Acacia bivenosa DC

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Leguminosae

Common name

Two nerved wattle

Author: Le Houérou

 

A. bivenosa makes with A. ampliceps a complex which also includes A. ligulata, A. salicina and A. sclerosperma, although the latter three are morphologically quite different from the former two and also quite distinct from one another.

A. ampliceps, A. bivenosa and A. sclerosperma performed well in the Sahel and Cape Verde, but A. ligulata and A. salicina did not (Delwaulle, 1979 ; Hamel, 1980 ; Cossalter, 1985, 1986, 1987) ; whereas all three A. sclerosperma, A. ligulata and A. salicina did very well in the Mediterranean arid zones of Tunisia and Israel (Le Houérou & Pontanier, 1987). A. sclerosperma is thus the only one in the group to be fit for both the Sahel and the Mediterranean Basin arid lands in the present state of the introduced provenances in both ecozones. Because of its intricate, laterally expanded bushy habit, A. sclerosperma is particularly adapted to erosion control projects (Dommergues et al., 1999).

Description

Shrub, 2.5 m high with 1-6 stems.starting from the ground, habit erect occasionally weeping. Branches soft, twigs yellowish-brown, occasionally somewhat pruinose. Phyllodes: elliptic, obovate to oblanceolate, 2.5-5 cm long x 5-25 mm wide, soft and slighly terete to fleshy, length/width ratio 2..5-6, 2 nerves the central one prominent the lateral less so, or wanting, altogether when the phyllodes are narrow. Flowers: Golden-yellow, in spherical head 5-8 mm in diameter, with 15-25 flowers, peduncle 10-35 mm long, with 6-7 heads 3.5-11.5 cm long x 5-9 mm wide. Pods: straight to falcate, glossy, soft, pale-brown hardly constricted between seeds, breaking in one-seed articles. Seeds elliptic, 4-6 mm x 2.5-4, with an orange to red aril. Life span : 10-30 years

Temperature

The tree is frost-sensitive.

Water

Requires 100-400 mm MAR and 2-4 months rainy season.

Soil

Sandy soils, tolerant to sea-spray and highly tolerant to salinity.

Propagation

By seeds.

Products & uses

Sand dune fixation and erosion control browse, seeds consumed by aborigines.

Pests & diseases

Sensitive to gall-forming-nematodes.

Links for the genus:

References

Maslin 1974a ; Hamel 1980 ; Cossalter 1985 ; Cossalter 1987 ; Turnbull 1986 ; Turnbull 1987 ; Thompson LAJ 1987 ; Aswathappa et al. 1987Thompson L 1992 ; Kimondo 1991 ; Chege & Stewart 1991 ; Chapman & Maslin 1992 ; Sandys-Winsch & Harris 1992 ; Souvannavong & Fremond 1992 ; Harwood 1993 ; Maslin & McDonald 1996 ; Wickens et al. 1995 ; Maslin et al. 1998 ; Dommergues et al. 1999.