Neonotonia wightii (Am.) Lackey
Notonia wightii Arn.; Glycine javanica L.; G. wightii (Arn.) Verde.Common names
Glycine (Australia, Kenya); soja perene or perennial soybean (Brazil, Colombia); fundo-fundo (Tanzania).Description
Herbaceous perennial with strong taproot and trailing, climbing and twining stems. Stems slender and well branched, and under grazing may arise from a crown below the soil surface; runners frequently root at the nodes and are moderately hairy. Leaves, pinnately trifoliate with ovate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm wide, with short hairs on both surfaces, and small triangular stipules. Elongated racemes from 4 to 30 cm long bear clusters of white or violet flowers 5 to 8 mm long. In some varieties the flowers become yellow or orange-yellow. Pods are hairy, straight or slightly curved, 1 to 4 cm long, about 3 mm wide, with three to eight seeds. Seeds vary in size, shape and colour, depending on variety. The pods differ from those of Teramnus in that the tips are straight while Teramnus pods have a distinctly curved tip.Distribution
Neonotonia wightii belongs to the subgenus Glycine, which is entirely African in origin. It is found in the East Indies, tropical Asia, Ethiopia, through east and central Africa and down to southern Africa, where it occurs in the warmer parts of the Transvaal, Natal and east Cape Province.Season of growth
A summer-growing perennial, but the cultivar Tinaroo makes some useful winter growth under frost-free conditions at Kairi, north Queensland, Australia (lat. 17°17'S), until May.iFrost tolerance and regrowth after frosting
Frost causes leaf shedding, but the plant has some degree of frost tolerance. Tolerance to cold is greater in the Tinaroo cultivar than in the cultivars Cooper and Clarence in Australia. Glycine is more tolerant to frost than Centrosema pubescens, and leaf shedding is less than with Pueraria phaseoloides. Glycine grows vigorously from the stems and crowns in warm weather (when moisture is adequate).Rainfall requirements
Best adapted to areas of summer rainfall of 750 to 1 500 mm, but newer varieties are expected to move into drier areas. Does not perform as well in areas of higher rainfall. Outstanding performances are recorded at Atherton, Queensland (1 420 mm); Campinas, Brazil (1 200 mm); Arusha, Tanzania (1 000 to 1 500 mm); and Palmira, Colombia (1 200 mm). The Tanzanian variety Moshi (T2063) grows naturally at Itigi (rainfall 600 mm).Soil requirements
Performs best in deep, freely drained latosolic soils derived from basic igneous rocks,
on self-mulching black soils and fertile alluvial soils. It is not suited to acid podzolic
soil or solodic soils. It prefers free-draining loams to clays of basaltic or alluvial
origin. Prefers a pH above 6.5, but can grow at pH 6.0 if adequate lime is present. Souto
and Döbereiner (1968) reported manganese toxicity at pH 5.1 to 5.7, which disappeared on
liming to pH 6.5.
Use the cowpea typethe current Australian culture is CB756 (1970). In Brazil (1970) cultures SFS288 and SFS404 are used. Kennedy (1962) found that glycine nodulated with native rhizobia from N. wightii, G. maxima, G. tomentella, G. tabacina, Centrosema pubescens and Vigna unguiculata.Ability to spread naturally
Not good.Land preparation for establishment
The seed bed should be well prepared with as complete destruction of the original vegetation as possible.Sowing methods
Drill in the seed with standard seed drills, a "Planet Junior" seeder for
small areas, or a maize planter. When using a maize planter, watch for blockage of the
planting plates by the gummy inoculated seed (Murtagh and Wilson, 1962). Seed may also be
broadcast. Roll after planting. In pure stands in Brazil, it is sown at 2.5 kg./ha in rows
0.5 m apart with a group of 20 seeds placed in holes 0.5 m apart in the row.
90 000 for flat-seeded Zimbabwean type to 330 000 for fine violet glycine ssp. micrantha (Bogdan, 1966). Percentage of hard seed is quite high.Seed treatment before planting
To break dormancy: scarify with special machine (Neme, 1966b); scarify in cement mixer with stones; or treat with concentrated sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1.8) for 25 minutes, drain seed for two minutes, wash thoroughly in water and dry (Prodonoff, 1969); or treat with 24N or 36N sulphuric acid for seven minutes, then wash (Black, 1968); or put seed in boiling water for one minute (Naveh, 1966) or let stand overnight (Lotero, personal communication). Inoculation: use Rhizobium strain CB756 (Australia), SFS288 or SFS404 (Brazil). Pelleting: lime pelleting gives a response in Brazil in high manganese soils (Döbereiner and Aronovich, 1966). Lime-pellet only with soils with pH below 4.5 or on high manganese soils (Norris, 1967). Insect control: to control ants, dust with lindane at a strength of 5.3 g/kg. dry seed. As lindane affects Rhizobium, the inoculated seed should be lime pelleted (Gartner and Fisher, 1966).Nutrient requirements
Glycine requires sufficient calcium, phosphorus, sulphur and molybdenum. On fertile soils, no fertilizer may be required. On previously cropped land on the Atherton Tableland, Queensland, 450 kg./ha molybdenized superphosphate are used for establishment (Gartner and Fisher, 1966) on red latosolic soils. The amount of molybdenum required for glycine is about twice that for other tropical legumes (Mears and Barkus, 1970) and 312 g per ha sodium molybdate are desirable (Luck and Douglas, 1966). The annual fertilizer dressing for maintenance should be 250 kg. single superphosphate per hectare.
A concentration of 1.6 to 2.8 percent of the dry matter of the tops was measured by Andrew and Hegarty (1969). Glycine responded to lime in the presence of molybdenum (203 g/ha) (Mears and Barkus 1970).
The critical level for P in the dry matter of the leaves at the immediately preflowering stage is 0.23 percent (Andrew and Robins, 1969a). Glycine yielded 42 percent of its maximum yield at the equivalent of 250 kg. single superphosphate per hectare. Its maximum yield was at 1 350 kg./ha.
Deficiency symptoms of potash show when the K percentage of the dry matter at the immediately preflowering stage is 0.80 percent (Andrew and Robins, 1969c). The first visual sign of potash deficiency in this species was peripheral necrotic spotting on the lower leaflets of the plants, irregular in shape, interveinal, and equally visible on both surfaces of the leaflet. Centres of the spots were light brown surrounded by darker brown and circled by an area of chlorotic tissue. Necrotic areas increased in number and size with increasing severity of deficiency and finally coalesced to give a necrotic leaflet margin at the tip and backward along the leaflet margins; there was a tendency for necrotic leaflet margins to curl upward and inward. Old leaves at the base of the plant were extremely necrotic but did not show curling effect. Fully necrotic leaves became papery white in colour but there was little leaf abscission even at that stage (Andrew and Pieters, 1970a).Tolerance to herbicides
Bailey (1970) found that tolerance of glycine to 2,4D and 2,4-DB improved with
age, but 2,4-D is too damaging to use for overall spraying before glycine is three to four
months old, and 0.82 kg. of acid equivalent per hectare should not be exceeded. A check to
growth must be expected. 2,4-DB is somewhat more selective than 2,4-D, and 1.1 kg. of acid
equivalent per hectare can be used at five weeks of age if other means of weed control are
unsatisfactory. At three to four months of age, 2.2 kg. of 2,4-DB acid equivalent per
hectare can be used with safety. Remember, however, that 2,4-DB is slow to kill many
At Palmira, Colombia, glycine pastures fix 160 kg. N/ ha/year (Lotero, personal
Grazing or cutting to 5 cm over a two-year period reduced the stand to 12 to 15 percent (Whiteman, 1969) but it survived better than Macroptilium atropurpureum, Desmodium uncinatum and Lotononis bainesii. Grazing every four weeks at Wollongbar, New South Wales, Australia, reduced plant numbers compared with eight- and ten-week intervals. Savage (1970) recorded highest yields from cutting at 3.75 cm every nine weeks. More frequent cutting at this height reduced yields. Cutting at 5 cm caused a significant depression of yield at Lawes (lat. 28°S, rainfall 680 mm) on heavy black soil (Santhirasegaram, Coaldrake and Salih, 1966). Left ungrazed, the plant's leaves eventually drop and the production of new growth is considerably delayed (van Rensburg, 1967).°Grazing management
Glycine must be allowed to become established and cover the ground before animals are
allowed to graze the pasture. Gartner and Fisher (1966) recommend the following schedule:
Moderate. Van Rensburg (1967) reports that, even at the height of the dry season, it produces green growth after burning. This would be governed by the store of subsoil moisture and how well the plants were established.Breeding system
Self-pollinated and cleistogamous (Hutton, 1960) but some cross-pollination occurs (Bogdan, 1966; Hutton, 1970b). Chromosome number 2n = 22 (diploid) and 2n = 44 (tetraploid).Dry-matter and green-matter yields
It is not very productive at low altitudes. Menegario (1964) recorded 120 tonnes of
green material per alqueire, or 50 tonnes/ha/year, and Lovadini and Miyasaka (1968) 8 to
10 tonnes DM/ha at Campinas, Brazil.
It is widely used for hay in Brazil. It is cut at the early flowering stage, dried and
baled. The moisture content of the hay should be reduced to 12 percent (Lovadini and
Stands in the field fairly well, but drops its leaves when frost occurs. Provides good winter grazing in Brazil (Menegario, 1964).Feeding value
Glycine is valuable pasture for cattle and pigs (Kyneur, 1960) and makes good hay and silage.
Van Rensburg (1968) recorded 16.25 and 12.38 percent crude protein from young shoots and leaves respectively in Zambia, while Bogdan (1966) found 20.4 percent crude protein in the dry matter of the whole plant and 26.5 percent in the leaf in Kenya. An analysis of glycine hay and the digestibility of its components in Campinas, Brazil (Peixoto, de Moraes and Próspero, 1966), is given in Table 14.8.
Compares favourably with best-quality lucerne and alfalfa hay, with equal
digestibility of protein, superior use of fat and fibre and slightly lower digestibility
of carbohydrate content. Higher digestibility than Centrosema and Lablab purpureus.
Good, improving as it becomes more vigorous in midseason; maintains palatability into the autumn (Lychatchynsky and Steenmeyer, 1968unpublished).Toxicity
Although oestrogenic substances are present in Neonotonia wightii, no breeding troubles have been reported (Colman, Holder and Swain, 1966).Seed harvesting methods
In the Cauca Valley, Colombia, seed is hand harvested. In Brazil, the seed crop is mown, left in the field to dry for one to two days and then threshed through a stationary thresher. In Queensland, seed is harvested directly with an "All-crop" harvester when the tops of the plants are drying off. A two-year-old crop is used for seed, as the first year's crop is generally weedy and has to be slashed with the slasher blade set high. Glycine is not easy to harvest due to the bulk of green material and uneven maturity.ŠSeed yield
For seed production, glycine can be sown in 1-m rows and cultivated interrow to control
weeds (Cowdry, 1960). Wutoh, Hutton and Pritchard (1968a) found that a day/night
temperature regime of 27/22 to 16°C was most suitable for seed production and growth.
'Tinaroo', 'Cooper' and 'Clarence' (Barnard, 1967).
Diploid 2n = 22; 132 000 to 143 000 seeds per kg. Stems develop brown coloration in the epiderms with age, are moderately hairy. Young shoots lack pigment. Stem hairs are semierect to appressed and point toward the base. Leaflets ovate-acute, almost glabrous at times; lower surface has a fine venation. Flowers are creamy white with obscure small violet streaks on the lower part of the standard. Seeds olive-green to light brown, occasionally mottled. Growth from seed is slower than 'Clarence' and 'Cooper' during the first year; it commences to flower in early to mid-June and seed matures in September (in frost-free areas). It forms a high percentage of hard seed. The original seed came from Kenya, was proved in Queensland and the cultivar released in 1962. It was proved and developed for commercial release at Atherton, north Queensland.BŁ
Botanically, var. moniliformis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) F.J. Herm. It is diploid 2n = 22;
150 000 to 160 000 seeds per kg. Stems are branched, slender and stoloniferous, pubescent.
Stem hairs are white and reflective and produce an ash-silvery appearance. The
inflorescence is strongly interrupted. Flowers white, with pink-violet streaks on the
standard. Approximately five-seeded, hairy, constricted pods; seeds light brown. This
cultivar can be distinguished from 'Clarence' and 'Tinaroo' by its ash-silvery vesture,
its skew-shaped leaflet and the constrictions in its pods.
Botanically, var. claessensii (De Wild) Haumann. A tetraploid 2n = 44; 158 000 to 169
000 seeds per kg. Stems are coarser, less well branched than 'Cooper' or 'Tinaroo' and
less stoloniferous: brown pigmentation of epidermal tissues and pronounced hairs over the
whole plant, extending to young shoots. It is more pubescent over the whole plant. Both
surfaces of the asymmetrical leaflets are hairy. Veins of the lower surface are prominent
and rusty brown coloured. Interrupted inflorescence; flowers have obvious pink-violet
marks on the standard. Pods are dark brown, hairy. Seeds olive-green to dark brown.
'Kenya white glycine' and 'Kenya violet glycine' (Bogdan, 1965).C
tetraploid. Leaflets of medium size to large, subacute, terminal leaflets mostly 4 to 6 cm long. Racemes medium to long, mostly over 15 cm. Flowers 7 mm long, white, often with a greyish-violet spot on the standard; occasionally the whole flower is slightly bluish in colour. After flowering, the corolla often turns yellow or orange-yellow in colour. Pods are straight, hairy, with the hairs directed toward the apex. Seeds 3 mm long, oblong, brown to black in colour. The weight of 1 000 seeds varies from 5.5 to 7.0 g. Cross-pollination frequently occurs. A vigorous variety, with numerous leaves and satisfactory seedling qualities; is recommended over other types in Kenya. The original seed was collected by Strange from wild plants near Eldoret, Kenya.
diploid. Leaflets small, acute, the terminal ones mostly 3 to 4 cm long. Stems fine. Racemes 5 to 10 cm long. Flowers 5 mm long, violet in colour, not turning yellow after flowering. Pods slightly curved, hairy, hairs directed toward the base of the pod. Seeds 2 mm long, reddish-brown in colour. The weight of 1 000 seeds is about 2.5 g. It is a very uniform variety, apparently self-pollinating and belongs to the subspecies micrantha (Hochst ex A. Rich.) F.J. Herm. Although it is a small variety, with fine stems and small leaves, in mixed swards it may be only slightly less vigorous than K51394. Seeding qualities are good. The original seed was collected by Strange near Eldoret, Kenya.
IRI No. 1 (SP1) is more tolerant of the high manganese content in some of the latosolic soils at Campinas, Brazil, and, under such conditions, outyields 'Tinaroo'. If manganese is not excessive, cultivars will outyield IRI No. 1 (Souto, 1969).a
M218 goes into a drier climate of 700 to 800 mm at Kilosa (Rijkebusch, 1967), and cv. Moshi grows naturally at 600 mm at Itigi.
Cultivars under test worldwide include the following.
at CSIRO, Australia; Turrialba, Costa Rica; and Marandellas, Zimbabwe.
at CSIRO, Australia; Beltsville, Maryland, United States; Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Fort Jameson, Zambia.
at Beltsville, Maryland, United States; and Maracay, Venezuela.
at CSIRO, Australia; Marandellas, Zimbabwe; and Beltsville, Maryland, United States.
at CSIRO, Australia; Marandellas, Zimbabwe; and Beltsville, Maryland, United States.
at Marandellas, Zimbabwe.
at CSIRO, Australia; Lilongo, Malawi; and Ilonga, Tanzania.Diseases
In northern New South Wales, glycine is attacked by Cercospora leaf spot and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. It is often attacked by Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas during wet weather in Zambia (van Rensburg, 1967). Bogdan (1966) reported small yellow rust spots on the leaves and stems caused by Synchytrium dolici; and Rhizoctonia solani can affect it in wet weather in Queensland.Main attributes
An excellent legume for suitable soils, palatable and persistent, and combines well with grasses; will compete with Imperata cylindrica and Pteridium in north Queensland; produces a heavy crop of seed.Main deficiencies
Slow establishment and nodulation; high percentage of hard seed; susceptibility to the Amnemus weevil and to frost.Performance
'Tinaroo' glycine greatly increased the productivity of dairying pastures at Kairi,
north Queensland, on red loam (latosolic) soils derived from basalt. Neonotonia/Panicum
maximum pastures yielded 2.09 tonnes/ha green weight, while pure P. maximum pastures
yielded only 1 109 kg./ha green matter (Kyneur, 1960). At the same site, Edgley (1962)
reported an increase in milk yield of 22 percent when cows were transferred to glycine/
green panic pastures from lucerne/Rhodes grass pastures.
Allen et al. (1961); Gartner and Fisher (1966); Lovadini and Miyasaka (1968); Menegario (1964).Latitudinal limits
Extends in Australia to approximately 29°S latitude (Wollongbar Agricultural Research Station, lat. 28°50'S).Ability to compete with weeds
Early growth suffers from weed competition, but when established can suppress weeds, even Imperata cylindrica. Weeds can be suppressed with a slasher and, thereafter, glycine can assume control. Savage (1970) found that cutting at 15 cm every nine weeks gave weed-free swards at Redland Bay, Queensland, on red latosolic soils.Pests
The Amnemus weevil (Amnemus quadrituberculatus) attacks the roots of the plant in northern New South Wales (Braithwaite, Jane and Swain, 1958) and south-eastern Queensland (Roe and Jones, 1966). A Bruchus weevil attacks seed at Kitale, Kenya (Bogdan, 1966) . Seed dusting with Ceresan or other mercurial dust will protect seed supplies for planting.Toxicity levels and symptoms
Manganesethe toxicity threshold value for Mn is 560 ppm (Andrew and Hegarty, 1969).
Glycine is more sensitive to excess Mn than white clover. In seedling growth the first
visual symptom of toxicity was slight interveinal chlorosis of the young fully expanded
leaves; however, the chlorosis was initially restricted to the marginal areas of the
leaflets, giving the appearance of blotches on the leaflet margin, particularly toward the
tips. At the same time, small irregularly shaped brown spots occurred on the surface of
the primary leaves. With intensification of toxicity, interveinal chlorosis extended to
the midrib area and brown markings appeared. Young shoots were pale in colour and showed
uniform interveinal chlorosis. In older plants, the brown markings were on or adjacent to
the veins, with prominence on the underside of the leaflets, and became purplish in
colour. In plants suffering from severe toxicity, leaf puckering on the newer fully
expanded leaves occurred mainly toward the base of the midrib of the leaflets, the raised
portions being above the upper leaf surface and usually associated with severe interveinal
chlorosis. Leaflet margins were not usually puckered but showed an undulating margin.
Newly emerging leaves were fully formed but were severely chlorotic, accompanied by a
bronze colour over the full leaf. There were no visual effects on the petioles or stems
(Andrew and Pieters, 1970b).
Wutoh, Hutton and Pritchard (1968c) showed that the optimum temperature for growth and seed production was a day/night regime of 27/22-16°C. High root temperatures affect growth (Tow, 1967). Growth slowed down at 16°C and ceased at 13°C. At Campinas, Brazil (lat. 23°S), there was little growth during June (12.8°C minimum), July (11.4°C) and August (13°C). Leaf shedding occurred in the Burdekin Delta, Queensland (lat. 19°S) at 1.5°C (Allen, 1961a, b)./A- onVigour of seedling, growth and growth rhythm
Glycine is slow to start because of nodulation difficulties. In Zambia, it does not gain prominence until the second year (van Rensburg, 1967). In Brazil, it is often hand weeded during early establishment. After a slow start, it becomes quite vigorous. In Colombia, the plants cover the soil in two months after seeding.Minimum germination percentage required for sale
Germinable seeds, 60 percent, with a maximum of 10 percent hard seed, and 97.5 percent purity in Queensland, 1966; 60 percent germination (Colombia).Altitude response
In Kenya it grows from the lowlands up to 2 450 m at the latitude of the equator. In Colombia, it occurs from sea level to 1 800 m.Compatibility with grasses
Combines well with Panicum maximum, P. maximum var. trichoglume, Setaria anceps, Chloris gayana, Melinis minutiflora and Pennisetum purpureum. In Digitaria decumbens it lasts two years at Campinas, Brazil, and at least three years in the fertile Cauca Valley of Colombia. At Atherton, north Queensland, it is sown at 11 kg./ha with Rhodes grass at 3.3 kg./ha (Tow, 1967). In Brazil, it is sown at 0.5-m intervals at 3 kg./0.40 ha in three rows between colonial guinea rows sown 2 m apart; with elephant or napier grass, at 0.5-m intervals at 6.5 kg./ha in one row between two rows of grass spaced 0.5 m apart; with pangola grass in alternate rows 1 m apart, the glycine planted at 20 seeds 0.5 m apart; with molasses grass the glycine is planted on the square with 20 seeds at 0.5 m apart and the molasses grass subsequently broadcast over the glycine (Menegario, 1964).Response to photoperiod and light
Glycine is a short-day plant. Cultivars Clarence and Cooper are early maturing types;
cv. Tinaroo is a late-flowering type.
Sow at 1 to 2 cm and lightly cover with harrow or roll. Murtagh (1970) proved that glycine needs relatively cool temperatures for the first two days of germination. Laboratory germination is seriously impaired at temperatures above 37°C. Sow in early summer at 0.5 to 3 kg./ha depending on cost of seed and desired rate of establishment. Six kg./ha are used in Colombia, 2.5 kg./ha in Brazil.Drought and flooding tolerance
Reasonably drought-tolerant (in Australia the cultivar 'Cooper' is more tolerant than 'Clarence' and 'Tinaroo'). It grows slowly during dry spells but recovers quickly when favourable conditions resume. A well-established plant has a deep persistent taproot. Tolerance to flooding is low; it requires good drainage.irsu