Republic of Kosovo
The Republic of Kosovo occupies a central part of the Balkan Peninsula with 700.7 km of land boundaries and an area of 10 908 square kilometres. It borders Serbia to the north and east (351.6 km), Macedonia to the south (158.7 km), Albania to the southwest (111.8km ) and Montenegro to the northwest (78.6 km) (Source: Kosovo Cadastral Agency). [see map 1] Kosovo lies between N 43016’; S 41053’; E 21016’; W 19059’, and is a geographical basin, at an altitude of about 500 metres, surrounded by mountains and divided by a central north-south ridge in two sub-regions of roughly equal size and population. (Source: SOK, Cartography).
According to LSMS (2000), 88% of the population were ethnic Kosovo Albanians. Ethnic Serbs accounted for 7%, while other ethnic groups (e.g. Gorani, Roma and Egyptian) together accounted for approximately 5%. The same relative distribution on ethnicity has been found in other household surveys e.g. LFS (2002) and Household Budget Survey (HBS) 2002.
Table 1 shows the population of Kosovo, based on the census of 1971, 1981, 1991 and the estimations of World Fact book.
Table 1. Kosovo’s population and ethnic structure
At the end of the Second World War, Kosovo was a predominantly rural society with 80% of the population in rural areas. In 1991, the population was still 63% rural. In 2000, the LSMS estimated the rural population at over 60%. The population is young. About 33% is under 15 years old and more than half are under 25. About 6% is over 65. The active population (15 - 64 years) is 61% of the total. This is a huge potential labour force especially for agricultural production, an issue to be seriously taken into consideration by all stakeholders.
In 2004 the rural population accounted for nearly 60% of the total of 1.9 million, having decreased from 68% in 1981 to <65% in 1998. There was no significant change between the urban and rural population until 1999, when, due to very hard living and working conditions as a consequence of the war when their animals were either stolen or killed and homes burnt, a significant part of the rural population moved to urban areas, seeking safer housing and better living conditions. This migration has directly influenced agriculture especially in areas where most land is under pastures. When compared to other countries, Kosovo’s share of rural population to total population is still high e.g.
The Agricultural Family Survey of SOK (2006) gives 1 437 585 inhabitants living in agricultural families. An agricultural family, or economy, is considered one which has at least 0.1 ha of arable land or has at least a dairy cow and a calf, or a dairy cow and a heifer; a dairy cow and two sheep or grown goats; five sheep or goats; four sheep and pigs together; three grown pigs; 50 grown fowl; 20 bee hives, more than 20 square metres of fish pond. The age group is from 15-29 years (29.1%) while those over than 65 years represent only 6.5% of the population.
Kosovo is divided into five main regions (Prishtina, Gjilan, Peja, Prizren and Mitrovica), and two sub regions (Ferizaj and Gjakova). Currently it is divided into 30 municipalities (see Map 2) and about 1,500 villages.
Land area, arable and pastoral areas
Agriculture is the main economic activity and the sector which provides most employment in post-war Kosovo. The agriculture and rural development plan 2007-2013 (2006) estimated that 145,000 persons or 42% of the employed population were engaged in agriculture. Agricultural production contributes approximately 25% of Kosovo’s GDP. After the conflict most farmers returned, rebuilt their houses and began farming. Kosovo has a high agrarian density, insufficient agricultural mechanization and an unbalanced cropping pattern. Based on the 2004 Reinvest family survey, only 49% of families have a tractor, 8.5% borrow a tractor, 23% rent a tractor and about 19% do not use tractors at all. There is a larger shortage of associated equipment and motor cultivators. This is especially true in hilly areas where about 33% of farmers possess some equipment, 7% borrow, 18% rent and 42% do not use such equipment. Less than 50% of Kosovo’s agricultural land is arable and cereals predominate with 33%. There are considerable areas under pasture which represent one of the main potential resources for livestock production, especially in mountainous areas (see Table 2). Data of the areas differs depending on the source and ranges from about 150 000-180 000 ha. The areas of pastures by municipalities are given in Table 3.
The yields of feed produced on both cultivated and natural lands is still very low, due to many factors including, soil quality, limited use of fertilizers, small area under irrigation, dry conditions in many parts of the country.
Table 2. The structure of agricultural land
Table 3. Areas under pastures by municipality, ha
Table 4. Average areas planted and yields (2001-2003)
Areas planted to different crops and yields (2001-2003) are given in Table 4. According to these data, potential fodder and feed production areas of Kosovo are:
These areas are an important source for animal feed, and based on the number of livestock and while the yields reported are low, a considerable supply of main feedstuffs is available (see Table 5). Demand for concentrate feed ingredients (cereals) and especially oilseed by-products (oilseed meals) still remains high, but the amount of roughages is very close to meeting needs.
Table 5. Potential domestic production of animal feed in Kosovo
Major soil types
According to a digital map of soil types (scale 1:50000) provided by the Institute of Soil Sciences of the University of Prishtina (Elezi et al. 2004) and referring to the WRB-soil classification (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006), the most frequent soil types in the plains are fluvisols. In the hilly areas vertisols, cambisols and regosols are widespread. In general, the agricultural soils are significantly modified. Especially irrigation (mainly in the western part of Kosovo) and soil alteration are crucial factors that have impacted on pedogenetic processes over centuries.
Kosovo possesses diverse soils, even though its territory is small. This is a result of the landscape structure, geographic base, flora, climate and hydrography. It is estimated that 15% of Kosovo‘s soil is of high quality, 29% is medium quality, and 56% is poor quality. The high and medium quality soils account for 44% of total land. They are composed of humus soil (11%) that is mostly distributed in the Kosovo plain, grey carbonate land (8.4%), alluvial (7.8%) and other dark and serpentine soils. Poor quality soils are mostly laid on hilly and mountainous areas. They are composed of acidic grey soils, diluvial lands, swamps and other infertile soils. Fertile soil has been lost to house and road constructions, mine dumpsites and other constructions and about 10-15 % of the agricultural land of Kosovo is fallow land (Mehmeti et al., 2009).
However, in the recent past, the reasons for abandonment changed: the fallow land nowadays includes land that either left the agricultural sector as construction land, or was abandoned from cultivation due to poor soil quality (e.g., shallow calcareous soils) or high prices of agricultural inputs (e.g. fertilizer, seed, and fuel).
The most widespread soil types and their distribution is presented according to Elezi et al. (in press) and also see Map 3:
LITHOSOL-This type of soil is found in volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. It is mainly distributed in hilly-mountainous areas such as the Albanian Alps, Sharri Ridge, Karadak, Kopaonik Ridge, Bjeshkët and Karadakut in Pejë, Gjilan, Leposaviq, Prizren. This type of soil occupies around 42 143 ha or 3.87% of total area.
COLLUVIUM-Processes of the pedogenesis of this type of soil are specific to hollows. In Kosovo there are 69 830 ha or 6.42% of Colluvium and it lies in the municipalities of Prizren, Hollows of Opoja-Dragash, Suhareka, Shterpca, and Istog.
RENDZINA- Lies in lower areas and according to the Pedologic map is more represented in municipalities of Skënderaj where it takes 48% of areas of this type, then in Klina, istog, etc. Total area under this soil type for Kosovo is 26 332 ha or 2.42%.
RANKERS- Rankers are soils of hilly-mountainous areas. Mostly found in: Dragash, Leposaviq, Prizren, Mitrovicë, Gjakovë, Shterpcë, etc. and cover 121 822 ha or 11.24% of the total area.
VERTISOL- this type of soil is formed in valleys (200–600 m elevation). Vertisols are present in all forms of relief but mainly in flat lake terraces under semi-arid climate. This is a very common soil in Kosovo and covers considerable areas (108 444 ha or about 10%) in the municipalities of Lipjan, Rahovec, Vushtrri, Kamenicë, Gjilan, Drenas, Ferizaj, Prishtinë, etc.
CAMBISOL- based on their distribution, cambisols (Eutric and Distric) represent nearly half (47%) of the total area of Kosovo. Eutric cambisol takes 173 710 ha or 16%, and is more present in municipalities of Prishtina, Podujeva, Leposaviq, Gjilan, Zubin Potok, Kamenica, etc. Distric cambisol takes 282 802 ha or 26% of the total area. It lies in all regions of the country but is more present in Kamenicë, Gjilan, Podujevë, Kaçanik, Gjakovë, etc.
CALCOCAMBISOL- There are 32 631 ha or 3% of the total area under calcocambisols mainly in the region of Peja, Istog, Gjilan, Zubin Potok, Deçan, etc.
TERRA ROSSA- Although terrarosa belongs to the Mediterranean zone, it is present in continental karstic lands, or in places where carbonate rocks predominate. There are 27 845 ha or 2.56% of the areas under this type of the soil and the municipalities where it is found are Malisheva (with about 26%), followed by Prizren, Klinë, Gllogovc, Gjakovë, etc.
FLUVISOL- This type of soil is present in flooded zones by rivers and takes 83 862 ha or 7.71% of the area. These are the well known regions of vegetable production (near the White Drini river) in Peja, Gjakova, Klina to Prizren, but also near other rivers in the municipalities of Deçan, Vushtrri, Podujevë, etc.
PSEUDOGLEY- is present in semi-humid and humid regions with more than 700 mm of rainfall. This soil is present in Gjakova, Viti, Ferizaj, Podujevë, Prizren, Gllogovc, Istog, etc. with totally 40 245 ha or 3.7%).
SEMIGLEY- this type of soil is usually associated with fluvisols and takes only 1.26% of the area with most present in Rahovec, Lipjan, Gjilan, Viti, Gjakovë, Shtime, Ferizaj, etc.
|3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES |
Kosovo’s climate (see Table 6) is moderate continental with warm summers and cold winters. In the plains and adjacent hilly areas, where there is a continental climate, air temperature may range from minus 20 °C in the winter to +35 °C in the summer. In the Kosovo plain about 170-200 days per year are frost-free and the mean annual rainfall is about 650 mm. In the Dukagjini plain, the annual rainfall is higher (about 780 mm) and the frost-free period is longer (up to 225 days), indicating a pronounced Mediterranean climate influence in the western part of Kosovo. Overall the average annual rainfall is up to 700m but its distribution is not very good.
In Eastern Kosovo and the lowlands of Kosovo, Llapi, Drenica and Ana-Morava it is a little colder compared to Dukagjini (western part). Average annual temperature is 9.5°C, with fluctuations from 19.2°C for July and -1.3°C (January).
Table 6. Main meteorological indicators for Kosovo
Source: Hydro-meteorological InstitutePrecipitation is mainly as rain in valleys and snow in higher, mountainous regions (Bjeshkët e Nemuna and Sharri). In Eastern Kosovo average precipitation is over 600 mm, while in the west it exceeds 700 mm. In the Bjeshkët e Nemuna mountains there are cases of 1 750 mm precipitation. Snowfall is common during the colder period of the year. In the lowlands there is an average of 26 days with snow, while in mountain areas there are more than 100 days.
Total precipitation looks almost satisfactory, but due to very big fluctuations between months, agricultural production in regions with no irrigation often faces droughts or floods. See Figure 3 which shows the five year (2002-2006) average, minimum and maximum values of precipitation.
Average wind speed fluctuates between 1.3 m/sec (in Peja) to 2.4 m/sec (in Ferizaj). Maximum wind speed reaches 31 m/sec usually during March and April. Kosovo has insolation levels of 2 066 hours during the year and 5.7 hours per day.
|4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS|
The livestock sector faced the same difficulties as other agricultural enterprises and because of the conflict, it was estimated that over 50% of livestock was lost. This was associated with damage to livestock infrastructure which has not yet returned to a desirable level. This situation led to shortages of animals and animal products, which had to be imported. Farmers were faced with problems in recovering these losses. Some donors played a valuable role helping in livestock repopulation and breed improvement. At least 10 000 pregnant heifers of good breeds were imported and distributed to farmers. Livestock numbers by municipality are shown in Table 7.
Table 7. Situation of livestock in Kosovo by municipality
Source: Identification and Registration office of MAFRD, Veterinary Food Agency
As reported by SOK, AHS Survey (2006), animal numbers (see Table 8) differ from those given by MAFRD, Identification and Registration Office of VFA (2003). The relative structure of animals in Kosovo is shown in Figure 4.
Table 8. Number of Animals October-November, 2006 (SOK AHS, 2006)
The number of sheep reached its peak of 644 000 in 1961 (see Figure 6). It decreased rapidly at the beginning of the 1990s and especially after 1996 and according to data collected from field officers of the Department of Livestock this number is under 100 000, which is the lowest in the last 70 years. The sheep population by region is shown in Table 9.
Table 9. Current situation of sheep population in the regions of Kosovo
*I&R = Identification and Registration
If we take the dry matter needs of a sheep as 2.5 kg/day, even with an average yield of 1.5 tons per hectare, current pasture production allows for an increased number of sheep. Photo 1 shows sheep grazing at around 1,500m altitude.
The use of the available pastures is limited and could be more efficient because as is shown in the figure and table above there is still room for more sheep. The main negative factors for the sheep industry which have caused a decrease in the number of sheep are: lack of interest of people to deal with this business, low profitability. Problems in sale of products are:
In poor management of sheep production, poor/not controlled reproduction, poor/not balanced nutrition, low yield of pastures/unmanaged grazing represent the main factors causing low production, while lack of associations/companies which will organize/help the system of sale, no marketing, bad or no packaging, not clear political and economical situation of Kosovo, causes problems in commercialising of products such as milk, cheese, wool and skins.
Because breeding is one of the most important segments in animal production we should take into consideration some key factors which can help to improve reproductive efficiency and animal production results in general:
There is a general opinion that low reproduction rate is mainly due to a large number of abortions caused by:
In terms of identifying correct answers it is necessary to do more field and diagnostic work to determine the main causative agents in a way to develop a good preventive program which will be introduced to farmers.
Breed structure of sheep
Export and import markets
Milk and milk products
Meat and meat products
Table 10. Agricultural land based on the size and the structure of the farm
Source: SOK, Agricultural Household Survey, 2006
Most of the land is in farms of 0.1 - 2 ha. This certainly affects development of agriculture.
Traditional systems (pastoral and agro- pastoral, mixed smallholder, landless systems)
An important issue is scarcity of labour which is the case with all types of jobs related to livestock production and is more pronounced with shepherds, notably in more remote areas. Young people are not willing to do this type of job, even when living close to poverty, mainly because of difficulties in marriages.
|5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE |
Existing studies on Kosovo’s pastures mainly cover botanical rather than zootechnical and nutritional aspects.
Miric (1975), reports the presence of these plant associations in pastures of the Northern part of Sharri Mountain:
a) Calcareous substratum
According to the Departments for Plant Protection, Plant Production and the Sector for Pastures and Animal Nutrition of the MAFRD (2005), the commonest species in Kosovo pastures are: Trifolium montanum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, Medicago falcata, Lotus corniculatus, Agropyrum repens, Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Poa alpina, Cynodon dactylon, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Agrostis alba, Dactylis glomerata, Taraxacum officinale, Papaver rhoeas, Convolvulus arvensis, Polygonum convolvulus, Plantago major, Amaranthus retroflexus, Daucus carota, Matricaria chamomilla, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Cirsium arvense, and Sonchus arvensis.
Based on the study carried out by the Institute for Protection of Nature and Environment of Kosovo (2003), the commonest herbaceous plants that dominate pastures of the Albanian Alps are: Festuca heterophylla, Dactylis glomerata, Veronica chamaedrys, Fragaria vesca, Clinopodium vulgare, Helleborus odorus, Melica uniflora, Danna cornubiensis. Less frequent are Viola silvestris, Primula vulgaris, Lathyrus
The following plants are also found: Verbascum nikolaii, Wulfenia blecicii, Helleborus purpurascens, Luzula luzulina, Anemone nemorosa, Festuca heterophylla, and Saxifraga rotundifolia.
Near the higher limit of woodland, species like Senecio alpinum, Rhamnus fallax, Soldanella alpina, Lonicera nigra, Hieracium alpinum, Lilium albanicum, Geum bulgaricum, Asperula odorata, Luzula nemorosa, Anthemis montana, and Dryas octopetala occur.
Above the higher limit of woodland border there are primary and secondary pastures but their vegetation is excessively damaged by zoo-anthropogenic factors. In most of these areas the dominating species is Nardus stricta, but there are also species like Centaurea nervosa, Polygonum bistorta, Dianthus superbus, Gentiana graminea, and Hypericum quadrangulum.
According to Avdiu (2005), the pasroral flora of eastern Kosovo (Kamenica and Novo Bërda region) contains 71 species: Achillea millefolium, Antoxanthum odoratum, Aegilops triuncialis, Astragalus onobrychis, Ajuga laxmannii, Arrhenaterum elatius, Anthyllis vulneraria, Alopecurus myosuroides, Allium flavum, Asperula cynanchica, Agropyron repens, Bromus erectus, Convulvulus arvensis, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Cerinthe minor, Cruciata glabra, Cirsium sp., Chrysopogon gryllus, Dactylis gomerata, Dorycnium herbaceum, Euphorbia cyparissias, Erodium cicutarium, Galium verum, Genista sagittalis, Koeleria pyramidata, Lotus corniculatus, Haynaldia villosa, Hypochoris radiata, Hypericum perforatum, Hieracium pilosum, Onobrychis viciifolia, Potentilla hirta, Poa pratensis, Poa trivialis, Poa bulbosa, Podosperma laciata, Polygala vulgaris, Phleum pratense, Plantago lanceolata, Rumex acetosella, Rinanthus minor, Rinanthus major, Ranunculus psilostachus, Medicago rigidula, Medicago falcata, Marrubium vulgare, Festuca ovina, Festuca arundinacea, Fragaria vesca, Trifolium dalmaticum, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium campestre, Trisetum flavescens, Tragopogon pratense, Thymus serpyllum, Teucrium chamaedrys, Salvia verticillata, Silene conica, Sanguisorba minor, Succisa pratensis, Vicia cracca, Veronica sp., Viola tricolor, Helleborus purpurascens, Faba sp., Lathyrus aphaca, Daucus carota,and Cichorium sp.
There is high species variation reported although these two municipalities cover eastern Kosovo with no big variation in climate and agro-pedological characteristics. Figures 8 and 9 show the most frequent species in this region.
Millaku (2006), has compared some lowland pasture fields in five localities (which represents five Kosovo regions and are spread in altitude from 400-1 000m above sea level) and reported the presence of these plants: Achillea millefolium, Agropyrum repens, Agrostemma githago, Alyssum markgrafi, Alyssum montanum, Anthemis arvensis, Bromus sterilis, Capsella bursa pastoris, Centaurea arvense, Centaurea cyanus, Cerastium umbellatum, Cirsium arvense, Dactylis glomerata, Echium vulgare, Festua pratensis, Festuca sp., Galium aparine, Hieracium stoloniferum, Hypericum perforatum, Lathyrus aphaca, Lolium perenne. Lotus corniculatus, Matricaria sp., Medicago lupulina, Melampyrum arvense, Mentha longifolia, Phleum pratense, Poa pratensis, Potentilla argentea, Ranunculus sp., Silene vulgaris, Stachys scardica, Silene vulgaris, Tanacetum vulgare, Trifolium campestre, Trifolium incarnatum, Trifolium pratense, Trifolium repens, and Veronica chamaedrys.
This author has grouped the identified plants in three categories. As shown in Table 11 and Figure 10, the average structure of the plants from five locations spread in different regions of Kosovo, illustrates the presence of a higher number of inedible plants in three of five experimental plots. Apart from the poor composition structure of plant communities, the author reports low yields, ranging from 5-13 tonnes of consumable herbage per hectare.
As well as high plant species variations, there are also yield variations reported in the pastures of Kosovo. These yields vary from 310-940 and 870-2 080 kg/ha (Avdiu, 2005) and 510-1300 kg/ha (Millaku, 2006). Miric (1975) reports the yields from 329-5 225 and 2 064-6 275 kg/ha of consumable herbage for calcareous and silicate substratum respectively.
Another important aspect of the use of pastures is promotion of ecological/organic livestock production in areas suited to natural grazing. Animal products from these areas are gaining in importance in Kosovo markets, but could become more profitable by introducing them to foreign markets.
Prior to 1990, pastures were better utilized and organized (see Table 12); management and monitoring was undertaken by municipalities through the Socially Owned Enterprises (SOEs) and agriculture cooperatives. Then, the management of pastures in Dragash Municipality, (a region rich in pastures), was carried out by SOE “Sharrprodhimi”. Regarding pasture utilization, farmers were obliged to pay annual taxes. Pasture area and sheep numbers fell between 1988 and 2004.
Alpine meadow vegetation has been modified through centuries of use for summer grazing and adjacent sub-alpine vegetation has been repeatedly burned to expand the size of the pastures. Since the war, grazing of alpine pastures has actually decreased because people fear being in these remote border areas and the number of livestock is less than in the pre-war period. Some meadows are reportedly being naturally recolonised with trees since grazing has stopped. (Kosovo Biodiversity Assessment, USAID Kosovo, 2003)
Table 12. Pasture area, number of sheep per hectare and sheep numbers over time
Arable land grazing
Fodder Supply and Grazing
Table 13. Areas and fodder production in lowlands
Some 300 000 tons of fodder is produced from lowland farms, which could replace an important part of the ration for barn feeding of big ruminants. The most common form of the feed is still hay produced either from grasses (in natural and sown meadows) or Lucerne (alfalfa). Silage production is increasing which reduces production costs of animal products. Silage production also brings more security for farmers for winter feeding but the yields are still variable and dependent on rainfall. In regions where irrigation is possible farmers perform much better.
Table 14 gives observations on the animal feeds sector and price per kilogramme of feed from 2002-2006 (according to MAFRD).
Table 14. Prices of main animal feeds in Kosovo
Use of mineral and organic fertilizers
Table 15. Average use of mineral fertilizers during 2006 (SOK, AHS, 2006)
The highest amount of mineral fertilizers per hectare is used for vegetables (see Table 15), but because of the bigger planted area the highest total amount (46 000 tons or 65% of the total) is used for cereals, followed by forages with 13 000 tons or 18%. The use of organic fertilizers is shown in Table 16.
Table 16. The use of organic fertilizers (manure) in Kosovo during 2006 (SOK AHS, 2006)
nr =no record; *Average use of organic fertilizer (manure) per ha(in kg)
Legislation and government for livestock fodder and pastures
Documents which deal with livestock and feed and pastures are:
Law on Livestock Nr.2004/33. This law regulates some more general issues on livestock, concentrated and compound feeds, but fodder production and pastures are not even mentioned in this law.
Law on Veterinary Nr.2004/33
Development of pastures and meadows
There is a tendency for change and improvement of the habits of farmers in lowland areas and interest in introducing new technologies, apart from the very traditional way of feed conservation, by drying grasses, haylage and silage production are interesting the more serious farmers. Due to more experience in maize growing, Corn silage dominates and new high potential producing cultivars are available. Fodder production is faced with the difficulties especially in modern equipment. The actual situation with machinery is not very good. There are a small number of tractors, with low power and mainly bought more than 20 years ago. Some high capacity equipment cannot be actually applied due to high prices of modern tractors and associated equipment.
|8. REFERENCES |
Agricultural Household Survey (AHS), Statistical Office of Kosovo, 2006
Agricultural Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Rural Development, Division for Agricultural Statistics and Analysis, 2007.
Agriculture and Rural Development Plan, 2007-2013 November, 2006
ARD-BIOFOR IQC Consortium, 2003. Kosovo Biodiversity Assessment, USAID Kosovo.
Avdiu, B., 2005. Floristic composition of hilly-mountainous massive of Novo Bërda and Kamenica, Kosovo. Biological studies, Academy of sciences Tirana (paper in Albanian).
Departments for Plant Protection, Plant Production and the Sector for Pastures and Animal Nutrition of the MAFRD (2005).
Elezi, Xh.; A. Halimi, and M. Zogaj, 2004. Digjitalizimi i hartës pedologjike të Kosovës. Departamenti i shkencave të tokës, Fakulteti i Bujqësisë, Prishtinë.
Elezi, Xh. , M. Zogaj, and A. Halimi, (in press). Introduction to Soil Science- Soil systematic (in Albanian).
Gashi, H. and Sh. Spaho, 2002. Pedologjia. Akademia e shkencave dhe arteve të Kosovës. Seksioni i shkencave të natyrës, Libri 8, Prishtinë.
IUSS Working Group WRB, 2006. World reference base for soil resources. World Soil Resources. Reports 103. FAO, Rome.
Kamberi, M.A. 2004. The Agricultural Statistics and Policy Advisory Unit Kosovo (ASPAUK) Project. Mission Report.
Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2001 and 2002.
Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) 2000.
MAFRD, Identification and Registration Office of VFA (2003).
Mehmeti, A., A. Demaj, and R. Waldhardt, 2009. Plant species richness and composition in the arable land of Kosovo. Landscape Online, 11:1-29.
Millaku, F., 2006. Pasture Improvement and Management Project. Horticulture Association of Kosovo, Kosovo Cluster and Business Support Project, USAID.
Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning, Institute for Protection of Nature and Environment of Kosovo, Study on the reasonability of the declaration of the territory of Albanian Alps as National Park. Prishtina, 2003.
Miric, M. 1975. Fodder base of Kosovo, Union of Scientific Associations of Kosovo, Book 37. (Publication in Serbian).
Riinvest, 2002. Survey on Household and Labour Market.
Riinvest, 2004. Survey of rural families.
Statistical office of Kosovo, 2002. Household Budget Survey (HBS).
Dr.Sc. Muhamet A. Kamberi , Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary,
[The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries]
This profile was written in March 2009 and will be updated from time to time.
[The profile was edited by J.M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds in April/May 2009]