COUNTRY PASTURE/FORAGE RESOURCE PROFILE
Republic of Kosovo
 

by
Dr. Muhamet A. Kamberi


1. INTRODUCTION
Population
Land area, arable and pastoral areas

2. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY
Major soil types
3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES
Climate
Agro-ecological zones

4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Dairy cattle
Sheep
Goats
Equidae
Export and import markets

  Milk and milk products
  Meat and meat products
Farming sectors
  Traditional systems (pastoral and agro pastoral, mixed smallholder, landless systems)
5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE
Pastoral vegetation
Grazing lands
Arable land grazing
    Fodder Supply and Grazing
Use of mineral and organic fertilizers
Legislation and government for livestock fodder and pastures

6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES
Development of pastures and meadows
Pasture survey
Infrastructure
8. REFERENCES
9. CONTACTS


 

1. INTRODUCTION

The Republic of Kosovo occupies a central part of the Balkan Peninsula with 700.7 km of land boundaries and an area of 10 908 square kilometres. It borders Serbia to the north and east (351.6 km), Macedonia to the south (158.7 km), Albania to the southwest (111.8km ) and Montenegro to the northwest (78.6 km) (Source: Kosovo Cadastral Agency). [see map 1] Kosovo lies between N 43016’; S 41053’; E 21016’; W 19059’, and is a geographical basin, at an altitude of about 500 metres, surrounded by mountains and divided by a central north-south ridge in two sub-regions of roughly equal size and population. (Source: SOK, Cartography).
Map 1. Geographical position of Kosovo
Source: World factbook

Population
The most recent census in Kosovo was in 1991. Estimates of the present population vary from 1.8 to 2.4 million. Kosovo‘s total resident population was estimated at about two million in mid 2000 by UNMIK‘s Department for Local Administration. In the “Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2000“, the population was estimated at 1.97 million. The Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2001 and the IMF have estimated the population at about 1.9 million. Other estimates indicate a resident population in Kosovo of about 1.9 million. According to the World Factbook the population estimate for July 2009 is 1 804 838. All sources agree that Kosovo has a very high population density of approximately 175-220 inhabitants per km2.

According to LSMS (2000), 88% of the population were ethnic Kosovo Albanians. Ethnic Serbs accounted for 7%, while other ethnic groups (e.g. Gorani, Roma and Egyptian) together accounted for approximately 5%. The same relative distribution on ethnicity has been found in other household surveys e.g. LFS (2002) and Household Budget Survey (HBS) 2002.

Table 1 shows the population of Kosovo, based on the census of 1971, 1981, 1991 and the estimations of World Fact book.

Table 1. Kosovo’s population and ethnic structure

Year

Population

By ethnicity

Albanians

Serbs

Others

1971

1 243 093

916 316

228 264

98 661

1981

1 584 196

1 226 736

209 798

147 906

1991

1 956 196

1 596 072

194 190

165 934

2008 Estimate

2 126 708

1 871 503

131 005

6 550


Figure 1. Ethnic structure of Kosovo population

At the end of the Second World War, Kosovo was a predominantly rural society with 80% of the population in rural areas. In 1991, the population was still 63% rural. In 2000, the LSMS estimated the rural population at over 60%. The population is young. About 33% is under 15 years old and more than half are under 25. About 6% is over 65. The active population (15 - 64 years) is 61% of the total. This is a huge potential labour force especially for agricultural production, an issue to be seriously taken into consideration by all stakeholders.

In 2004 the rural population accounted for nearly 60% of the total of 1.9 million, having decreased from 68% in 1981 to <65% in 1998. There was no significant change between the urban and rural population until 1999, when, due to very hard living and working conditions as a consequence of the war when their animals were either stolen or killed and homes burnt, a significant part of the rural population moved to urban areas, seeking safer housing and better living conditions. This migration has directly influenced agriculture especially in areas where most land is under pastures. When compared to other countries, Kosovo’s share of rural population to total population is still high e.g. Croatia (42%), Slovenia (43%), Bosnia and Herzegovina (55%). Riinvest (2002): Survey on Household and Labour Market.

The Agricultural Family Survey of SOK (2006) gives 1 437 585 inhabitants living in agricultural families. An agricultural family, or economy, is considered one which has at least 0.1 ha of arable land or has at least a dairy cow and a calf, or a dairy cow and a heifer; a dairy cow and two sheep or grown goats; five sheep or goats; four sheep and pigs together; three grown pigs; 50 grown fowl; 20 bee hives, more than 20 square metres of fish pond. The age group is from 15-29 years (29.1%) while those over than 65 years represent only 6.5% of the population.

Kosovo is divided into five main regions (Prishtina, Gjilan, Peja, Prizren and Mitrovica), and two sub regions (Ferizaj and Gjakova). Currently it is divided into 30 municipalities (see Map 2) and about 1,500 villages.

Map 2. Kosovo Administrative Map
Click to view full map

Land area, arable and pastoral areas
According to the Kosovo Forest Agency 42% of Kosovo is covered by forest, 31% or 342 400 ha is agricultural land while 13.95% or 153 200 ha are under pastures and meadows. There is one hectare of arable land per 6-7 inhabitants. Figure 2 shows more detailed information on relative use of the land.

Figure 2. Relative land use in Kosovo

Agriculture is the main economic activity and the sector which provides most employment in post-war Kosovo. The agriculture and rural development plan 2007-2013 (2006) estimated that 145,000 persons or 42% of the employed population were engaged in agriculture. Agricultural production contributes approximately 25% of Kosovo’s GDP. After the conflict most farmers returned, rebuilt their houses and began farming. Kosovo has a high agrarian density, insufficient agricultural mechanization and an unbalanced cropping pattern. Based on the 2004 Reinvest family survey, only 49% of families have a tractor, 8.5% borrow a tractor, 23% rent a tractor and about 19% do not use tractors at all. There is a larger shortage of associated equipment and motor cultivators. This is especially true in hilly areas where about 33% of farmers possess some equipment, 7% borrow, 18% rent and 42% do not use such equipment. Less than 50% of Kosovo’s agricultural land is arable and cereals predominate with 33%. There are considerable areas under pasture which represent one of the main potential resources for livestock production, especially in mountainous areas (see Table 2). Data of the areas differs depending on the source and ranges from about 150 000-180 000 ha. The areas of pastures by municipalities are given in Table 3.

The yields of feed produced on both cultivated and natural lands is still very low, due to many factors including, soil quality, limited use of fertilizers, small area under irrigation, dry conditions in many parts of the country.

Table 2. The structure of agricultural land

 

Area ha

% of Agricultural land

Cereals

193 078

33.46

Industrial Plants

2 520

0.44

Vegetables

21 500

3.73

Potatoes

7 500

1.30

Vineyards

4 891

0.85

Fruit

4 542

0.79

Pastures

166 769

28.90

Meadows

86 000

14.90

Forage plants

38 000

6.59

Wasteland

52 200

9.05


Source: Cadastral registry of Kosovo (data presented in Agricultural Statistics of Kosovo, 2007).

Table 3. Areas under pastures by municipality, ha

Municipality

Private

State

Not Defined

Total

Deçan

400

1400

5400

7200

Gjakovë

4200

2000

1800

8000

Glogoc

 

400

2800

3200

Gjilan

400

 

4400

4800

Dragash

600

3800

13200

17600

Istog

   

2400

2400

Kaçanik

   

3200

3200

Klinë

   

2400

2400

Fushë Kosovë

   

3000

3000

Kamenicë

   

2400

2400

Mitrovicë

   

8000

8000

Leposaviq

2000

800

5200

8000

Lipjan

   

1600

1600

Novo Bërdë

   

2800

2800

Obiliq

   

400

400

Rahovec

   

4000

4000

Pejë

4800

1400

7200

13400

Podujevë

6800

400

5200

12400

Prishtinë

   

3600

3600

Prizren

200

200

4600

5000

Skenderaj

200

 

2200

2400

Shtime

800

 

7400

8200

Shtërpcë

   

5400

5400

Suharekë

800

 

3000

3800

Ferizaj

 

600

4000

4600

Viti

   

1200

1200

Vushtrri

400

 

2800

3200

Zubin Potok

   

3800

3800

Zveçan

   

2800

2800

Malishevë

800

 

3600

4400

Total

22400

11000

119800

153200

Source: Kosovo Forest Agency (in Agricultural Statistics, 2007)

 

Table 4. Average areas planted and yields (2001-2003)

 

Type of crop

 

Average

Total

 

Area, ha

Yield , t/ha

Total, t/year

Wheat

 

72 108.7

2.60

187 483

Maize Grain

 

72 047.7

3.37

242 560

Oats

 

12 943.7

1.10

14 238

Rye

 

886.7

2.20

1 951

Barley

 

3 549.7

2.40

8 519

Soya bean

 

190

1.00

190

Sunflower

 

1 600

1.10

1 760

Forage Legumes

 

38 000

3.17

120 333

Meadows

 

86 000

2.33

200 667

Pastures

 

180 000

1.33

240 000

Other

 

109 623

   

Source: Agricultural statistics (2007) Department for Plant Production & Protection Monitoring Unit, of MAFRD

Areas planted to different crops and yields (2001-2003) are given in Table 4. According to these data, potential fodder and feed production areas of Kosovo are:

  • 161 536 ha with cereals
  • 2 420 ha with oilseeds
  • 38 000 ha with legumes for hay
  • 266 000 ha with pastures and meadows

These areas are an important source for animal feed, and based on the number of livestock and while the yields reported are low, a considerable supply of main feedstuffs is available (see Table 5). Demand for concentrate feed ingredients (cereals) and especially oilseed by-products (oilseed meals) still remains high, but the amount of roughages is very close to meeting needs.

Table 5. Potential domestic production of animal feed in Kosovo

Concentrated feeds (tonnes)

Roughages (tonnes)

242 560 maize

120 333 of Legume hay

50 7323 wheat bran*

200 667 of meadow hay

14 238 oats

240 000 from pastures

1 951 rye 

 

8 519 barley

 

* It is common practice in Kosovo for farmers to give wheat to mills and after deduction of 18% grist they receive about 50% flour and 33% wheat bran.

 


 

2. SOILS AND TOPOGRAPHY

Major soil types

According to a digital map of soil types (scale 1:50000) provided by the Institute of Soil Sciences of the University of Prishtina (Elezi et al. 2004) and referring to the WRB-soil classification (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006), the most frequent soil types in the plains are fluvisols. In the hilly areas vertisols, cambisols and regosols are widespread. In general, the agricultural soils are significantly modified. Especially irrigation (mainly in the western part of Kosovo) and soil alteration are crucial factors that have impacted on pedogenetic processes over centuries.

Kosovo possesses diverse soils, even though its territory is small. This is a result of the landscape structure, geographic base, flora, climate and hydrography. It is estimated that 15% of Kosovo‘s soil is of high quality, 29% is medium quality, and 56% is poor quality. The high and medium quality soils account for 44% of total land. They are composed of humus soil (11%) that is mostly distributed in the Kosovo plain, grey carbonate land (8.4%), alluvial (7.8%) and other dark and serpentine soils. Poor quality soils are mostly laid on hilly and mountainous areas. They are composed of acidic grey soils, diluvial lands, swamps and other infertile soils. Fertile soil has been lost to house and road constructions, mine dumpsites and other constructions and about 10-15 % of the agricultural land of Kosovo is fallow land (Mehmeti et al., 2009).

However, in the recent past, the reasons for abandonment changed: the fallow land nowadays includes land that either left the agricultural sector as construction land, or was abandoned from cultivation due to poor soil quality (e.g., shallow calcareous soils) or high prices of agricultural inputs (e.g. fertilizer, seed, and fuel).

The most widespread soil types and their distribution is presented according to Elezi et al. (in press) and also see Map 3:

LITHOSOL-This type of soil is found in volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. It is mainly distributed in hilly-mountainous areas such as the Albanian Alps, Sharri Ridge, Karadak, Kopaonik Ridge, Bjeshkët and Karadakut in Pejë, Gjilan, Leposaviq, Prizren. This type of soil occupies around 42 143 ha or 3.87% of total area.

COLLUVIUM-Processes of the pedogenesis of this type of soil are specific to hollows. In Kosovo there are 69 830 ha or 6.42% of Colluvium and it lies in the municipalities of Prizren, Hollows of Opoja-Dragash, Suhareka, Shterpca, and Istog.

RENDZINA- Lies in lower areas and according to the Pedologic map is more represented in municipalities of Skënderaj where it takes 48% of areas of this type, then in Klina, istog, etc. Total area under this soil type for Kosovo is 26 332 ha or 2.42%.

RANKERS- Rankers are soils of hilly-mountainous areas. Mostly found in: Dragash, Leposaviq, Prizren, Mitrovicë, Gjakovë, Shterpcë, etc. and cover 121 822 ha or 11.24% of the total area.

VERTISOL- this type of soil is formed in valleys (200–600 m elevation). Vertisols are present in all forms of relief but mainly in flat lake terraces under semi-arid climate. This is a very common soil in Kosovo and covers considerable areas (108 444 ha or about 10%) in the municipalities of Lipjan, Rahovec, Vushtrri, Kamenicë, Gjilan, Drenas, Ferizaj, Prishtinë, etc.

CAMBISOL- based on their distribution, cambisols (Eutric and Distric) represent nearly half (47%) of the total area of Kosovo. Eutric cambisol takes 173 710 ha or 16%, and is more present in municipalities of Prishtina, Podujeva, Leposaviq, Gjilan, Zubin Potok, Kamenica, etc. Distric cambisol takes 282 802 ha or 26% of the total area. It lies in all regions of the country but is more present in Kamenicë, Gjilan, Podujevë, Kaçanik, Gjakovë, etc.

CALCOCAMBISOL- There are 32 631 ha or 3% of the total area under calcocambisols mainly in the region of Peja, Istog, Gjilan, Zubin Potok, Deçan, etc.

TERRA ROSSA- Although terrarosa belongs to the Mediterranean zone, it is present in continental karstic lands, or in places where carbonate rocks predominate. There are 27 845 ha or 2.56% of the areas under this type of the soil and the municipalities where it is found are Malisheva (with about 26%), followed by Prizren, Klinë, Gllogovc, Gjakovë, etc.

FLUVISOL- This type of soil is present in flooded zones by rivers and takes 83 862 ha or 7.71% of the area. These are the well known regions of vegetable production (near the White Drini river) in Peja, Gjakova, Klina to Prizren, but also near other rivers in the municipalities of Deçan, Vushtrri, Podujevë, etc.

PSEUDOGLEY- is present in semi-humid and humid regions with more than 700 mm of rainfall. This soil is present in Gjakova, Viti, Ferizaj, Podujevë, Prizren, Gllogovc, Istog, etc. with totally 40 245 ha or 3.7%).

SEMIGLEY- this type of soil is usually associated with fluvisols and takes only 1.26% of the area with most present in Rahovec, Lipjan, Gjilan, Viti, Gjakovë, Shtime, Ferizaj, etc.

Map 3. Pedological map of Kosovo 
(Elezi et al. 2004)
[Click to view full map]

 


 

3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES

Climate
Kosovo lies in the south of the northern hemisphere, under Mediterranean-continental and European-continental climatic influences. The main macro climatic factors which influence its climate are: positioning of land masses (Eurasia and Africa), aquatic masses (Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea), aerial masses (tropical and arctic-maritime or continental) and position of baric systems (maximum of Azores and minimum of Iceland). The main factors influencing Kosovo’s climate are: relief, waters, terrain and the vegetation. (Source: Hydro-Meteorological Institute of Kosovo).

Kosovo’s climate (see Table 6) is moderate continental with warm summers and cold winters. In the plains and adjacent hilly areas, where there is a continental climate, air temperature may range from minus 20 °C in the winter to +35 °C in the summer. In the Kosovo plain about 170-200 days per year are frost-free and the mean annual rainfall is about 650 mm. In the Dukagjini plain, the annual rainfall is higher (about 780 mm) and the frost-free period is longer (up to 225 days), indicating a pronounced Mediterranean climate influence in the western part of Kosovo. Overall the average annual rainfall is up to 700m but its distribution is not very good.

In Eastern Kosovo and the lowlands of Kosovo, Llapi, Drenica and Ana-Morava it is a little colder compared to Dukagjini (western part). Average annual temperature is 9.5°C, with fluctuations from 19.2°C for July and -1.3°C (January).

River systems
Kosovo’s main rivers are Drini i Bardhë (122 km), Sitnica (90 km), Bistrica e Pejës (62 km), Morava e Binqës (60 km), Lepenci (53 km), Ereniku (51 km), Ibri (42 km) and Bistrica e Prizrenit (31 km). There are 5 lakes larger than 2.5 square km. One characteristic of the hydrography is that rivers flow from Kosovo to the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea.

Table 6. Main meteorological indicators for Kosovo

Parameter

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Average

T max °C

14.7

16.5

16

15.6

16.4

15.8

T min °C

5.2

6.1

5.6

5.6

5.2

5.5

T Avg °C

10.6

11.2

11

11.1

11

11.0

Humidity, %

86

72

73.7

72.7

73.7

75.6

Wind m/sec

1.7

1.7

1.4

1.3

1.4

1.5

Precipitation, mm

722.7

667.5

762.6

739.1

689.9

716.4

Source: Hydro-meteorological Institute

Precipitation is mainly as rain in valleys and snow in higher, mountainous regions (Bjeshkët e Nemuna and Sharri). In Eastern Kosovo average precipitation is over 600 mm, while in the west it exceeds 700 mm. In the Bjeshkët e Nemuna mountains there are cases of 1 750 mm precipitation. Snowfall is common during the colder period of the year. In the lowlands there is an average of 26 days with snow, while in mountain areas there are more than 100 days.

Total precipitation looks almost satisfactory, but due to very big fluctuations between months, agricultural production in regions with no irrigation often faces droughts or floods. See Figure 3 which shows the five year (2002-2006) average, minimum and maximum values of precipitation.

Average wind speed fluctuates between 1.3 m/sec (in Peja) to 2.4 m/sec (in Ferizaj). Maximum wind speed reaches 31 m/sec usually during March and April. Kosovo has insolation levels of 2 066 hours during the year and 5.7 hours per day.

Figure 3. Precipitation variability in Kosovo (2002-2006)

Agro-ecological zones
Kosovo is divided into three zones which developed in the Oligo-Miocene ( Gashi & Spaho, 2002):Two plains, the Dukagjini plain in the west and the Kosovo plain in the east with adjacent hilly areas divided by rivers mainly originating in surrounding mountain areas. Altitude ranges from 265 m to 2 656 m above sea level, with about 80 % of the area below 1 000 m. In most of Kosovo’s plains and adjacent hilly areas, climate and soils are suitable for agriculture.


 

4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

The livestock sector faced the same difficulties as other agricultural enterprises and because of the conflict, it was estimated that over 50% of livestock was lost. This was associated with damage to livestock infrastructure which has not yet returned to a desirable level. This situation led to shortages of animals and animal products, which had to be imported. Farmers were faced with problems in recovering these losses. Some donors played a valuable role helping in livestock repopulation and breed improvement. At least 10 000 pregnant heifers of good breeds were imported and distributed to farmers. Livestock numbers by municipality are shown in Table 7.

Table 7. Situation of livestock in Kosovo by municipality

Municipality.

Dairy

Heifers

Calves

Cattle Total

Sheep

Goats

Horses

Swine

Deçan

5 421

1 721

1 920

9 062

2 500

180

350

57

Gjakova

13 340

2 410

2 520

18 270

2 900

190

480

5 200

Gllogovc

4 700

1 470

4 060

10 230

2 865

1 440

60

1

Gjilan

5 500

2 000

2 000

9 500

1 200

1 500

-

7 241

Dragash

7 200

800

400

8 400

25 200

30

500

-

Istog

8 500

4 500

3 000

16 000

210

40

-

444

Kaçanik

3 760

-

2 578

6 338

1 761

234

499

-

Klina

8 500

-

-

8 500

1 440

613

-

-

F.Kosovo

500

150

300

950

110

-

-

1 564

Kamenica

6 000

2 000

2 000

10 000

6 000

1 000

 

5 029

Mitrovica

1 380

0

0

1 380

4 609

200

 

404

Leposaviq

4 000

2 000

500

6 500

5 000

600

 

5 472

Lipjan

6 227

5 870

1 512

13 609

1 500

   

7 149

N. Bërdë

700

120

480

1 300

490

470

 

691

Obiliqi

2 500

230

200

2 930

350

85

45

1 360

Rahovec

5 947

2 700

2 000

10 647

4 250

873

600

177

Peja

11 550

3 700

2 500

17 750

4 300

-

-

1 263

Podujeva

6 500

1 146

3 200

10 846

4 050

250

60

-

Prishtina

3 000

2 332

-

5 332

3 900

30

-

4 896

Prizren

8 000

500

450

8 950

21 200

1 100

1100

839

Skenderaj

10 285

2 100

5 200

17 585

1 650

470

-

269

Shtime

1 418

238

359

2 015

600

150

60

-

Shtërrpc

1 923

385

625

2 933

5 500

700

-

1 513

Suhareka

4214

613

1 479

6 306

1 403

380

300

82

Ferizaj

12 500

-

-

12 500

3 500

230

280

-

Viti

5 681

2 500

3 509

11 690

100

-

382

3 006

Vushtrri

7 530

1 270

2 150

10 950

2 130

382

-

5 074

Z. Potok

2 000

700

1 500

4 200

4 500

500

500

2 362

Zveçan

1 214

482

211

1 907

485

84

-

1 304

Malisheva

6 688

1528

1 700

9 916

6 395

1 393

456

13

Total

166 678

4 3465

46 353

256 496

120 098

13 124

5672

40 903

Source: Identification and Registration office of MAFRD, Veterinary Food Agency

As reported by SOK, AHS Survey (2006), animal numbers (see Table 8) differ from those given by MAFRD, Identification and Registration Office of VFA (2003). The relative structure of animals in Kosovo is shown in Figure 4.

Table 8. Number of Animals October-November, 2006 (SOK AHS, 2006)

 

NUMBER OF ANIMALS

Type of Animal

In small
farms

Big and
Specialized farms

Total

CATTLE

379 029

2 966

381 995

Calves younger than 6 month

81 512

667

82 179

Calves and Heifers 6-12 month

61 886

421

62 307

Calves and heifers1-2 years

21 506

236

21 742

Bulls and heifers, more than 2 years

7 424

129

7 553

Dairy cows

203 892

1 490

205 382

Oxen

2 548

11

2 559

Buffaloes

261

12

273

SWINE

68 096

127

68 223

Piglets, up to 6 months

41 760

90

41 850

Breeding Sows

18 051

27

18 078

Breeding herds

8 285

10

8 295

SHEEP AND GOATS

95 887

17 056

112 943

Lambs

15 364

2 973

18 337

Breeding Ewes

62 807

12 065

74 872

Breeding Rams

6 398

1 207

7 605

Goats

11 318

811

12 129

HORSES AND DONKEYS

7 260

88

7 348

Horses

6 585

78

6 663

Donkeys

675

10

685

POULTRY

2 224 386

300 147

2 524 533

Chicken

2 037 233

299 853

2337086

Other Fowl

187 153

294

187 447

Bee Hives

72 007

162

72 169


Figure 4. Relative structure of animals in Kosovo

Dairy cattle
Dairy cows comprise the biggest livestock population. Of 250 000 cattle, about 140 000-170 000 are cows. The various breeds are shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Relative structure of cow breeds in Kosovo

Sheep
Kosovo has a very good tradition of sheep production; their numbers were increasing until the end of the 80s and beginning of the 90s. Sheep production is one of the sectors within Kosovo agriculture that suffered the most severe decline in the post-war period. By November 2001, sheep populations were at 56% of their pre-war levels.

Figure 6. Changes of the sheep number in Kosovo

The number of sheep reached its peak of 644 000 in 1961 (see Figure 6). It decreased rapidly at the beginning of the 1990s and especially after 1996 and according to data collected from field officers of the Department of Livestock this number is under 100 000, which is the lowest in the last 70 years. The sheep population by region is shown in Table 9.

Table 9. Current situation of sheep population in the regions of Kosovo

       

Sheep/ha

REGION

I&R*

Livestock dpt.

Pastures, ha

I&R*

Livestock dpt.

Prizren

58448

55387

51289

1.14

1.08

Ferizaj

11361

5031

4062

2.80

1.24

Prishtinë

12775

17354

14596

0.88

1.19

Gjakovë

5400

10912

12154

0.44

0.90

Gjilan

7790

7460

5313

1.47

1.40

Pejë

5950

8610

11448

0.52

0.75

Mitrovicë

18374

13555

11509

1.60

1.18

 

120098

118309

110371

1.26

1.11

*I&R = Identification and Registration

If we take the dry matter needs of a sheep as 2.5 kg/day, even with an average yield of 1.5 tons per hectare, current pasture production allows for an increased number of sheep. Photo 1 shows sheep grazing at around 1,500m altitude.

The use of the available pastures is limited and could be more efficient because as is shown in the figure and table above there is still room for more sheep. The main negative factors for the sheep industry which have caused a decrease in the number of sheep are: lack of interest of people to deal with this business, low profitability. Problems in sale of products are:

  • poor herd management skills,
  • lost market
  • very poor/no linkages in the relation of farm-market/consumer,
  • variable/inconsistent product quality,
  • packaging, and 
  • a not clearly defined political and economic environment

In poor management of sheep production, poor/not controlled reproduction, poor/not balanced nutrition, low yield of pastures/unmanaged grazing represent the main factors causing low production, while lack of associations/companies which will organize/help the system of sale, no marketing, bad or no packaging, not clear political and economical situation of Kosovo, causes problems in commercialising of products such as milk, cheese, wool and skins.

Because breeding is one of the most important segments in animal production we should take into consideration some key factors which can help to improve reproductive efficiency and animal production results in general:

  • Good rams-high fertility and body condition of rams
  • Selection of sheep and rams with proven production abilities only -introduction of genetics
  • Replacement of flock-selection of the females for growth,
  • Proper nutrition and body conditioning - prevention of underfeeding/overfeeding and misbalanced feeding
  • Specified breeding programme
  • Culling of unproductive animals

There is a general opinion that low reproduction rate is mainly due to a large number of abortions caused by:

  • Poor nutrition
  • Poor condition of ewes
  • Consumption of frozen grass and too much salt
  • Contagious micro-organisms

In terms of identifying correct answers it is necessary to do more field and diagnostic work to determine the main causative agents in a way to develop a good preventive program which will be introduced to farmers.

Breed structure of sheep
Unfortunately there is still a lack of accurate published data on the breed structure of the sheep in Kosovo. Earlier estimations of the Department of Livestock production of MAFRD were that Crosses of Sharri Sheep with Wurttemberg make at least 50% of the population, followed by Bardhoka with 30%, Kosovo Sheep with 15%, Balusha with 3% and 2 % of other undefined strains (see Photos 2. and 3.). According to the Kosovo Centre for Livestock Breeding (EU founded project) the breed structure of the sheep in Kosovo is as shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7. The structure of Sheep breeds in Kosovo

Goats
Goat production does not play any important role in Kosovo. As given in Table 8 goats make up only 3% of the livestock population. Due to increased demand for goat milk and kid-meat, especially during the last decade, there are some more serious efforts from enthusiastic farmers in increasing the numbers of these animals.

Equidae
As with goats the situation is even worse with equines. Horses represent just one percent of the livestock population and their number is falling rapidly. This is mainly because of mechanization and the increasing use of tractors in lowland areas. Horses and donkeys were traditionally used for agricultural and other purposes especially in hilly-mountainous regions where tractors and other mechanization could not work. Because of the high rate of migration of the population to urban areas and a disinterest in farming in such places the need for these animals is becoming less and less.

Export and import markets
The Kosovo economy is mainly import oriented. According to the Statistical Office of Kosovo, imports take more than a billion €. Food imports varied from about 34% in 2003 to 24% in 2005. From the total imports of food: prepared foodstuffs, beverages and tobacco comprise 57% followed by vegetable products with 20%, live animals 19% and animal and vegetable fats 4%.

Milk and milk products
Consumption of milk products in Kosovo is estimated at 170 kilogrammes/person/year, and 76% of this is supplied from domestic farms. Based on data from the Border Services processed and published by the Statistical office of MAFRD, there is a high Import: Export disproportion in milk and milk products during 2006. It is reported that an import volume of almost 60 million kilograms of this product and 24 million € were paid. Export values are very low and counts less than a million kilograms and return of 80 000 €.

Meat and meat products
This Import: Export disproportion is also reported in relation to meat and meat products. An import of more than 2 million € of live animals (cattle, pigs and poultry) and 21 million € for meat and meat products was reported compared with export of just 215 807€ and 35 000 € for live animals and meat and meat products respectively.

Farming sectors
The Kosovo farming sector changed rapidly after 1999, by changing ownership of land and other agricultural infrastructure. Most land is privatised or is in process. One problem is farm size. Minimum farm size to be considered has changed from 0.1 ha in 2004 in 0.5ha in 2005. Based on the 2006 Agricultural Household Survey, the Statistical Office of Kosovo, made this grouping of farms (Table 10).

Table 10. Agricultural land based on the size and the structure of the farm

Farm size

Small

Big specialized farms

TOTAL

 

Nr of farms

%

Nr of farms

%

Nr of farms

%

0-0.5 ha

26 074

13.55

9

3.37

26 083

13.54

0.51-1 ha

48 757

25.34

10

3.75

48 767

25.34

1.01-1.5 ha

59 307

30.82

9

3.37

59 316

30.82

1.51-2 ha

15 877

8.25

9

3.37

15 886

8.26

2.01-3 ha

25 276

13.13

17

6.37

25 293

13.14

3.01-4 ha

6 444

3.35

31

11.61

6 475

3.36

4.01-5 ha

3 738

1.94

20

7.49

3 758

1.95

5.01-6 ha

2 346

1.22

18

6.74

2 364

1.23

6.01-8 ha

2 079

1.08

34

12.73

2 113

1.10

8.01-10 ha

1 002

0.52

20

7.49

1022

0.53

over 10 ha

1 535

0.80

90

33.71

1625

0.84

TOTAL

192 435

100

267

100

192 702

100

Source: SOK, Agricultural Household Survey, 2006

Most of the land is in farms of 0.1 - 2 ha. This certainly affects development of agriculture.

Traditional systems (pastoral and agro- pastoral, mixed smallholder, landless systems)
Ruminant production systems in Kosovo are traditional and characterized by small farms and a low intensity of use of resources. Property status of pastures is still not defined and farmers use them by uncontrolled free grazing (see Photo 4.). The grazing systems used depend on the situation and the region. Farmers from lowland zones use meadows and fallows usually till the end of April or beginning of May, depending on weather conditions. Thereafter they move their stock to higher regions and stay there till autumn (end of September-October). Summer months are problematic when rainfall is low and feed gaps are possible. Usually there is quite good vegetation during September, October and November. This justifies the tendency of increased number of farms and the number of animals per farm in lowland zones. These farmers are in a better position than those in hilly areas, since they can use mountain pastures almost for free during summer and are close to their farms in summer and autumn. They can graze when possible and give additional feed in bad weather with no need to move animals far from their farms.

Photo 4. Traditional pastoral grazing of Sharri sheep.
[Click to view full photo]

An important issue is scarcity of labour which is the case with all types of jobs related to livestock production and is more pronounced with shepherds, notably in more remote areas. Young people are not willing to do this type of job, even when living close to poverty, mainly because of difficulties in marriages. 


5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE

Pastoral vegetation

Existing studies on Kosovo’s pastures mainly cover botanical rather than zootechnical and nutritional aspects.

Miric (1975), reports the presence of these plant associations in pastures of the Northern part of Sharri Mountain:

a) Calcareous substratum
Carex laevis- Helianthemum linieri; Carex laevis-Helianthemum vineale; Sub-association of Carex laevis-Helianthemum alpestre Seslerietosum teniufolise; Carex laevis-carex sempervirens; Festuca adamovicii-Helianthemum grandiflorum; Helianthemum grandiflorum-Festuca duriuscula.
b) Silicate substratum
Agrsostidetum capillaris; Calamgrostis arundinacea-Luzula erythranthema; Sesleria korabensis;-Juncus frisicus; Nardus stricta-Festuca fallax; Nardus stricta-Festuca halleri.

According to the Departments for Plant Protection, Plant Production and the Sector for Pastures and Animal Nutrition of the MAFRD (2005), the commonest species in Kosovo pastures are: Trifolium montanum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Medicago falcata, Lotus corniculatus, Agropyrum repens, Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Poa alpina, Cynodon dactylon, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Agrostis alba, Dactylis glomerata, Taraxacum officinale, Papaver rhoeas, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Plantago major, Amaranthus retroflexus, Daucus carota, Matricaria chamomilla, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Cirsium arvense, and Sonchus arvensis.

Photo 5. Sharri Mountain pasture of Kosovo, (Brezovica).
[Click to view full photo]

Based on the study carried out by the Institute for Protection of Nature and Environment of Kosovo (2003), the commonest herbaceous plants that dominate pastures of the Albanian Alps are: Festuca heterophylla, Dactylis glomerata, Veronica chamaedrys, Fragaria vesca, Clinopodium vulgare, Helleborus odorus, Melica uniflora, Danna cornubiensis. Less frequent are Viola silvestris, Primula vulgaris, Lathyrus niger, Lathyrus venetus, Aremonia agrimonoidesi, and Trifolium montanum subsp. rupestre.

The following plants are also found: Verbascum nikolaii, Wulfenia blecicii, Helleborus purpurascens, Luzula luzulina, Anemone nemorosa, Festuca heterophylla, and Saxifraga rotundifolia.

Near the higher limit of woodland, species like Senecio alpinum, Rhamnus fallax, Soldanella alpina, Lonicera nigra, Hieracium alpinum, Lilium albanicum, Geum bulgaricum, Asperula odorata, Luzula nemorosa, Anthemis montana, and Dryas octopetala occur.

Above the higher limit of woodland border there are primary and secondary pastures but their vegetation is excessively damaged by zoo-anthropogenic factors. In most of these areas the dominating species is Nardus stricta, but there are also species like Centaurea nervosa, Polygonum bistorta, Dianthus superbus, Gentiana graminea, and Hypericum quadrangulum.

According to Avdiu (2005), the pasroral flora of eastern Kosovo (Kamenica and Novo Bërda region) contains 71 species: Achillea millefolium, Antoxanthum odoratum, Aegilops triuncialis, Astragalus onobrychis, Ajuga laxmannii, Arrhenaterum elatius, Anthyllis vulneraria, Alopecurus myosuroides, Allium flavum, Asperula cynanchica, Agropyron repens, Bromus erectus, Convulvulus arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Cerinthe minor, Cruciata glabra, Cirsium sp., Chrysopogon gryllus, Dactylis gomerata, Dorycnium herbaceum, Euphorbia cyparissias, Erodium cicutarium, Galium verum, Genista sagittalis, Koeleria pyramidata, Lotus corniculatus, Haynaldia villosa, Hypochoris radiata, Hypericum perforatum, Hieracium pilosum, Onobrychis viciifolia, Potentilla hirta, Poa pratensis, Poa trivialis, Poa bulbosa, Podosperma laciata, Polygala vulgaris, Phleum pratense, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex acetosella, Rinanthus minor, Rinanthus major, Ranunculus psilostachus, Medicago rigidula, Medicago falcata, Marrubium vulgare, Festuca ovina, Festuca arundinacea, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium dalmaticum, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium campestre, Trisetum flavescens, Tragopogon pratense, Thymus serpyllum, Teucrium chamaedrys, Salvia verticillata, Silene conica, Sanguisorba minor, Succisa pratensis, Vicia cracca, Veronica sp., Viola tricolor, Helleborus purpurascens, Faba sp., Lathyrus aphaca, Daucus carota,and Cichorium sp. 

There is high species variation reported although these two municipalities cover eastern Kosovo with no big variation in climate and agro-pedological characteristics. Figures 8 and 9 show the most frequent species in this region.

Millaku (2006), has compared some lowland pasture fields in five localities (which represents five Kosovo regions and are spread in altitude from 400-1 000m above sea level) and reported the presence of these plants: Achillea millefolium, Agropyrum repens, Agrostemma githago, Alyssum markgrafi, Alyssum montanum, Anthemis arvensis, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa pastoris, Centaurea arvense, Centaurea cyanus, Cerastium umbellatum, Cirsium arvense, Dactylis glomerata, Echium vulgare, Festua pratensis, Festuca sp., Galium aparine, Hieracium stoloniferum, Hypericum perforatum, Lathyrus aphaca, Lolium perenne. Lotus corniculatus, Matricaria sp., Medicago lupulina, Melampyrum arvense, Mentha longifolia, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Potentilla argentea, Ranunculus sp., Silene vulgaris, Stachys scardica, Silene vulgaris, Tanacetum vulgare, Trifolium campestre, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, and Veronica chamaedrys.

Figure 8. The most frequent plant species (in percent) in Kamenica pastures (Northern Kosovo).

Figure 9. The most frequent plant species (in percent) in Novo Bërda pastures (Northern Kosovo).

This author has grouped the identified plants in three categories. As shown in Table 11 and Figure 10, the average structure of the plants from five locations spread in different regions of Kosovo, illustrates the presence of a higher number of inedible plants in three of five experimental plots. Apart from the poor composition structure of plant communities, the author reports low yields, ranging from 5-13 tonnes of consumable herbage per hectare.

As well as high plant species variations, there are also yield variations reported in the pastures of Kosovo. These yields vary from 310-940 and 870-2 080 kg/ha (Avdiu, 2005) and 510-1300 kg/ha (Millaku, 2006). Miric (1975) reports the yields from 329-5 225 and 2 064-6 275 kg/ha of consumable herbage for calcareous and silicate substratum respectively.

Photo 6. Cows grazing at about 700 m altitude
[Click to view full photo]

Table 11. Number of plant species found in five regions of Kosovo (Millaku, 2006)

 

Total

Inedible 

Edible

Worthless plants

I

27

15

7

5

II

38

20

11

7

III

27

15

7

5

IV

33

10

20

3

V

26

7

15

4

Average

30.2

13.4

12.0

4.8


Figure 10. Plant structure of pastures (Millaku, 2006)

Grazing lands
Kosovo’s pastures are a valuable resource and provide a good feed base for livestock development, especially for small ruminants. Pastures present a significant base for animal feed and the preservation of balance in the ecosystem. The importance of the use of pastures should not be seen just from the aspect of offering basic feed for animals, especially during the summer season and producing hay as a bulk animal feed. The use of pastures as generally recommended should be focused on sheep, but with the proper planning this resource can be used by other animals. In hilly-mountainous areas where mechanization is not always possible, pastures and grazing systems would replace cropping.

Another important aspect of the use of pastures is promotion of ecological/organic livestock production in areas suited to natural grazing. Animal products from these areas are gaining in importance in Kosovo markets, but could become more profitable by introducing them to foreign markets.

Prior to 1990, pastures were better utilized and organized (see Table 12); management and monitoring was undertaken by municipalities through the Socially Owned Enterprises (SOEs) and agriculture cooperatives. Then, the management of pastures in Dragash Municipality, (a region rich in pastures), was carried out by SOE “Sharrprodhimi”. Regarding pasture utilization, farmers were obliged to pay annual taxes. Pasture area and sheep numbers fell between 1988 and 2004.

Alpine meadow vegetation has been modified through centuries of use for summer grazing and adjacent sub-alpine vegetation has been repeatedly burned to expand the size of the pastures. Since the war, grazing of alpine pastures has actually decreased because people fear being in these remote border areas and the number of livestock is less than in the pre-war period. Some meadows are reportedly being naturally recolonised with trees since grazing has stopped. (Kosovo Biodiversity Assessment, USAID Kosovo, 2003)

Table 12. Pasture area, number of sheep per hectare and sheep numbers over time

 

1955

1980

1988

2004

% decrease, 1988-2004

Pasture area (‘000 ha.)

193

189

175

153

 

Sheep/ha. of pasture

3.2

1.7

2.4

0.6

75

Sheep (‘000)

618

321

420

92

78

Arable land grazing

Fodder Supply and Grazing
Most arable areas are in lowland zones in the north and east of the country. SOK gives these figures for categories of the main agricultural crops (Figure 11):

 

Figure 11. Structure of the use of agricultural land

Table 13. Areas and fodder production in lowlands

 

Hectares

Production, t

Yield, t/ha

Forage and green cereals

96 766.1

   

Meadow hay

66 381.1

184.7

2.8

Grass

7 899.5

30.6

3.9

Alfalfa

14 617.5

61 554.9

4.2

Clover

2 261.3

7 471.5

3.3

Vetch+Oats

329.6

1 461.2

4.4

Wheat (green)

674.8

3 320.0

4.9

Barley (green)

79.7

109.9

1.4

Oat (green)

3 595.2

13 338.6

3.6

Maize (green/silage)

788.0

11 388.6

14.4

Some 300 000 tons of fodder is produced from lowland farms, which could replace an important part of the ration for barn feeding of big ruminants. The most common form of the feed is still hay produced either from grasses (in natural and sown meadows) or Lucerne (alfalfa). Silage production is increasing which reduces production costs of animal products. Silage production also brings more security for farmers for winter feeding but the yields are still variable and dependent on rainfall. In regions where irrigation is possible farmers perform much better.

Table 14 gives observations on the animal feeds sector and price per kilogramme of feed from 2002-2006 (according to MAFRD).

Table 14. Prices of main animal feeds in Kosovo

Price, €/kg

Type of feed

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Alfalfa hay

0.10

0.16

0.15

0.12

0.13

Grass hay

0.08

0.14

0.12

0.09

0.10

Cereal straw

0.02

0.055

0.043

0.05

0.05

Maize Silage

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.03

Use of mineral and organic fertilizers
There are no data on the use of fertilizers on grasslands and pastures but data from SOK-AFS (2006) gives a general idea on this issue (see Table 15). The most frequently used fertilizers are mixtures of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, traditionally known as NPK fertilizers and in at least 90% of cases the content of these nutrients is 15:15:15. NPK fertilizers are generally used for basal dressings during land preparation. If applied to grasslands and meadows they are usually used in late winter or early spring. The other fertilizers used are nitrogen fertilizers NAG (Calcareous Ammonium Nitrate) with a declared content of 27% Nitrogen and Urea with a declared content of 46% Nitrogen. These fertilizers are used for top dressing during spring: February-March in arable lands sown with winter cereals, but mostly during April-May for perennial grasses. This depends on weather conditions. Statistics of SOK show that NPK fertilizers are used by 67.4% of small farmers and 80.3% of big and specialized farms, NAG 23 and 38%; Urea 37.3 and 43% other fertilizers 3.4 and 1.5 and organic fertilizers (manures) 38 and 54.7% for respective types of farm.

Table 15. Average use of mineral fertilizers during 2006 (SOK, AHS, 2006)

 

MINERAL FERTILIZER, kg/ha

Crop

Area, ha

NPK

NAG

UREA

Other

TOTAL


Cereals

109 989

239

86

98

1

424

Vegetables

16 006

307

175

84

100

666

Forages

96 766

82

20

30

2

134

Fruits

4 109

124

34

32

139

329

Other

111

2

1

0

0

3


Total/Mean

226 982

151

63

61

48

315

The highest amount of mineral fertilizers per hectare is used for vegetables (see Table 15), but because of the bigger planted area the highest total amount (46 000 tons or 65% of the total) is used for cereals, followed by forages with 13 000 tons or 18%. The use of organic fertilizers is shown in Table 16.

Table 16. The use of organic fertilizers (manure) in Kosovo during 2006 (SOK AHS, 2006)

 

ORGANIC FERTILIZERS (MANURE)

Plant

Area, ha

Tonnes

kg/ha


Cereals

109 989

101 263.0

920.7

Vegetables

16 006

62 778.7

3922.3

Forages

96 766

140 063.0

1447.4

Fruits

4 109

7962.2

1937.6

Other

111

nr

nr


Total

226 982

312 066.9

*1 374.9


nr =no record; *Average use of organic fertilizer (manure) per ha(in kg)

 

Legislation and government for livestock fodder and pastures

Documents which deal with livestock and feed and pastures are:
Issues related to feeds and pastures are closely regulated with Administrative Instruction Nr. 09/2007- The use of Pastures. This document regulates some issues which deal with the use of pastures such as: taxes to be paid by farmers, the period of the use of pastures, nomad grazing etc, but is done very superficially.

Law on Livestock Nr.2004/33. This law regulates some more general issues on livestock, concentrated and compound feeds, but fodder production and pastures are not even mentioned in this law.

Law on Veterinary Nr.2004/33

  • Administrative Instruction MA-NR. 17/2006 – Quality Control of animal feeds and additives.
  • Administrative Instruction MA- NR. 02 / 2006- Feed ingredients for compound feeds
  • Administrative Instruction MA-NR. 19/05- Licensing of producers, intermediates, and traders of animal feeds and additives.
  • Administrative Instruction MA – NR. 28/05- Compound Feeds

6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES

Development of pastures and meadows
The situation of areas under pastures needs substantial and comprehensive efforts of all stakeholders involved. Actually this valuable resource is left on its own and the use of it is more or less anarchic. Although, there are no exact data, the yield and the quality of the feed produced in natural pastures is variable and depends on precipitation. There is no measure undertaken from any Kosovor institution to improve utilization of pastures.

There is a tendency for change and improvement of the habits of farmers in lowland areas and interest in introducing new technologies, apart from the very traditional way of feed conservation, by drying grasses, haylage and silage production are interesting the more serious farmers. Due to more experience in maize growing, Corn silage dominates and new high potential producing cultivars are available. Fodder production is faced with the difficulties especially in modern equipment. The actual situation with machinery is not very good. There are a small number of tractors, with low power and mainly bought more than 20 years ago. Some high capacity equipment cannot be actually applied due to high prices of modern tractors and associated equipment. 

Pasture survey
From the available resources and institutions contacted data on pastures are very scarce and this is also part of the job to be done. The budgets of institutions responsible for this sector are very low and it is hard to predict any contribution in this direction in the near future.

Infrastructure
This is another important aspect which reflects directly the situation of agriculture in general and livestock/feed/pasture production in particular. Regions with the highest potential in livestock production based on pasture utilization are in more remote places where infrastructure is in quite bad shape. This includes notably roads and electricity supply, which makes production difficult and especially producer market communications.


7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL

  • Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary, University of Prishtina, Bill Clinton Bulevard, nn. 10000 Prishtina,
  • Kosovo Institute for Agriculture, Peja
  • Department for Animal Production, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Rural Development, Mr. Bajram Imeri, Director of the Department
  • Livestock Breeding, Production and Marketing Sector, Mr. Arsim Memaj, Chief of the Sector
  • Feed and Pasture Management Sector, Mr. Lulëzim Shamolli, Chief of the Sector
  • Department for Plant Production and Plant Protection

8. REFERENCES

Agricultural Household Survey (AHS), Statistical Office of Kosovo, 2006

Agricultural Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Rural Development, Division for Agricultural Statistics and Analysis, 2007.

Agriculture and Rural Development Plan, 2007-2013 November, 2006

ARD-BIOFOR IQC Consortium, 2003. Kosovo Biodiversity Assessment, USAID Kosovo.

Avdiu, B., 2005. Floristic composition of hilly-mountainous massive of Novo Bërda and Kamenica, Kosovo. Biological studies, Academy of sciences Tirana (paper in Albanian).

Departments for Plant Protection, Plant Production and the Sector for Pastures and Animal Nutrition of the MAFRD (2005).

Elezi, Xh.; A. Halimi, and M. Zogaj, 2004. Digjitalizimi i hartës pedologjike të Kosovës. Departamenti i shkencave të tokës, Fakulteti i Bujqësisë, Prishtinë.

Elezi, Xh. , M. Zogaj, and A. Halimi, (in press). Introduction to Soil Science- Soil systematic (in Albanian).

Gashi, H. and Sh. Spaho, 2002. Pedologjia. Akademia e shkencave dhe arteve të Kosovës. Seksioni i shkencave të natyrës, Libri 8, Prishtinë.

IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. World reference base for soil resources. World Soil Resources. Reports 103. FAO, Rome.

Kamberi, M.A. 2004. The Agricultural Statistics and Policy Advisory Unit Kosovo (ASPAUK) Project. Mission Report.

Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2001 and 2002.

Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2000.

MAFRD, Identification and Registration Office of VFA (2003).

Mehmeti, A., A. Demaj, and R. Waldhardt, 2009. Plant species richness and composition in the arable land of Kosovo. Landscape Online, 11:1-29.

Millaku, F., 2006. Pasture Improvement and Management Project. Horticulture Association of Kosovo, Kosovo Cluster and Business Support Project, USAID.

Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Institute for Protection of Nature and Environment of Kosovo, Study on the reasonability of the declaration of the territory of Albanian Alps as National Park. Prishtina, 2003.

Miric, M. 1975. Fodder base of Kosovo, Union of Scientific Associations of Kosovo, Book 37. (Publication in Serbian).

Riinvest, 2002. Survey on Household and Labour Market.

Riinvest, 2004. Survey of rural families.

Statistical office of Kosovo, 2002. Household Budget Survey (HBS).


9. CONTACTS

Dr.Sc. Muhamet A. Kamberi , Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary,
University of Prishtina, Bill Clinton Bul,
nn. Prishtinë, 10000, Republic of Kosovo.
e-mail: makamberi@agr.uni-pr.edu

[The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries]

This profile was written in March 2009 and will be updated from time to time.

[The profile was edited by J.M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds in April/May 2009]