. However, due to bush burning, overgrazing, and cultivation over a period, the high forest trees were destroyed and the forest is now replaced with a mixture of grasses and scattered trees. The vegetation is a mixture of trees with closed or partially closed canopy and a thick ground cover of tall shade-tolerant grasses and forbs – savannah woodland (Photo 7). It contains relic patches of high forest trees including: Antiaris, Elaeis, and Phyllanthus; while Borassus, Lophira, Daniellia, Lonchocarpus, Burkea and Parkia represent the savannah intrusions. Similarly, among the grasses, the humid zone representatives include: Pennisetum purpureum and Panicum maximum, Rottboellia exaltata, Schizachyrium sanguineum, Paspalum and Melinis species;while the subhumid zone species include Andropogon gayanus, A. tectorum, Hyperthelia and Hyparrhenia spp., Beckeropsis uniseta, and Chasmopodium caudatum (Rose-Innes, 1977). Forage legumes, such as Centrosema pubescens and Pueraria phaseolides, and Calopogonium spp. may be seen along the forest-savannah fringes.
Guinea savannah: is the broadest vegetation zone in the north of the country and is a typical fire-controlled tree savannah community of broad-leaved deciduous trees, densely distributed in a continuous ground cover of perennial bunch grasses and forbs. The crowns of the trees may reach a height of 12-15 m. but seldom form a closed canopy except over small areas. The grasses (and trees) associated with the guinea savannah are not uniform but vary according to moisture regime, soil type and the type and degree of disturbance, such as the season and frequency of burning, and intensity of grazing. Most of the tall grasses found in the derived savannah are also found in the Guinea savannah. Commonly occurring grassy species include: Andropogon gayanus with Hyperrhenia and Schizachyrium spp. as co-dominants in some areas. Other significant grass genera are: Beckeropsis uniseta, Brachiaria jubata, Chasomopodium, Ctenium newtonii, Cymbopogon giganteus, Digitaria diagonalis, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Seteria, Tristachya superba, Andropogon pseudapricus, Hyperrhenia and Loudetia spp. The appearance of this zone differs from season to season. During the rainy season the whole zone is green and covered with tall grasses that grow and reach maturity rapidly, thus becoming fibrous and tough. In the dry season they tend to dry and disappear due to several periodical bush-burning events that occur between November and April, carried out either to assist in farm clearance or hunting.
Sudan savannah: this zone stretches north of the Guinea savannah zone, and changes from open woodland savannah in the south to tree savannah in the north. Grasses found in this zone are not generally as tall, coarse or thick on the ground as those found in the Guinea savannah zone. Here there is a continuous grass cover of the short and feathery grasses on a large scale (Photo 8). The grass vegetation is interspersed with thick bush trees such as shea butter tree (Butyrospermum parkii) and Acacia albida. Also found in the zone are locust bean tree (Parkia filicoidea), tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica), Guiera senegalensis, Combretum glutinosum, and Piliostigma reticulatum. Where the fallow period is short and fires are frequent, the trees are often represented by coppice shoots and mature trees of specially preserved species of economic importance. These include Parkia spp., Butyrospermum parkia, Acacia albida, Tamarindus indica, Ceiba pentandra. Generally, the legume composition in the natural pastures is low.
Artificial pasture use is limited in Sierra Leone, except on government farms and university experimental stations and demonstration farms. This is mostly due to: 1) the vast communally grazed grassland resources, 2) relatively small ruminant population, mostly owned by small-scale farmers, and 3) problems with land acquisition; thus for example, the Foulas ethnic group who own a large proportion of the cattle population in the country find it difficult to acquire land from the Limbas and Korankos who are the land owners and mostly crop producers (Michael Abdullai, personal communication). Improved pastures of Signal grass (Brachiaria brizantha) and P. maximum alone or in association with legumes such as Centrosema pubescens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides are currently being used on the Njala University Animal Science Department farm for dry season feeding (Michael Abdullai, personal communication). In general, the grass species in both the natural and artificial pastures grow fast during the wet season, leading to an accumulation of biomass deficient in nitrogen and of low digestibility by the end of the growing season.
Shrubs and trees are particularly valuable as a source of feed in the smallholder crop-livestock farming systems in Sierra Leone because they remain green during the dry season. For example, Leucaena leucocephala is used as cut-and-carry feed in peri-urban sheep and goat production systems in Freetown (Michael Abdullai, personal communication).Other potential browse species are: Spondia mobin, Gliricida sepium, Erythrina spp., Baphia nitida, and Griffonia simplicifolia, Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium saman and Albizia flavovirens, Ficus gnaphalocarpa, F. capensis, F. glumosa, F. thonningii, Parinari curatellifolia, Daniellia oliveri, Lophira lanceolata, Adenodolichos paniculatus, Desmodium velutinum and Sphenostylis schweinfurthii (Audru, 1980).
Appreciable quantities of field crops and horticultural residues and agro-industrial by-products are available. However, they are not fully used for ruminant livestock feeding. Limited reports indicate that some farmers graze rice and corn stubble.
Forage seed production
Quality forage seed is scare, because there is no private or governmental institution designated for commercial production of forage seeds. Also, no institution is devoted to forage seed control and certification.
Foula settlement scheme
This scheme was implemented in Koinadugu District from 1953-1968 to settle the Fulani (Trail et al., 1980). It involved granting 7-year renewable leases on tracts of about 259 ha for every 100 cows and their female calves, with the agreement of the local authorities. The Fulani were meant to keep their animals on their rented land most of the year, but were allowed to move elsewhere at the end of the dry season. The scheme was supervised by the Agriculture Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources with the agreement of the local chief who received one-third of the rent. The target was to settle a total of 1 000-2 000 Fulani households. However, only 10% of the target was reached at the end of the project due to several factors, prominent among them were: 1) higher rents than what the Fulani might have been paying for the use of pasture land elsewhere, 2) the tracts of land which were rented were too small, leading to over-grazing, and 3) insufficient government extension and veterinary services. There are recent attempts to revive the settlement scheme (Michael Abdullai, personal communication). The Animal Science Department of Njala University has been contacted by the government to assist with the implementation of the new scheme. Accordingly, about 40 natural grassland sites have been ear-marked.
Challenges to Improving pasture resources
Pasture resources are declining in productivity and show undesirable shifts in floristic composition and distribution. Constraints to increasing the productivity of the pasture resources have been listed in earlier reports (MAFFS, 2004, 2007; Ngegba, 1988). They include but are not limited to the following:
Pasture resources can be improved by removing the constraints to pasture development outlined above. Several strategies and plans have been proposed to improve Sierra Leone’s pasture resources (MAFFS, 2004, 2007). They include, but are not limited to the following:
Promoting enabling policies and institutions
Facilitating community-based pasture resources management to improve feed resources availability
In consultation with the multi-stakeholder community grassland management committee, government should develop, implement and monitor pasture resources at the community level. This should include:
Creating a database on pasture resource
The Teko Livestock Research Centre
Mr. Sorie Kamara
Sheku K. Moiforay
Jesse P. J. Nyandebo
Alieu, E. K., 2005. Policies and strategies for promoting food security in Sierra Leone with special reference to rice. Paper presented at the WARDA workshop on Policies and Strategies for Promoting Rice Production in Sub-Saharan Africa, 7-9 November, 2005, Cotonou, Benin.
Asanji, M. F., 1988. Haemonchosis in sheep and goats in Sierra Leone. Journal of Helminthology, 62:243-249.
Dijkerman, J. C., 1969. Soil resources of Sierra Leone, West Africa. African Soils/Sols africains. XIV: 185-206.
MAFFS (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security), 2004. Agricultural sector review and agricultural development strategy. Vol. 2. Freetown, Sierra Leone: Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security.
MAFFS (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Security), 2007. Agricultural Sector Policy for Sierra Leone. Freetown.
Ngegba, A., 1988. Position paper on sheep and goats in Sierra Leone.
In: Timon, V.M. & Baber, R.P. (eds) Sheep and goat meat production
in the humid tropics of West Africa. FAO Animal Production and Health
Paper 70. Proceedings of a seminar held in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'lvoire,
21–25 September 1987. ISBN 92-5-002711-7.
Reynolds, S.G. 1995. Pasture-Cattle-Coconut Systems. FAO RAP Publication 1995/7, 683 p. <http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/af298e/af298E00.htm#TOC >.
Woldt, M., Cadrin, M. & Jalloh, A. 2009. USAID Office of Food for Peace Sierra Leone Food Security Country Framework FY 2010 – FY 2014.
Washington, D.C.: Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II Project (FANTA-2), Academy for Educational Development (AED).
This pasture profile was prepared in the period November 2011 to August 2012 by Asamoah Larbi, a consultant Systems Agronomist at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Tamale, Ghana since February 2012. Asamoah was a Principal Research Scientist at the Animal Research Institute, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (ARI-CSIR), Accra, Ghana from July 2011-January 2012. He was a Research Scientist in forage agronomy and integrated crop-livestock production with the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), previously known as the International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA), from 1992-2003, and the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) from July 2003-June 2011.
For additional information, please contact the author as below:
[The profile was edited by S.G. Reynolds and J. M. Suttie in December 2011 and further revised in August 2012].