5. THE PASTURE RESOURCE

The main pasture units
Mauritania can be divided into six pastoral units based on rainfall and edaphic conditions (Kane, 1996): the Saharan domain; the sub-desert sahel; the typical sahel; the Sahelo-Sudanian border; the valley of the river and pastures of the salty soils.

The Saharan domain
This corresponds to the arid zone north of the 150 mm isohyet and covers two thirds of the country. The structure of the desert vegetation is often a discontinuous layer of small shrubs belonging to various genera and one or more strata of grasses and other herbs. In all cases the vegetation is not homogenous and is characterised by a low plant density.

The sandy ergs. Psammophyllic vegetation is largely represented since the ergs occupy a non-negligible part of the national territory. They are characterised by a pseudo-steppe dominated by Stipagrostis pungens. The principal species associated with it are: Calligonum comosum, Cornulaca monocantha, Farsetia stylosa and Cyperus conglomeratus. The barkhans, practically bare of vegetation provide no grazing.

The stony regs are characterised by a very diffuse group dominated by: Acacia tortilis subsp. raddiana and Hammada scopania(Mint Soueidatt Fatimetou, 1988). Their main associate is Pergularia tomentosa.

The sandy regs: are characterised by a steppe of Aerva javanica and Fagonia oliveri. The grass stratum is dominated by Aristideae notably Aristida mutabilis.

The clayey-sandy regs: are characterised by a steppe of Nucularia perrini by far the most important formation; it is often accompanied by Salsola baryosma. The herb layer is dominated by Stipagrostis acutiflora. This pasture is greatly liked by camels.

The depressions and wadi beds: are vast expanses of reg the conformation of which allows the collection of the runoff after light rain. These environments harbour shrubby steppes formed by one or more of the following species: Acacia ehrenbergiana, Acacia tortilis, Maerua crassifolia, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis decidua, Boscia senegalensis, Calligonum comosum, Panicum turgidum and Cymbopogon schoenanthus.

The beaches and littoral dunes: carry a pasture with few pastoral resources composed of: Tamarix sp., Nitraria retusa, Atriplex halimus, Sporobolus spicatus, Polycarpea nivea, and Sesuvium portulacastrum.

Overall the productivity of these pastures is low.

The sub-desert Sahel.
This unit is between the isohyets of 150 and 200 mm and corresponds to a narrow band from Nouakchott in the west to Tidjikja in the centre. The southern limit of that zone in the west is around 170 and rises to 180 in the centre. (FAO 2001). It is characterised by a very short period of pasture growth.

On the red dunes with active crests, are found: Balanites aegyptiaca, Commiphora africana, Farsetia stylosa, Cyperus conglomeratus and Panicum turgidum. This pasture is much liked by the herders and remains in good state until the onset of the hot season.

In the calcareous inter-dune depressions are found: Maerua crassifolia, Capparis decidua, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Fagonia oliveri, Panicum turgidum, Farsetia stylosa and Cyperus conglomeratus.

On the coastal dunes a steppe develops of Euphorbia balsamifera, Commiphora africana, Acacia tortilis, Panicum turgidum, Cenchrus biflorus and Tribulus terrestris. This formation has little value in the dry season

Shallow aeolian sands over sandstone are colonised by a pasture of difficult access of Euphorbia balsamifera, Boscia senegalensis, Aristida adscensionis and Tetrapogon cenchriformis.

On undulant regs with sand covered bottom land are found Boscia senegalensis, Capparis decidua, Panicum turgidum, and Farsetia stylosa. These regs have scattered loamy-clay depressions where most of the forage is found.

Overall the productivity of these pastures is very low, especially on sandy dunes, but is a bit better on sandy-loam peneplains.

The typical Sahel
This is between the 200 and 400 mm isohyets and extends from West to East in a strip 200 kilometres wide. The Northern limit of this unit is roughly on the line Kaédi, south of Kiffa and Adel Bagrou to the east (FAO 2001). The productivity of these pastures varies according to the soil. The percentage of grass in the herbaceous layer on fixed sandy dunes is 40 whereas it is 25 on skeletal soils more or less covered with a sandy layer.

On the fixed dunes we find: Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia senegal, Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Cenchrus biflorus, and Alysicarpus ovalifolius. It is excellent grazing in the rainy season and the start of the dry season.

On sandy soils sometimes slightly loamy a pasture of good quality during the rainy season and the start of the dry season is found composed essentially of: Acacia senegal, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cenchrus biflorus, Aristida mutabilis and Heliotropium bacciferum.

In depressions between dunes with a sandy-loam substrate a herbaceous steppe develops in the rainy season of: Panicum turgidum, Aristida mutabilis, Cyperus conglomeratus, Euphorbia cordifolia, Farsetia stylosa, Aerva javanica, Fagonia oliveri, Pergularia tomentosa, Schoenefeldia gracilis, Aristida funiculata, Aristida mutabilis, Aristida adscensionis, and Cenchrus biflorus. The woody vegetation includes Boscia senegalensis, Maerua crassifolia, Balanites aegyptiaca etc.

The coastal dunes carry a steppe of Acacia tortilis, Salvadora persica, Commiphora africana, Chloris prieurii and Aristida mutabilis. In the inter-dunes are found Salvadora persica, Maytenus senegalensis, Borassus flabellifer, Cenchrus biflorus, Schoenefeldia gracilis and Aristida funiculata. This pasture can be used throughout the year.

In the low salty areas a steppe of sub-shrubs occurs: Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Salsola baryosma, Salsola vermiculata, Zygophyllum fontanesii.

In the main beds of wadis with clay or sandy-clay substrates where runoff accumulates temporary pastures mainly based on annuals develop. The herb layer is composed of Panicum laetum, Cassia tora, Eragrostis tremulla, Pennisetum violaceum etc. The woody layer comprises Ziziphus mauritiana, Acacia ehrenbergiana, Acacia seyal etc.

On clay and clay-loam soils a luxuriant vegetation develops in the main beds of wadis dominated by Acacia scorpioides, Acacia seyal, Echinochloa colona and Aeschynomene indica. After overgrazing species of low palatability like Indigofera oblongifolia, Cassia tora, Spermacoce vermiculata proliferate while the plants liked by livestock like grasses and legumes tend to disappear.

The sterile Sahel regs with Acacia ehrenbergiana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia senegal and Schoenefeldia gracilis are of little use and are mediocre in the dry season.

The Sahelo-Sudanian border
This has a dry tropical climate of the Sahelo-Sudanian type with a rainfall rising from 400 mm in the north to 500 – 600 in the south. It corresponds to the whole zone south of the 400 mm isohyet and particularly south of Guidimakha. The association of Combretum glutinosum dominates this zone associated with Acacia senegal and Adansonia digitata. The grass layer is a dense sward of Schoenefeldia gracilis, Eragrostis tremula and Andropogon gayanus. The productivity of these pastures depends on the soil and their position on the slope.

On fixed dunes a pasture develops of Balanites aegyptiaca, Acacia senegal, Aristida mutabilis, Cenchrus bifloris, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, and Sesamum alatum. It has a low carrying capacity, especially in the dry season.

On sandy soils sited at the base of plateaux are found: Combretum glutinosum, Acacia senegal, Sclerocarya birrea, Balanites aegyptiaca, Cenchrus bifloris, Aristida mutabilis, and Indigofera aspera. This is useful grazing throughout the year but with a reduced carrying capacity in the hot, dry season.

On sandy loams: Balanites aegyptiaca, Adansonia digitata, Combretum glutinosum, Aristida mutabilis, Eragrostis tremula, Indigofera senegalensis, Schoenefeldia gracilis and Zornia glochidiata. This is useful grazing throughout the year but with a reduced carrying capacity in the hot, dry season.

On regs with stony and gravelly soils we find Acacia seyal, Adansonia digitata, Schoenefeldia gracilis, and Aristida mutabilis. This pasture is of little importance in the dry season.

On the flanks of plateaux with stony soils with small wadis there is an extraordinary but inaccessible pasture composed essentially of Commiphora africana, Pterocarpus lucens, Combretum glutinosum, Blepharis linearifolius, Aristida adscensionis, Andropogon gayanus and Tetrapogon cenchriformis.

On clays and clay loams forests of Acacia seyal, Maytenus senegalensis, Andropogon gayanus, Pennisetum pedicellatum and Indigofera astragalina occur. This is an excellent dry season pasture.

The river valley.
Zones of prolonged inundation are populated with a monospecific group of Acacia scorpioides which can withstand the total immersion of its roots over several months; these forests are disappearing because of their intensive use for charcoal making. These zones carry here and there aquatic pastures of Oryza barthii (Barry, 1988); after clearing these are colonised by Vetiveria nigricans.

On clay soils which are flooded by the Senegal river and its tributaries we find Acacia scorpioides, Acacia seyal, Faidherbia albida, Mimosa pigra, Ziziphus amphibia, Echinochloa colona, Aeschynomene indica, Sphenoclea zeylanica, Alternanthera nodiflora, Lotus glinoides, Chrozophora senegalensis, Ipomoea aquatica etc. Once the waters start to retreat (September) an uninterrupted band of cultivated fields develops for kilometres which makes the rich intercalated pastures inaccessible; these are later used by sedentary herds after harvest. This is an excellent dry season pasture. These pastures are far fewer in Mauritania than on the Senegal bank.

The coastal dunes carry very diverse woody vegetation containing, among others, Euphorbia balsamifera, Maytenus senegalensis, Tamarix sp., Nitraria retusa, Commiphora africana etc.

On coastal sands are found Ipomoea pes-caprae, Sesuvium portulacastrum, Alternanthera maritima, Cyperus maritimus etc.

Saline soil pastures
These are mainly at the coast, principally in Aftout es Sahli where the climate is tempered by the sea breeze and the rainfall is between 120 mm in the north and 300 mm in the south. On saline clay soils a halophyte vegetation develops the composition of which is strongly influenced by the degree of salinity of the soil.

The delta of the Senegal river supports great areas, mostly inundated during floods, which carry often monospecific populations of one of the following: Typha australis, Phragmites sp., Cyperus sp., Sporobolus sp. and in addition Cressa cretica, Echinochloa colona, and Paspalum vaginatum. Here and there the flowers of Nymphea lotus can be seen. There are relic mangroves of Rhizophora sp. and Avicenna africana.

In the sebkhas where soils are very saline a population of Tamarix and-or Arthrocnemum macrostachyum is found

On the edges of flooded areas and on the periphery of sebkhas Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Salsola baryosma, Salsola vermiculata Suaeda mollis, Cressa cretica etc. are found.

In saline depressions in the interior Nucularia perrini and Salsola baryosma are met with; this is excellent dry season grazing. Nevertheless it can only be tolerated by livestock for twenty days because of its salinity. Overall these pastures, greatly liked by camels, are of low productivity.

Forage resources
The country’s overall forage resources are variable over time and discontinuous spatially. It is thanks to the complementarity of the country’s different zones that the herds graze if weather conditions are favourable. The natural pastures are the basis of ruminant nutrition and stock depend on them throughout the year. A characteristic of these pastures is their seasonal variation in quantity and quality; fodder quality varies from one species to another and within a species according to season and stage of development.

During the rains livestock energy and protein requirements are well met which explains the good condition of the herds and a satisfactory milk production. In the dry season the situation is reversed and all pastures provide forage deficient in both energy and protein, to such an extent that stock living off these pastures will become emaciated and may die (Boudet and Duverger, 1961).

Palatability of plants is a relative characteristic. The same species can be sought after or left alone according to the season, the age of the plants, the floristic composition of the pasture in which they are found and the species of grazing animal, (Annex 1, Ould Soulé A. 1995, 1998). Thus, following overgrazing, unpalatable or undesirable species proliferate. (UNESCO, 1961).

Forage resources are composed mainly by the shrub and tree layers. In fact during the dry season and particularly before the rains (the critical period) the green parts and fruits of woody vegetation provide the main if not the only source of protein essential to a balanced diet. The trees or shrubs which remain green throughout the year or are in leaf at the critical period (Combretum glutinosum, Balanites aegyptiaca, Faidherbia albida, Salvadora persica, Piliostigma reticulatum, Piliostigma rufescens, Indigofera oblongifolia etc.), the weedy lianas (Cocculus pendulus, Leptadenia hastata, Leptadenia arborea, Ephedra sp. etc.) and epiphytes like Tapinanthus spp. provide a nutritious contribution while the annual herbs only provide roughage of mediocre nutritive value. As for the perennial herbs (Panicum turgidum, Andropogon gayanus, Aristida pungens, Vetiveria nigritana etc.), they also provide quality feed.

The variable forage resources depend on the summer rains which are irregular and unreliable. The herbaceous pastures depend closely on the amount and distribution over time of the rainfall. Rain has to fall regularly, without big gaps, to allow herbs to complete their growth cycle from germination through flowering to seed maturity. The variable forage resources show the nature of the precipitation precisely. Scarcity, insufficiency and poor distribution limit forage production. The exploitation of pastures by herds of different compositions behaving in different ways vis á vis the forages: cattle graze the herbage to a certain height, sheep clip it to ground level whereas goats prefer to browse shrubs and camels feed on the leaves of trees and bushes, allowing a better valorisation of the grazing land.

Water resources, to which the grazing of the stock is closely tied, like the forage resources are also variable in time and discontinuous spatially. The permanent water sources are the Senegal river, the lakes Rhiz and Mâl and the deep water tables which feed the wells and bore-holes. These are the permanent element and the ultimate supply in the dry season. The variable water resources also depend on the summer rains; they are surface water (ponds, wadis etc.) and the shallow ground water recharged annually by infiltration of rain water and feed shallow wells which are often dry by the end of the dry season (May – June).

Where the stock graze is determined by the availability of mattoral forage and of water; in the rainy season these resources are generally satisfactory, in contrast in the dry season the grazing land is often limited by the lack of one or both of the two resources.

The installation of bores and wells in recent decades has brought about a profound modification in pastoral conditions. Herds stay longer on grazing areas, thus removing a quantity of vegetation largely exceeding the annual growth. Thus concentric rings are created around some boreholes and wells starting from a denuded area. The denudation of the soil is because of overgrazing and trampling and soil compaction.

Pasture potential
The sylvopastoral potential (Table 6) is great (almost 14,000,000 hectares or about 14 percent of the country) but is handicapped by pastoral overstocking due to non-accessibility of some zones where water supplies have not been installed.

Incomplete statistics indicate that 13,848,000 hectares of pasture produce 6.3 milliards of Fodder Units (UF) corresponding to 2,500,000 tropical livestock units (UBT) on the basis of 2,500 UF/UBT/year; now the national herd is 3,500,000 UBT which indicates that the carrying capacity of the pastoral ecosystem is largely exceeded. (Nations Unies, 2001). This calculation does not take account of the forage from trees and shrubs (aerial pastures). To avoid the destruction of that ecosystem, rational pasture management is necessary. That management should assure proper nutrition of the livestock while allowing both annual and perennial plants to regenerate.

Phytomass production on Mauritanian pastures is very dependant on the weather; it varies from one wilaya to another according to the rainfall and the area of the wilaya. From estimates of phytomass and calculations of carrying capacity per wilaya it seems that the fodder balance is positive overall with an excess of about 3.8 percent over the total needs of ruminants. Nevertheless the balance is negative in six wilayas (Table 7). The Wilayas of the two Hodhs, Assaba and Adrar produce three quarters of the national forage potential.

Table 6. Sylvopastoral Potential of Mauritania (Nations Unies, 2001 ).

Wilaya

area (km2)

Potential (000 hectares)

TOTAL

(000 ha)

Sylvopastoral

Classified forest

District Nouakchott

120

-

-

-

Hodh Chargui

182 700

3 500

0

3 500

Hodh Gharbi

53 400

3 000

1.5

3 001.5

Assaba

36 600

2 500

16

2 516

Gorgol

13 600

1 100

4.5

1 104.5

Brakna

33 000

1 300

9

1 309

Trarza

67 800

1 000

8.5

1 008.5

Adrar

215 300

-

-

-

Dakhlet Nouadhibou

17 800

-

-

-

Tagant

95 200

700

6

706

Guidimakha

10 300

700

2.5

702.5

Tiris Zemmour

258 580

-

-

-

Inchiri

46 300

-

-

-

TOTAL

1 030 700

13 800

48

13 848

 

Table 7. Fodder balance of Mauritanian livestock (FAO, 2001 ).

Wilaya

Rainfall (mm)

Edible phytomass (T/DM)

Dry Matter - Tons

Herbaceous

Aerial

Total

Needs

Balance

D. Nouakchott

 

-

-

-

-

-

Hodh Chargui

242

2 174 040

549 000

2 723 040

1 750 517.4

972 522.6

Hodh Gharbi

204

1 268 784

320 400

1 589 184

1 324 992.5

264 191.5

Assaba

216

923 967

233 3258

1 157 292

1 011 510.9

145 781.1

Gorgol

240

383 724

96 900

480 624

663 364.9

-182 740.9

Brakna

220

343 035

111 375

454 410

740 700.3

-286 290.3

Trarza

225

548 163

177 975

726 138

7016 755

9 363

Adrar

132

852 588

484 425

1 337 013

526 594.8

810 418.8

D. Nouadhibou

22

528.7

401

929.2

-

929.2

Tagant

154

60 588

34 425

95 013

500 837.9

-405 824.9

Guidimakha

321

333 102

75 705

408 807

785 329

-376 522.0

Tiris Zemmour

64

7 722.4

5 850

13 572.8

165 010.6

-151 437.8

Inchiri

88

125 433

71 269

196 701.8

288 947

-92 245.3

TOTAL

7 021 675

2 161 050

9 182 725

8 474 580.5

708 144.2

Fodder crops
In Mauritania ruminant feed is essentially from natural pastures. If during the rainy season these pastures provide a very satisfactory forage, in the dry season the dried vegetation of low feeding value cannot meet the maintenance needs of the livestock.

In the north where conditions are difficult the agropastoralists who have understood well the need to provide a complementary feed (especially to goats) in lean periods cultivate fodder (mainly lucerne Medicago sativa) between the date palms. In contrast, in the south where conditions are better, fodder crops are still in an embryonic state in irrigated areas. Private and public trials have given encouraging results; several forages have been tried over many years. The most promising are: cowpea ISRA 66-35; Lablab purpureus or Dolichos lablab; Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan; lucerne Medicago sativa and fodder sorghum. Others have been tried: Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium lathyroides, Crotalaria juncea, Pennisetum sp., Stylosanthes sp.

These forages are potentially usable for diversification of fodder crop production; most are from humid regions; so it is desirable to target zones analogous with our conditions. But why have local forages not been tested? Some of them produce forage of excellent quality. Stock rearers know well Blepharis linearifolius, Astragalus vogelii, Neurada procumbens, Crotalaria saharae, Tribulus terrestris, Opuntia sp. etc.


6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES

Constraints
In general, despite a positive evolution thanks to support given by the state to individual initiatives, animal husbandry faces serious constraints which hamper its production and economic development. These include:

- the difficulty of knowing the real pastoral situation;

- the seasonal fluctuation of forage resources;

- the lack of water points which sometimes prevents the exploitation of good grazing land;

- the June-July crisis and the long daily travel of livestock to water and grazing damages the vigour and productivity of herds;

- destruction of crop residues by trampling;

- uncontrolled cattle in the countryside often causes disputes between stock-owners and farmers. At the same time this exposes stock to predator attack (especially small ruminants);

- difficulty of access to veterinary care;

- desertification of peri-urban pastures.

Advantages
Nevertheless, technically, the livestock production systems of Mauritania have several advantages.

- the abundance of pasture in the rainy season;

- the good knowledge of livestock and their environment allows herders (nomadic and transhumant) to maintain their stock in good condition and react to weather conditions and grazing capacities;

- Nomadism and transhumance favour rotational grazing as well as avoiding dietary deficiencies and parasite build-up;

- The preparation of a pastoral code based on rules and practices of free access to pastoral resources. It ought to reduce conflicts between sedentary farmers and herders and rationalise pasture use.

The main problems which livestock production faces in Mauritania concern, essentially, the management of pastoral resources. To contribute to an improvement of these resources, the following measures could be implemented.

  • Improvement of natural pasture by planting or sowing shrubs or herbaceous forages, indigenous or introduced, of high fodder value;
  • Improvement of the nutrition of livestock, especially in the dry season when the protein and/or energy content of natural pastures is generally very mediocre. In that context the following actions could be undertaken:

    - Haymaking at an opportune time and silage making are techniques which should be popularised because they greatly increase the value of the fodder produced. In fact the abundance of forage in the rainy season is under-used because mowing and conserving grass is not done at the correct season. Education of stock keepers is needed;

    - The introduction of irrigated forages favours the availability of quality fodder in the dry season;

    - The use of supplementary feeds (wheat, groundnut cake etc.);

    - Protection of grazing land against uncontrolled burning and the abuse of woody vegetation should be reinforced;

    - Grazing control to better distribute grazing pressure and the making available of new grazing areas through increasing the number of water points so as to allow a better exploitation of existing resources. In this case it will be necessary to create an organization which will be responsible for managing the herders’ pastures.

The improvement of pasture resources must be through the rational management of these resources and herd mobility. In order to improve pasture management it would be necessary to set up an Observatoire Nationale des Ressources Pastorales which would be responsible for drawing up a consensual plan of pasture management which would favour the implementation of the Code Pastorale.


7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL

•Le Centre National de Recherches Agronomiques et de Développement Agricole (CNRADA) :
Siège : Kaédi
B P : 22
Tel : (00222) 5335377
E-mail : cnrada@mauritel.mr
Contacts : Cheïkh Ould Dih, Directeur
Messouda Mint Baham, Chef du Programme Culture Périurbaine, Nouakchott

•La Direction de la Recherche, de la Formation et de la Vulgarisation (DRFV)
Siège : Nouakchott
Contact : Diarra Mamoudou, Directeur

•Le Centre National d’Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires (CNERV)
Siège : Nouakchott
B P : 167
FAX : (00222) 5252803
Tel : (00222) 5252765
E-mail : cnerv@opt.mr
Contacts : Diallo Boubacar Ciré Directeur du CNERV

•L’Ecole National de Formation et de Vulgarisation de Kaédi (ENFVA)
Siège : Kaédi
Tel : (00222) 5335399
Contacts : Ahmed Ould Dah, Directeur

•La Direction de l’Environnement et de l’Aménagement Rural (DEAR)
Siège : Nouakchott
B P : 171
FAX : (00222) 5250741
Tel : (00222) 5290115
Contacts : El Hadrami Ould Bah Nina, Directeur

•La Direction de l’Agriculture (DA)
Siège : Nouakchott
Tel : (00222) 5257879
Contacts : Mohamed Ould El Ghoth, Directeur

Resource persons
• Chouaïb Ould Abdellahi, Enseignant-Chercheur à l’Ecole Normale Supérieure de Nouakchott

•Abdellahi Ould Mohamedou, Enseignant-Chercheur à la Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Nouakchott

•Dia Amadou Tidjane, Chef du Département Zootechnie CNERV

•Kane Mamoudou, Chef de division Recherches Vétérinaires et Zootechniques (DRV)

•Sarr Abdoul Oumar, Chef du Programme Cultures Irriguées/ Cultures Fourragères (CNRADA)


8. REFERENCES

Banque Africaine de Développement 1997 Profil environnemental de la Mauritanie. Geco-Conseils, Nouakchott, 66 pages.

Barry J. P. 1988 Approche Ecologique des Régions Arides de l’Afrique. Université de Nice/ ISS de Nouakchott. 107 pages.

Barry J. P. & Celles J. C. 1991 Flore de la Mauritanie. Université de Nice/ ISS de Nouakchott. Tomes 1 et 2.

Boudet G. et Duverger E. 1961 Etude des pâturages naturels sahéliens. Le hodh (Mauritanie). I.E.M.V.T., Maisons Alfort. 160 pages.

Diagana M. Y. 1998 Contribution à l’étude de la dégradation du milieu naturel en Mauritanie et l’opportunité de reboisement à base d’espèces exotiques (Prosopis sp.) par rapport à une espèce locale (Acacia sp.). Mémoire de fin d’études pour l’obtention du diplôme de Postgrado. Université de Nouakchott/Université de Barcelone. 36 pages.

FAO 2001 Etude sectorielle de l’élevage 2001- Propositions pour une stratégie nationale et un plan cadre d’actions pour l’amélioration de la croissance de l’économie nationale et la réduction de la pauvreté. Rapport de préparation - version provisoire. Voulme I de III Texte principal.

Kane M. 1995 Les races d’animaux élevés en Mauritanie. Bulletin d’information sur les ressources génétiques animales N° 15 FAO (UNEP) pp 3-25.

Kane M. 1996 Consultation : Information sur le bétail, les pâturages et les marchés à bétail. Projet informations rurales (MAU/94/009/DRAP/MDRE-FAO/PNUD.

Marchés Tropicaux et méditerranéens 1998 La Mauritanie. Numéro hors série. 52 pages.

Mint Soueïdatt F. 1988 Contribution à l’analyse biogéographique de la Mauritanie. La végétation : analyse et diversité. Université de Nice/ ISS de Nouakchott. 35 pages.

Nations Unies 2001 Bilan commun de pays. Développement rural et sécurité alimentaire. Habitat, Eau et Environnement

Ould Ahmed Amou M. & al. 1996 Commercialisation du bétail et de la viande en Mauritanie. Mémoire de fin d’études pour l’obtention du diplôme de Postgrado. Ecole Normale Supérieure de Nouakchott/Université de Barcelone. 48 pages.

Ould Ekeïbed M. A. 2001 Eléments de démographie. 10 pages.

Ould Soulé A. 1995 Utilisation de la flore de la Mauritanie. Cours de Postgrado Université de Nouakchott/Université de Barcelone.

Ould Soulé A. 1998 Noms vernaculaires de plantes de Mauritanie 12 Pages.

UNESCO 1961 Recherches sur la zone aride. Echanges hydriques des plantes en milieu aride ou semi-aride. Compte rendu de recherches. 250 pages.

Wa Nsanga 1982 Inventaire des ressources du sud-ouest mauritanien. USAID (contrat : AID/AAFR-C-1619) 391 pages.


9. CONTACTS

This profile was drafted by Ahmedou Ould Soule, lecturer and researcher at the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Nouakchott in March 2002 (and finalized in 2003), who will update it as necessary.

Ahmedou Ould SOULE
Enseignant-chercheur à l’Ecole Normale
Supérieure de Nouakchott Mauritanie
B P 990
FAX: (+222) 5253172
Tel: (+222) 5253184 (B)
(+222) 6412834 (M)
E-mail: soule@univ-nkc.mr ou aideorg@yahoo.fr

[Translation of the profile from the French original was done by J. M. Suttie and final editing was undertaken by J.M. Suttie and S.G. Reynolds in September 2003. Livestock data were updated in August 2006 by S.G. Reynolds.]