Neonotonia wightii (Am.) Lackey

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Leguminosae

Synonyms

Notonia wightii Arn.; Glycine javanica L.; G. wightii (Arn.) Verde.

Common names

Glycine (Australia, Kenya); soja perene or perennial soybean (Brazil, Colombia); fundo-fundo (Tanzania).

Description

Herbaceous perennial with strong taproot and trailing, climbing and twining stems. Stems slender and well branched, and under grazing may arise from a crown below the soil surface; runners frequently root at the nodes and are moderately hairy. Leaves, pinnately trifoliate with ovate leaflets 5 to 10 cm long and 3 to 6 cm wide, with short hairs on both surfaces, and small triangular stipules. Elongated racemes from 4 to 30 cm long bear clusters of white or violet flowers 5 to 8 mm long. In some varieties the flowers become yellow or orange-yellow. Pods are hairy, straight or slightly curved, 1 to 4 cm long, about 3 mm wide, with three to eight seeds. Seeds vary in size, shape and colour, depending on variety. The pods differ from those of Teramnus in that the tips are straight while Teramnus pods have a distinctly curved tip.

Distribution

Neonotonia wightii belongs to the subgenus Glycine, which is entirely African in origin. It is found in the East Indies, tropical Asia, Ethiopia, through east and central Africa and down to southern Africa, where it occurs in the warmer parts of the Transvaal, Natal and east Cape Province.

Season of growth

A summer-growing perennial, but the cultivar Tinaroo makes some useful winter growth under frost-free conditions at Kairi, north Queensland, Australia (lat. 17°17'S), until May.i

Frost tolerance and regrowth after frosting

Frost causes leaf shedding, but the plant has some degree of frost tolerance. Tolerance to cold is greater in the Tinaroo cultivar than in the cultivars Cooper and Clarence in Australia. Glycine is more tolerant to frost than Centrosema pubescens, and leaf shedding is less than with Pueraria phaseoloides. Glycine grows vigorously from the stems and crowns in warm weather (when moisture is adequate).

Rainfall requirements

Best adapted to areas of summer rainfall of 750 to 1 500 mm, but newer varieties are expected to move into drier areas. Does not perform as well in areas of higher rainfall. Outstanding performances are recorded at Atherton, Queensland (1 420 mm); Campinas, Brazil (1 200 mm); Arusha, Tanzania (1 000 to 1 500 mm); and Palmira, Colombia (1 200 mm). The Tanzanian variety Moshi (T2063) grows naturally at Itigi (rainfall 600 mm).

Soil requirements

Performs best in deep, freely drained latosolic soils derived from basic igneous rocks, on self-mulching black soils and fertile alluvial soils. It is not suited to acid podzolic soil or solodic soils. It prefers free-draining loams to clays of basaltic or alluvial origin. Prefers a pH above 6.5, but can grow at pH 6.0 if adequate lime is present. Souto and Döbereiner (1968) reported manganese toxicity at pH 5.1 to 5.7, which disappeared on liming to pH 6.5.
Glycine has been shown to be reasonably tolerant of salinity­more so than other tropical legumes. Although salinity severely inhibits growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixation, it does not affect nitrogen and phosphorus content. Nitrogen-fertilized plants are more tolerant than nodulated plants. Salinity tolerance varies with varieties and is inherent (Gates, Haydock and Little, 1966; Gates, Haydock and Claringbold, 1966).`

Rhizobium relationships

Use the cowpea type­the current Australian culture is CB756 (1970). In Brazil (1970) cultures SFS288 and SFS404 are used. Kennedy (1962) found that glycine nodulated with native rhizobia from N. wightii, G. maxima, G. tomentella, G. tabacina, Centrosema pubescens and Vigna unguiculata.

Ability to spread naturally

Not good.

Land preparation for establishment

The seed bed should be well prepared with as complete destruction of the original vegetation as possible.

Sowing methods

Drill in the seed with standard seed drills, a "Planet Junior" seeder for small areas, or a maize planter. When using a maize planter, watch for blockage of the planting plates by the gummy inoculated seed (Murtagh and Wilson, 1962). Seed may also be broadcast. Roll after planting. In pure stands in Brazil, it is sown at 2.5 kg./ha in rows 0.5 m apart with a group of 20 seeds placed in holes 0.5 m apart in the row.
Generally not oversown into existing pastures without some cultivation. Murtagh (1963) successfully sod-seeded it into a Paspalum/Axonopus sward suppressed with herbicide containing 27.7 percent acid equivalent of the sodium salt of 2,2-DPA and 12.5 percent acid equivalent amitrole, seeded at 5 kg./ha with adequate neutralized fertilizer.&127;

Number of seeds per kg.

90 000 for flat-seeded Zimbabwean type to 330 000 for fine violet glycine ssp. micrantha (Bogdan, 1966). Percentage of hard seed is quite high.

Seed treatment before planting

To break dormancy: scarify with special machine (Neme, 1966b); scarify in cement mixer with stones; or treat with concentrated sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1.8) for 25 minutes, drain seed for two minutes, wash thoroughly in water and dry (Prodonoff, 1969); or treat with 24N or 36N sulphuric acid for seven minutes, then wash (Black, 1968); or put seed in boiling water for one minute (Naveh, 1966) or let stand overnight (Lotero, personal communication). Inoculation: use Rhizobium strain CB756 (Australia), SFS288 or SFS404 (Brazil). Pelleting: lime pelleting gives a response in Brazil in high manganese soils (Döbereiner and Aronovich, 1966). Lime-pellet only with soils with pH below 4.5 or on high manganese soils (Norris, 1967). Insect control: to control ants, dust with lindane at a strength of 5.3 g/kg. dry seed. As lindane affects Rhizobium, the inoculated seed should be lime pelleted (Gartner and Fisher, 1966).

Nutrient requirements

Glycine requires sufficient calcium, phosphorus, sulphur and molybdenum. On fertile soils, no fertilizer may be required. On previously cropped land on the Atherton Tableland, Queensland, 450 kg./ha molybdenized superphosphate are used for establishment (Gartner and Fisher, 1966) on red latosolic soils. The amount of molybdenum required for glycine is about twice that for other tropical legumes (Mears and Barkus, 1970) and 312 g per ha sodium molybdate are desirable (Luck and Douglas, 1966). The annual fertilizer dressing for maintenance should be 250 kg. single superphosphate per hectare.

  • Calcium: 

A concentration of 1.6 to 2.8 percent of the dry matter of the tops was measured by Andrew and Hegarty (1969). Glycine responded to lime in the presence of molybdenum (203 g/ha) (Mears and Barkus 1970).

  • Phosphorus: 

The critical level for P in the dry matter of the leaves at the immediately preflowering stage is 0.23 percent (Andrew and Robins, 1969a). Glycine yielded 42 percent of its maximum yield at the equivalent of 250 kg. single superphosphate per hectare. Its maximum yield was at 1 350 kg./ha.

  • Potash: 

Deficiency symptoms of potash show when the K percentage of the dry matter at the immediately preflowering stage is 0.80 percent (Andrew and Robins, 1969c). The first visual sign of potash deficiency in this species was peripheral necrotic spotting on the lower leaflets of the plants, irregular in shape, interveinal, and equally visible on both surfaces of the leaflet. Centres of the spots were light brown surrounded by darker brown and circled by an area of chlorotic tissue. Necrotic areas increased in number and size with increasing severity of deficiency and finally coalesced to give a necrotic leaflet margin at the tip and backward along the leaflet margins; there was a tendency for necrotic leaflet margins to curl upward and inward. Old leaves at the base of the plant were extremely necrotic but did not show curling effect. Fully necrotic leaves became papery white in colour but there was little leaf abscission even at that stage (Andrew and Pieters, 1970a).

Tolerance to herbicides

Bailey (1970) found that tolerance of glycine to 2,4D and 2,4-DB improved with age, but 2,4-D is too damaging to use for overall spraying before glycine is three to four months old, and 0.82 kg. of acid equivalent per hectare should not be exceeded. A check to growth must be expected. 2,4-DB is somewhat more selective than 2,4-D, and 1.1 kg. of acid equivalent per hectare can be used at five weeks of age if other means of weed control are unsatisfactory. At three to four months of age, 2.2 kg. of 2,4-DB acid equivalent per hectare can be used with safety. Remember, however, that 2,4-DB is slow to kill many weeds.
Glycine shows useful tolerance to Diquat and this may be used at 140 g Diquat cation per hectare from five to eight weeks of age, and 280 g per hectare on established glycine. However, seedling glycine must be healthy at the time of spraying; otherwise severe damage may result.

Nitrogen-fixing ability

At Palmira, Colombia, glycine pastures fix 160 kg. N/ ha/year (Lotero, personal communication).
At Campinas, Brazil, it has been shown to fix 170 to 290 kg./alqueire/year or about 70 to 120 kg./ha (Menegario, 1964). In Kenya, Gethin-Jones (1942) found that if fixed 165 kg. N/ha/year for four years, and on another East African site it fixed 175 kg. N/ha (= 875 kg. sulphate of ammonia) annually for the first five years and then 110 kg. N/ha (= 550 kg. sulphate of ammonia) per year for the following four years as the soil nitrogen percentage rose. Colman, Holder and Swain (1966) recorded that it fixed 156 to 203 kg. N/ha over three seasons, but in a dry season at the same station, Mears (1967) recorded only 16.5 kg. N/ ha. Edye (1967) showed that in fertile black earths, nitrogen fixation by glycine is low.

Response to defoliation

Grazing or cutting to 5 cm over a two-year period reduced the stand to 12 to 15 percent (Whiteman, 1969) but it survived better than Macroptilium atropurpureum, Desmodium uncinatum and Lotononis bainesii. Grazing every four weeks at Wollongbar, New South Wales, Australia, reduced plant numbers compared with eight- and ten-week intervals. Savage (1970) recorded highest yields from cutting at 3.75 cm every nine weeks. More frequent cutting at this height reduced yields. Cutting at 5 cm caused a significant depression of yield at Lawes (lat. 28°S, rainfall 680 mm) on heavy black soil (Santhirasegaram, Coaldrake and Salih, 1966). Left ungrazed, the plant's leaves eventually drop and the production of new growth is considerably delayed (van Rensburg, 1967).°

Grazing management

Glycine must be allowed to become established and cover the ground before animals are allowed to graze the pasture. Gartner and Fisher (1966) recommend the following schedule:
In the first year, graze the pasture often enough but only long enough to remove the grass canopy and allow light to reach the legume. Cattle should not have time to graze seedlings. Weeds should be carefully controlled by slashing. Under normal conditions, guinea grass/glycine pastures should be ready to graze seven to eight weeks after sowing.
In the second season, the legume is well established and it can be safely grazed back winter and spring. It is then shut up at the beginning of the wet season to build up leaf area.
If pasture is unused in summer, grass dominates; if unused in winter, legume dominates. Graze rotationally in the warm wet months, when growth is fast, and graze continuously in winter. Stock at 60 to 120 adult cattle/ha when grazing.
If pasture is to be saved for winter grazing, graze lightly in summer and spell during the autumn. If it is to be saved for dry spring or early summer grazing, it should be grazed heavily in the previous summer and allowed to build up green forage from autumn onwards. With deferred grazing, there is a danger of late winter frosts, so graze low-lying frost-prone areas early in the winter and use the slopes later. If the pasture becomes frosted, graze it immediately before palatability declines and leaves fall.
Menegario (1964) recommends the following grazing heights in Brazil: Pure glycine pastures­graze to ground level from 30 cm;
Glycine + Melinis minutiflora­graze mixture from 30 to 10 cm;
Glycine + Digitaria decumbens­graze mixture from 30 to 10 cm;
Glycine + Pennisetum purpureum­graze mixture from 40-50 to 10 cm; and
Glycine + Panicum maximum cv. Coloniao­graze mixture from 50-60 to 10 cm.#S(x

Response to fire

Moderate. Van Rensburg (1967) reports that, even at the height of the dry season, it produces green growth after burning. This would be governed by the store of subsoil moisture and how well the plants were established.

Breeding system

Self-pollinated and cleistogamous (Hutton, 1960) but some cross-pollination occurs (Bogdan, 1966; Hutton, 1970b). Chromosome number 2n = 22 (diploid) and 2n = 44 (tetraploid).

Dry-matter and green-matter yields

It is not very productive at low altitudes. Menegario (1964) recorded 120 tonnes of green material per alqueire, or 50 tonnes/ha/year, and Lovadini and Miyasaka (1968) 8 to 10 tonnes DM/ha at Campinas, Brazil.
At Wollongbar, New South Wales, Colman, Holder and Swain (1966) recorded up to 4 510 kg. DM/ha, and over a three-year period an average of 3 850 kg. DM/ha/year. The total yield of Kikuyu grass/glycine in this same pasture was 7 744 kg. DM/ha.

Suitability for hay and silage

It is widely used for hay in Brazil. It is cut at the early flowering stage, dried and baled. The moisture content of the hay should be reduced to 12 percent (Lovadini and Miyasaka, 1968).
At Atherton, north Queensland, successful silage has been made with a mixture of green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) and glycine. The yield of green matter was 9.8 tonnes per hectare . Sixty kg. of molasses per tonne of green material were added during the ensilage process. The final pH of the silage was 4.2 (Barker and Kyneur, 1962). Menegario (1964) records successful silage made from glycine combined with pangola grass, elephant grass and Coloniao guinea grass, and it is frequently ensiled in a mixture with 20 percent of fodder (sugar) cane.

Value as a standover or deferred feed

Stands in the field fairly well, but drops its leaves when frost occurs. Provides good winter grazing in Brazil (Menegario, 1964).

Feeding value

Glycine is valuable pasture for cattle and pigs (Kyneur, 1960) and makes good hay and silage.

  • Chemical analysis: 

Van Rensburg (1968) recorded 16.25 and 12.38 percent crude protein from young shoots and leaves respectively in Zambia, while Bogdan (1966) found 20.4 percent crude protein in the dry matter of the whole plant and 26.5 percent in the leaf in Kenya. An analysis of glycine hay and the digestibility of its components in Campinas, Brazil (Peixoto, de Moraes and Próspero, 1966), is given in Table 14.8.

  • Digestibility: 

Compares favourably with best-quality lucerne and alfalfa hay, with equal digestibility of protein, superior use of fat and fibre and slightly lower digestibility of carbohydrate content. Higher digestibility than Centrosema and Lablab purpureus.
The digestibility of Neonotonia wightii at Wollongbar, New South Wales, according to Holder (1967) is given in Table 14.9.
Holder (1967) concluded that digestibility varied widely with the age of the pasture and the moisture regime under which the pastures were grown, and assessed that the digestibility of the organic matter would be about 10 units lower than a temperate legume at an equivalent stage of growth.

  • Palatability: 

Good, improving as it becomes more vigorous in midseason; maintains palatability into the autumn (Lychatchynsky and Steenmeyer, 1968­unpublished).

Toxicity

Although oestrogenic substances are present in Neonotonia wightii, no breeding troubles have been reported (Colman, Holder and Swain, 1966).

Seed harvesting methods

In the Cauca Valley, Colombia, seed is hand harvested. In Brazil, the seed crop is mown, left in the field to dry for one to two days and then threshed through a stationary thresher. In Queensland, seed is harvested directly with an "All-crop" harvester when the tops of the plants are drying off. A two-year-old crop is used for seed, as the first year's crop is generally weedy and has to be slashed with the slasher blade set high. Glycine is not easy to harvest due to the bulk of green material and uneven maturity.Š

Seed yield

For seed production, glycine can be sown in 1-m rows and cultivated interrow to control weeds (Cowdry, 1960). Wutoh, Hutton and Pritchard (1968a) found that a day/night temperature regime of 27/22 to 16°C was most suitable for seed production and growth.
At the IRI research station, Matćo, Brazil, 1 000 kg. seed/hectare have been harvested; at Fazenda da Prata, 750 kg./ha. In the Burdekin Delta, north Queensland, 500 to 750 kg./ha were harvested from an irrigated crop (Allen 1960), while at Kairi in north Queensland, 330 kg./ha can be obtained from an ungrazed pasture and 110 kg./ha from a crop which had previously been cut for hay earlier in the season (Kelly, 1963).

Cultivars
  • Australian: 

'Tinaroo', 'Cooper' and 'Clarence' (Barnard, 1967).

    • 1. Cv. Tinaroo: 

Diploid 2n = 22; 132 000 to 143 000 seeds per kg. Stems develop brown coloration in the epiderms with age, are moderately hairy. Young shoots lack pigment. Stem hairs are semierect to appressed and point toward the base. Leaflets ovate-acute, almost glabrous at times; lower surface has a fine venation. Flowers are creamy white with obscure small violet streaks on the lower part of the standard. Seeds olive-green to light brown, occasionally mottled. Growth from seed is slower than 'Clarence' and 'Cooper' during the first year; it commences to flower in early to mid-June and seed matures in September (in frost-free areas). It forms a high percentage of hard seed. The original seed came from Kenya, was proved in Queensland and the cultivar released in 1962. It was proved and developed for commercial release at Atherton, north Queensland.BŁ

    • 2. Cv. Cooper: 

Botanically, var. moniliformis (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) F.J. Herm. It is diploid 2n = 22; 150 000 to 160 000 seeds per kg. Stems are branched, slender and stoloniferous, pubescent. Stem hairs are white and reflective and produce an ash-silvery appearance. The inflorescence is strongly interrupted. Flowers white, with pink-violet streaks on the standard. Approximately five-seeded, hairy, constricted pods; seeds light brown. This cultivar can be distinguished from 'Clarence' and 'Tinaroo' by its ash-silvery vesture, its skew-shaped leaflet and the constrictions in its pods.
It flowers in Queensland in late April; matures four to six weeks ahead of 'Tinaroo', a little later than 'Clarence', and because of its late flowering it continues growth later into the autumn than 'Clarence'. It is more drought resistant and tolerates excess moisture better than either of the other two and is adapted to slightly less rainfall. It is more productive in its first year of growth.
The original Australian seed came from Kongwa in Tanzania in January 1959 as CPI 25702; it was proved and developed at Lawes, Queensland, and was released commercially by the Queensland Pasture Liaison Committee in August 1962.™Culti

    • 3. Cv. Clarence: 

Botanically, var. claessensii (De Wild) Haumann. A tetraploid 2n = 44; 158 000 to 169 000 seeds per kg. Stems are coarser, less well branched than 'Cooper' or 'Tinaroo' and less stoloniferous: brown pigmentation of epidermal tissues and pronounced hairs over the whole plant, extending to young shoots. It is more pubescent over the whole plant. Both surfaces of the asymmetrical leaflets are hairy. Veins of the lower surface are prominent and rusty brown coloured. Interrupted inflorescence; flowers have obvious pink-violet marks on the standard. Pods are dark brown, hairy. Seeds olive-green to dark brown.
It is a little earlier flowering than 'Cooper', maturing seeds before frosts in northern New South Wales (lat. 29°S) and southern Queensland (lat. 27°S). It is considered more suitable than the other varieties for areas subject to early frosts. It is the first variety to start growth in the spring. The original seed came from southern Africa and, after testing at Grafton and Wollongbar in New South Wales, was released commercially in 1962. It was proved and developed on red latosolic soils developed on basalt at Grafton, 970-mm rainfall, latitude 29°42'S.C

  • Kenyan: 

'Kenya white glycine' and 'Kenya violet glycine' (Bogdan, 1965).C

    • 1. 'Kenya white glycine' (K51394): 

tetraploid. Leaflets of medium size to large, subacute, terminal leaflets mostly 4 to 6 cm long. Racemes medium to long, mostly over 15 cm. Flowers 7 mm long, white, often with a greyish-violet spot on the standard; occasionally the whole flower is slightly bluish in colour. After flowering, the corolla often turns yellow or orange-yellow in colour. Pods are straight, hairy, with the hairs directed toward the apex. Seeds 3 mm long, oblong, brown to black in colour. The weight of 1 000 seeds varies from 5.5 to 7.0 g. Cross-pollination frequently occurs. A vigorous variety, with numerous leaves and satisfactory seedling qualities; is recommended over other types in Kenya. The original seed was collected by Strange from wild plants near Eldoret, Kenya.

    • 2. 'Kenya violet glycine' (K51393): 

diploid. Leaflets small, acute, the terminal ones mostly 3 to 4 cm long. Stems fine. Racemes 5 to 10 cm long. Flowers 5 mm long, violet in colour, not turning yellow after flowering. Pods slightly curved, hairy, hairs directed toward the base of the pod. Seeds 2 mm long, reddish-brown in colour. The weight of 1 000 seeds is about 2.5 g. It is a very uniform variety, apparently self-pollinating and belongs to the subspecies micrantha (Hochst ex A. Rich.) F.J. Herm. Although it is a small variety, with fine stems and small leaves, in mixed swards it may be only slightly less vigorous than K51394. Seeding qualities are good. The original seed was collected by Strange near Eldoret, Kenya.

  • Brazilian: 

IRI No. 1 (SP1) is more tolerant of the high manganese content in some of the latosolic soils at Campinas, Brazil, and, under such conditions, outyields 'Tinaroo'. If manganese is not excessive, cultivars will outyield IRI No. 1 (Souto, 1969).a

  • Tanzanian: 

M218 goes into a drier climate of 700 to 800 mm at Kilosa (Rijkebusch, 1967), and cv. Moshi grows naturally at 600 mm at Itigi.

  • Others: 

Cultivars under test worldwide include the following.

    • 1. 'Choma': 

at CSIRO, Australia; Turrialba, Costa Rica; and Marandellas, Zimbabwe.

    • 2. 'Citrus':C 

at CSIRO, Australia; Beltsville, Maryland, United States; Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Fort Jameson, Zambia.

    • 3. 'Kingsize':  

at Beltsville, Maryland, United States; and Maracay, Venezuela.

    • 4. 'Nelsfruit': 

at CSIRO, Australia; Marandellas, Zimbabwe; and Beltsville, Maryland, United States.

    • 5. 'Norval's Special': 

at CSIRO, Australia; Marandellas, Zimbabwe; and Beltsville, Maryland, United States.

    • 6. 'Nyasaland': 

at Marandellas, Zimbabwe.

    • 7. 'South African': 

at CSIRO, Australia; Lilongo, Malawi; and Ilonga, Tanzania.

Diseases

In northern New South Wales, glycine is attacked by Cercospora leaf spot and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. It is often attacked by Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas during wet weather in Zambia (van Rensburg, 1967). Bogdan (1966) reported small yellow rust spots on the leaves and stems caused by Synchytrium dolici; and Rhizoctonia solani can affect it in wet weather in Queensland.

Main attributes

An excellent legume for suitable soils, palatable and persistent, and combines well with grasses; will compete with Imperata cylindrica and Pteridium in north Queensland; produces a heavy crop of seed.

Main deficiencies

Slow establishment and nodulation; high percentage of hard seed; susceptibility to the Amnemus weevil and to frost.

Performance

'Tinaroo' glycine greatly increased the productivity of dairying pastures at Kairi, north Queensland, on red loam (latosolic) soils derived from basalt. Neonotonia/Panicum maximum pastures yielded 2.09 tonnes/ha green weight, while pure P. maximum pastures yielded only 1 109 kg./ha green matter (Kyneur, 1960). At the same site, Edgley (1962) reported an increase in milk yield of 22 percent when cows were transferred to glycine/ green panic pastures from lucerne/Rhodes grass pastures.
At Campinas, Brazil, glycine significantly increased the protein percentage of Pennisetum purpureum from 10.69 to 14.56 percent, and Melinis minutiflora from 3.06 to 4.37 percent. Colman, Holder and Swain (1966) lifted dairy production from 2 700 kg. butterfat per year with existing low-yielding matted Pennisetum clandestinum, Paspalum dilatatum, Axonopus repens pastures to 4 000 kg. with an improved Kikuyu/Neonotonia wightii mixture, of which glycine contributed an average of 45 percent of the dry matter. 

Main references

Allen et al. (1961); Gartner and Fisher (1966); Lovadini and Miyasaka (1968); Menegario (1964).

Latitudinal limits

Extends in Australia to approximately 29°S latitude (Wollongbar Agricultural Research Station, lat. 28°50'S).

Ability to compete with weeds

Early growth suffers from weed competition, but when established can suppress weeds, even Imperata cylindrica. Weeds can be suppressed with a slasher and, thereafter, glycine can assume control. Savage (1970) found that cutting at 15 cm every nine weeks gave weed-free swards at Redland Bay, Queensland, on red latosolic soils.

Pests

The Amnemus weevil (Amnemus quadrituberculatus) attacks the roots of the plant in northern New South Wales (Braithwaite, Jane and Swain, 1958) and south-eastern Queensland (Roe and Jones, 1966). A Bruchus weevil attacks seed at Kitale, Kenya (Bogdan, 1966) . Seed dusting with Ceresan or other mercurial dust will protect seed supplies for planting.

Toxicity levels and symptoms

Manganese­the toxicity threshold value for Mn is 560 ppm (Andrew and Hegarty, 1969). Glycine is more sensitive to excess Mn than white clover. In seedling growth the first visual symptom of toxicity was slight interveinal chlorosis of the young fully expanded leaves; however, the chlorosis was initially restricted to the marginal areas of the leaflets, giving the appearance of blotches on the leaflet margin, particularly toward the tips. At the same time, small irregularly shaped brown spots occurred on the surface of the primary leaves. With intensification of toxicity, interveinal chlorosis extended to the midrib area and brown markings appeared. Young shoots were pale in colour and showed uniform interveinal chlorosis. In older plants, the brown markings were on or adjacent to the veins, with prominence on the underside of the leaflets, and became purplish in colour. In plants suffering from severe toxicity, leaf puckering on the newer fully expanded leaves occurred mainly toward the base of the midrib of the leaflets, the raised portions being above the upper leaf surface and usually associated with severe interveinal chlorosis. Leaflet margins were not usually puckered but showed an undulating margin. Newly emerging leaves were fully formed but were severely chlorotic, accompanied by a bronze colour over the full leaf. There were no visual effects on the petioles or stems (Andrew and Pieters, 1970b).
Aluminium­glycine is no more tolerant to excess than white clover (Andrew and Robins, unpublished).A

Temperature for growth

Wutoh, Hutton and Pritchard (1968c) showed that the optimum temperature for growth and seed production was a day/night regime of 27/22-16°C. High root temperatures affect growth (Tow, 1967). Growth slowed down at 16°C and ceased at 13°C. At Campinas, Brazil (lat. 23°S), there was little growth during June (12.8°C minimum), July (11.4°C) and August (13°C). Leaf shedding occurred in the Burdekin Delta, Queensland (lat. 19°S) at 1.5°C (Allen, 1961a, b)./A-  on

Vigour of seedling, growth and growth rhythm

Glycine is slow to start because of nodulation difficulties. In Zambia, it does not gain prominence until the second year (van Rensburg, 1967). In Brazil, it is often hand weeded during early establishment. After a slow start, it becomes quite vigorous. In Colombia, the plants cover the soil in two months after seeding.

Minimum germination percentage required for sale

Germinable seeds, 60 percent, with a maximum of 10 percent hard seed, and 97.5 percent purity in Queensland, 1966; 60 percent germination (Colombia).

Altitude response

In Kenya it grows from the lowlands up to 2 450 m at the latitude of the equator. In Colombia, it occurs from sea level to 1 800 m.

Compatibility with grasses

Combines well with Panicum maximum, P. maximum var. trichoglume, Setaria anceps, Chloris gayana, Melinis minutiflora and Pennisetum purpureum. In Digitaria decumbens it lasts two years at Campinas, Brazil, and at least three years in the fertile Cauca Valley of Colombia. At Atherton, north Queensland, it is sown at 11 kg./ha with Rhodes grass at 3.3 kg./ha (Tow, 1967). In Brazil, it is sown at 0.5-m intervals at 3 kg./0.40 ha in three rows between colonial guinea rows sown 2 m apart; with elephant or napier grass, at 0.5-m intervals at 6.5 kg./ha in one row between two rows of grass spaced 0.5 m apart; with pangola grass in alternate rows 1 m apart, the glycine planted at 20 seeds 0.5 m apart; with molasses grass the glycine is planted on the square with 20 seeds at 0.5 m apart and the molasses grass subsequently broadcast over the glycine (Menegario, 1964).

Response to photoperiod and light

Glycine is a short-day plant. Cultivars Clarence and Cooper are early maturing types; cv. Tinaroo is a late-flowering type.
Response to light is fair; it grows with medium-height grasses, though it does better in pure swards. Basic light and CO2 responses are given by Ludlow and Wilson (1970).

Sowing depth, time and rates

Sow at 1 to 2 cm and lightly cover with harrow or roll. Murtagh (1970) proved that glycine needs relatively cool temperatures for the first two days of germination. Laboratory germination is seriously impaired at temperatures above 37°C. Sow in early summer at 0.5 to 3 kg./ha depending on cost of seed and desired rate of establishment. Six kg./ha are used in Colombia, 2.5 kg./ha in Brazil.

Drought and flooding tolerance

Reasonably drought-tolerant (in Australia the cultivar 'Cooper' is more tolerant than 'Clarence' and 'Tinaroo'). It grows slowly during dry spells but recovers quickly when favourable conditions resume. A well-established plant has a deep persistent taproot. Tolerance to flooding is low; it requires good drainage.irsu