Rangeland Management and Conservation.
Stephan Baas, Stephen Reynolds, Caterina Batello
Rangelands1, when properly managed, have for centuries provided feed for grazing livestock under extensive systems, and acceptable living conditions for populations in arid and semi-arid areas. The fluctuating rainfall patterns have meant that attempts to cultivate these areas have generally been unsuccessful, unless irrigated, and many areas of rangeland opened to agriculture and subsequently abandoned are subject to erosion (el-shorbagy 1998). Recurrent droughts and the many rainfall fluctations result in fluctuations in forage production. Rangelands in arid areas can be regarded as non-equilibrium environments (scoones 1995). The functioning and survival of range systems under these conditions are dependent on complex inter-relationships between people, domestic and wild animals, the vegetation and the physical environment (el-shorbagy 1998). The ability of pastoralists to survive has traditionally depended on their adoption of opportunistic mobility and adaptive strategies and drought management techniques. Some of the strategies are ecologically based such as the raising of mixed species of livestock with different preferences for the standing vegetation (sidahmed 1993) while others depend upon socio-economic relations such as reciprocal agreements for accessibility to communal grazing lands of neighbouring tribes or groups in times of drought.
Increasing population pressure and continued encroachment of farming into dry lands during the last decades, however, led to substantial change and weakening of traditionally viable grazing systems. Livestock numbers per hectare of rangelands increased leading to heavier and more continuous grazing pressure. Widespread deterioration and degradation of arid and semi arid rangelands has been reported (mäckel 1995a; baas et al. 1991; fao 1995; mäckel 1995b). Socio-economic-political changes (zaroug 1995) and major efforts have been made to improve or even replace traditional nomadic systems with more settled systems and to introduce new technologies, often through large development programmes and projects, many of which were initiated in the early 70s and financially and technically assisted by multi and bilateral donors.
This first generation of large rangeland development projects have addressed a number of issues including: sedentarizing nomads, borehole provision, veterinary care, subsidized feeds and livestock production, revegetation of depleted ranges, feed reserves, establisment of fodder shrubs, creation of pastoral and fattening cooperatives and establishment of regulations to optimize utilization of rangeland resources (el-shorbagy 1998). Retrospectively, however, it has to be admitted that often projects have been hastily implemented with little consideration of the views or involvement of the local population. Any failure has often been blamed on the reluctance of pastoralists to take up techniques or ideas proposed by outside "experts", problems of land tenure, the inadequacies of administrations etc. In fact, livestock and rangeland development projects at that point in time have had such a poor success rate that, according to de haan (1995), there was reduced overall donor support in the 1980s. el-shorbagy (1998) suggests that rarely has failure been pinned at the door of the project formulators who failed to consult (in addition to providing technical solutions) the target audience (the pastoralists, the herders, the nomadic peoples) and who failed to understand their needs and expectations and the importance of local institutions and community regulatory mechanisms (zaroug 1995).
The new paradigms of thinking in range ecology (behnke et al. 1992; behnke et al. 1993; scoones 1995) and the shift to more participatory and people centered development approaches in the late 1980s and early 90s , however, lead to renewed donor interest in the 1990s (pratt et al. 1997). "Old and new thinking" were combined and lead to a new, more holistic view of rangeland development, recognizing local people as managers and equally important decision makers on the issues related to their natural environments (baas 1993).
FAO has been involved for many years in working with donors and Governments in implementing rangeland development assistance projects. The agency therefore went as others through the various phases of development approaches; But the agency also contributed to the shift of paradigms. After its initial focus in the 70s and 80s on the agronomic aspects of rangeland management, FAO in its rangeland related programmes nowadays equally emphasises multidisciplinary approaches to range development and tries to integrate a broad range of interrelated factors and conditions such as: the importance of local institutions and community regulatory mechanisms, policies which will foster sustainable range development, the need to think about the often close relationship between pastoral and agricultural development, the role of Governments in ensuring that appropriate land tenure regulations are in place, the multiple uses of land and the need to consider alternative income generating activities, aspects such as desertification and the loss of biodiversity. The overarching question for FAO, however, always was and is: How to alleviate hunger and poverty. It is in this context that FAOs rangeland centered work looks at how to ensure access to and sustainable use of rangeland resources in the face of increasing human and animal populations.
This paper is not an attempt to cover the whole range of above aspects and facets of rangeland development; niether is it a review of the many projects which have been implemented, some successfully but others less so. The focus of this paper instead, is on the impact and lessons learned from four selected projects which are presented to illustrate and analyze some specific experiences in rangeland development.
2. Project Case Studies (earlier presented in a paper by Reynolds, Batello, Baas, 1999 at the VI International Rangeland Congress held in Townsville, Australia, 19-23 July 1999)
The four selected case studies presented below look at the nexus between rangeland development and poverty alleviation, range rehabilitation and wildlife conservation, resettlement, and local institutional building. Some of the lessons learned from the presented cases may have wider application.
2.1 Pastoral Development in Arhangai District, Mongolia
In Mongolia, as in a number of countries in transition from a centrally planned to a market economy, there has been a marked reduction in the involvement of the state in providing services. Decollectivisation has often resulted in increased rural poverty. This project has attempted to elaborate a framework to reduce rural poverty and to prepare for disaster situations as part of the pastoral production system.
2.1.1 The project context
Mongolia covers 1.5 M km2 and, with a population of 2.4 M people, is one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The extreme natural conditions in Mongolia, characterised by low precipitation rates and long cold winters, have fostered a long tradition of nomadism and extensive animal husbandry. After pure nomadism was brought to an end through mass collectivisation and sedentarization in the early 1930s, the pastoral production sector was dominated by specialised state farms and central planning for more than 50 years. Decollectivisation, which started in 1989, led to the distribution of farm assets and animals among all state farm members. Since then almost every herding family has established its own fixed winter and spring camps, with stockyards and watering points. At the end of 1997, Mongolian rangelands carried some 31.3 M large farm animals, the highest livestock population since transition. In 1998, more than 95% of the animals were privately owned. Their products contributed almost 70% to the total agricultural outputs.
However, in spite of the growth of the national herd and the private ownership of animals and assets, pastoralists are facing severe socio-economic problems. The shift from state to market provision of most services, the increase in the role of markets in economic life in general and the redefinition of the degree to which the state will, or is able, to provide a social security safety net, have fundamentally altered herders living conditions, and has led to severely reduced government services in the countryside. Herders now carry the full burden of economic, social and environmental risks. The incidence and negative consequences of vulnerability to risks and poverty have increased, especially in the dry steppe areas where pastoralism is the predominant way of life. Depending on the measure used, between one quarter and a half of all rural households are now considered poor. Recognising the problem, Mongolia launched a national Poverty Alleviation Programme in 1993, which focused on urban areas initially but also started to work in the countryside through Local Development Funds in support of local income generation activities. Its impact on the herding economy (as opposed to the urban poor in provincial/district centres) however, has so far been very limited.
2.1.2 The project design
Within the above context, the FAO project "Rural Development in Pastoral Areas in Arhangay Province", in 1996/97 participated in the drafting of a national poverty alleviation programme for pastoral areas. In close collaboration with IFAD, an experimental programme to analyse and fight rural poverty was set-up, field-tested and designed for wider application and follow-up (by IFAD). Its main interrelated components which were identified in a participatory way together with the local herding communities were: (a) restocking of poor herders on an in-kind credit basis through redistributing locally available animals from wealthy to poor herding households; (b) testing the viability and requirements of vegetable production for poor district centre inhabitants taking into account the short growing period of 90-100 days; (c) assessing the nature of herding risks and risk management strategies; (d) identifying options to improve livestock productivity; and (e) fostering economic alternatives through existing credit lines. The project elaborated precise methods, criteria, and institutional mechanisms to identify, in a participatory way, the local poor and needy. It supported the establishment of institutional mechanisms to select and distribute animals to poor herders; it distributed vegetable seeds and tools to poor households in the district and provincial centres; and it arranged locally available skills training and knowledge transfer. Broad participation and the initiative of herders as well as of vegetable producers led to an encouraging success and broad replication of the tested strategies. In the year following the test phase the number of voluntary participants more than doubled. The IFAD follow-up programme has now been operating successfully in Arhangay for two years with constantly increasing numbers of participants. It expanded into a second province in 1999.
2. 1. 3. Lessons learned
2.2 Range rehabilitation, wildlife re-introduction and a participatory approach to range management in the Syrian steppe
In Syria, as in a number of Near East countries where the land is State-owned, there has been a breakdown of traditional systems of management such as the Hema system. Rising population and livestock numbers, and a high degree of mechanisation, have increased pressure on the range and resulted in a severe deterioration of large areas of the Al-Badia rangelands. This project is attempting to demonstrate techniques for improved range production, re-introduce wildlife, and to (re-) establish sustainable range management systems based on an approach of extensive community participation.
2. 2. 1 The project context
The Syrian Al-Badia Steppe, climatically characterised by low and erratic rainfall (less than 200 mm per year), cold winters (often below 0 oC) and hot summers (exceeding 45 oC), comprises more than 55% of the land area of Syria or some 10.2 M ha. In spite of the harsh conditions, the Badia remains an important area for livestock raising (mirreh 1999). Current range sheep production is highly mechanised through the extensive use of water tankers, trucks and tractors. Programmes for better veterinary care, more watering points and feed subsidies contribute to keeping livestock raising in the Badia an economically attractive business for herders as well as for merchants who have purchased large flocks and put them onto the steppe with sheep herders. However, this type of over-utilization of the rangeland resource has caused considerable deterioration of both soil and vegetation. Uprooting of perennial plants for fuel, combined with the availability of vehicles, has resulted in the clearing of bush cover from large areas (it has been estimated, for instance, that an average Bedouin household annually uses shrubs for fuel from approximately 4,4 ha.). Erosion pavements with limited infiltration and large active gullies are common and there has been a decrease in the numbers of the preferred forage plants such as Salsola vermiculata, Poa sinaica, Plantago albans, Stipagrostis and even Artemisia herba alba which are often replaced by plants of lower forage value such as Peganum harmala, Noa mucronata and Anabasis syriaca (mirreh 1999).
2. 2. 2. Project design and implementation
A project for the rehabilitation of marginal lands and the establishment of a wildlife reserve was started in February 1996, attempting to heal part of the severely degraded Al Badia steppe. It covers some 130,000 ha including 22,000 ha of wildlife reserve and 108,000 ha of land from three co-operatives with 426 households and 3,050 people owning 95,000 head of sheep.
Activities undertaken to date have included direct seeding and shrub planting on 5,000 ha, closing off areas to livestock grazing (3,000 ha), data collection and monitoring, the preparation of range management plans, assessment of alternative energy sources for cooking and heating and income generating activities. In addition, gazelle and oryx have been re-introduced to a newly created reserve and management plans developed. Major emphasis is also given to training and capacity building among the national staff, and to the full involvement of the local communities in range management planning and implementation.
Gazelle and oryx have been re-introduced and released into a fenced 1,000 ha area within the 22,000 ha Talila Reserve, which is currently managed for both camels and wildlife. The Reserve has become a focus of attention for the local population as well as providing some employment opportunities, and is also drawing considerable interest at a national level. Benefiting from two years of better than average rains, the project has been able to demonstrate excellent regrowth in exclosure areas and also excellent germination and growth of plants in improved areas. The improved areas served as demonstration plots with standing biomass of more than 400 kg/ha of dry matter from annuals alone. In December 1998 and January 1999, more than 7,000 tons of dry matter were cropped from the project area saving the Bedouins some 26 to 50 M Syrian pounds in terms of replacement feeds.
In 1998/99 the project was facing a difficult situation due to a severe drought, which resulted in the Government deciding to open all protected range areas for all livestock operators on a free access and free of charge basis. Unfortunately, this policy has also included the project areas. On December 22, 1998 some 580,000 sheep entered the Co-operative area with the major concentration on the 8,000 ha of improved and exclosure rangeland. More than 90% of Co-operative members took advantage of the grazing, but also many large flock owners from up to 100 kms away trucked in sheep. Fortunately, the incursion of the large numbers of sheep into the improved areas took place at a time of year when plants were dormant, so that although there was damage from the sheer numbers trampling the area, soil disturbance by vehicles and shrub removal for fuel, it remained limited. The project elaborated a drought management plan with Co-operative members in order to remove sheep and households before the Spring regrowth of the range. The 1998/99 drought situation illustrated some of the problems of working on rangeland improvement projects where the land is State owned and where traditional systems of range management by Bedouin herders have been largely replaced by free access, by the emergence of large commercial livestock owners and where systems of rapid trucking of sheep and supplementary feeding and watering of stock are common. But it was a useful event to demonstrate the important role which local range management groups can play under such difficult circumstances.
2. 2. 3. Lessons learned
The project has been able to demonstrate to Government that, with the co-operation of the local Bedouin population, rehabilitation of large areas of the Al-Badia Steppe is possible, but also to illustrate the necessity of urgently addressing the issues associated with free access of all to all areas of land, the effects of drought and the need for preparing drought contingency plans. The total number of sheep, overstocking and issues associated with subsidized feed are other matters that will need to be addressed. The focus of future project activities will be on selected rangeland site management improvement and rehabilitation, with the selected areas managed by Bedouin organizations. As a large IFAD funded project, which is currently being planned, will endeavour to develop larger areas of the Al-Badia rangelands, then the lessons learned by the present project should have direct application.
2. 3. Kazak herders, winter feed and transhumant systems in Altai Prefecture, Xinjiang, China
The rearing of livestock using transhumant production systems is the main land use and livelihood in large areas of the arid and semi-arid temperate zones of Asia. One of the major constraints to improving livestock production and family incomes (li-menglin et al. 1996) is the lack of feed during winter and early spring which reduces the number of animals that can be carried through the winter and also means that pregnant breeding stock may be at their most vulnerable in the period of lowest feed availability. Attempts have been made in a number of countries to permanently settle nomadic people often with less than desirable social consequences. This project attempted to provide settled bases for herders where fodder for the winter period is produced and where education and social facilities for the herders' households are provided, but where for the major part of the year the traditional transhumant system is followed.
2. 3. 1. The project context
Altai Prefecture is located in the northern part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China near the border with Kazakstan and Mongolia. Bounded on the north by high mountains and cut off from southern Xinjiang by a large expanse of desert and semi-desert, this is an area with a markedly continental climate, hot summers, very cold winters, snow and low rainfall. The mean minimum temperature for January is -26 oC and the mean maximum for July is 30 oC. Precipitation, which mainly falls as snow, ranges from less than 100 mm p.a. on the plains to more than 600 mm p.a. on the high pastures, where the problem of high winds, snow and spells of extreme cold, with temperatures of less than -40 oC, means that many areas of high pasture are open for less than 3 months each year. Of the total area of 11,8 M ha, more than 9.8 M ha are pastoral and over half of the population is engaged in livestock farming (dominated by transhumant systems) which contributes nearly 60% of the value of agricultural production in Altai.
The main livestock are cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels, with sheep and cattle being the most important. Most Kazak herders follow a transhumant way of life with good summer grazing for their stock on lands above 1,300 m limited to only 2.5 to 3 months per year (late June to late September). In spring (April to late June) and autumn (mid-September to end November), grazing occurs on the heavily grazed transition routes and winter grazing (December to end March) occurs on the desert plains. The transhumance route is long, 180 to 200 km from the desert plains to the high summer pastures.
2. 3. 2. The project design
A number of rivers and areas of relatively flat land provided the base for an irrigation-based solution to the winter feed problem. Over the last ten years, a development programme has been implemented to produce and conserve fodder by cultivating over 20,000 ha of irrigated land for hay. The production of lucerne (Medicago sativa) on the irrigated land was assisted by WFP and UNDP/FAO. Starting in 1988, work was begun at Burjin, Fuhai and Altai to produce "through irrigation by gravity of 34,425 ha of land, large quantities of hay, expected to reach 130, 000 tonnes per year at full development, and to settle 8,650 families through the allocation of irrigated land" (li-menglin et al. 1996). By 1997, some 6, 100 Kazak households had been settled, and 32,000 ha have been developed, providing 20,000 ha of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) pasture. The average farm size is 3,7 to 4,3 ha, producing annually about 18,000 kg of hay from 3 ha (with the remaining land utilized for wheat, maize, beet or sunflower) with a house for winter quarters for the family and for those who remain on the plains for haymaking in summer while the livestock are away on the summer pastures. Usually a proportion of the wheat, soybean and sometimes lucerne is sold. A number of farmers grow maize solely for making into silage. With 26,700 ha of existing alfalfa land and the newly established 20,000 ha, the present area in Altai Prefecture is some 46 700 ha and there are plans to establish another 20,000 ha under the Ninth Five Year Plan.
Visitors to the area can quickly appreciate the degree of success of the project in transforming former (Gobi) desert areas into productive irrigated farms and herders into herder/farmers. The project has had a very big impact in Altai and is accepted as a model for further Kazak herder resettlement schemes (anon 1992). The findings of the 1995 evaluation mission were that "the project has attained its ambitious targets. An area of 30,218 ha is under irrigation and settlement of 7,550 Kazak herdsmen is proceeding on schedule. Food security for the region as well as household food security of the target population has been dramatically increased without dismantling the traditional socio-economic system upon which livestock transhumance is based. The project's beneficial impact on living conditions is evident and has resulted in a steady increase in family incomes and access to education and health facilities. However, the future of pastoral farming in the region is ecologically fragile because of the constant threat of the "salting-up" phenomenon. Proper drainage maintenance and efficient water management are crucial. Livestock pressure on transitional pastures will also need to be monitored carefully. Therefore sustainability is heavily dependent on a continuous and scrupulous management of the environmentally sensitive components of the project" (reynolds 1998).
2. 3. 3. Lessons learned
The project has successfully demonstrated the complementarity of mobile pastoralism and sedentary agro-pastoral development. Whether the benefits so far enjoyed by the "settled" Kazak herders (who represent more than 15 percent of the Kazaks who live in Altai Prefecture) can be enjoyed by those who still follow the traditional transhumant way of life year round is likely to depend on funding from the Government of China for an expansion of the irrigated areas.
2. 4. Rural Development at NNguigmi in Niger
Rural development projects are complex and the adoption of a people's participatory approach will involve different time frames and approaches to those traditionally used. This project has already gone through several phases and has worked largely through a number of specialised NGOs to improve existing (pastoral) production systems and promote income-generating activities.
2. 4. 1. The context
The province or "arrondissement" of NNguigmi has a total area of 118,000 km2, of which 84,000 km2 are desert areas. The population in 1996 was estimated to be 31,000 inhabitants with an annual growth rate of approx. 1.0%, which means that by 2016 the population will be over 38,000 and 60% of them will be young people. Large numbers are still mobile since in one out of every two years the forage availability for livestock is insufficient. Only 1% of the adult population is literate. Water is the main limiting factor. The animal population consists of 142,000 cattle, 200,000 camels, 367,000 sheep and 374,000 goats. Natural resources are degrading very rapidly and Lake Chad is retreating. The project selected 7 territories based on agroecological conditions and in consultation with the population (and not with the administration or the village chiefs) planned and started different activities according to the specific situations. Since it started in 1984, the project has passed through a number of phases and experiences. Of 12 wells built in 1984 only 3 are still operating due to salinization problems. Oversized cereal granaries were built during the second phase of the project and subsequently abandoned, and rehabilitated areas and demonstration sites were established (with the participation of poor people) too far from villages and therefore failed to be active demonstration sites.
2. 4. 2. The project
From 1995, a new phase of the project started with an "approche terroir" strategy. In the framework of decentralization and supported by mechanisms of continuous consultation, the final objective was not the identification of specific solutions, but to help the population in adopting instruments for better use of their natural resources. As well as Government and FAO involvement, the project has subcontracted the main components of the project through specialised NGOs.
Focus has been on the development of pastoral (and agro-pastoral) resources, through the improvement of existing production systems and promotion of income generation activities. Since the elaboration and organisation of self-determination by the communities is a slow process, "key entrance activities" to gain the confidence of the population were necessary, such as the construction of new wells and village shops and dune stabilization. The development of the animal production system ("filiere elevage") was realised through "key entrance activities"such as vaccination campaigns, health surveillance along the border with Lake Chad, and training of technicians in health control. Also a financial mechanism to support income diversification activities was started.
2. 4. 3. Lesson learned:
3. Overall Conclusions
While the some of the lessons learned were different for each case study, there were a number of common features which emerged.
(i) The main lessons learned were both technical and socio-economic and it is clear that they must be considered together in rangeland development programmes.
(ii) In all areas governments must focus on the issues associated with land tenure, grazing rights, free access of all to grazing lands, state ownership of lands and the breakdown of traditional systems.
(iii) To varying degrees the problem of animal numbers has to be addressed in all areas. The provision of winter feed to enable more animals to be carried through the winter will place greater pressure on spring, summer and autumn pastures and the situation needs to be closely monitored. Uncontrolled stock numbers is a key issue both for improved conservation of rangelands and for improved incomes.
(iv) In many countries rich businessmen are buying large numbers of livestock as an investment and grazing the rangelands often with severe consequences. It may be necessary to adopt a different approach for traditional herders and new city-based pastoralists.
(v) The population in the project areas, the herders, the pastoralists, women etc. must have a major stake in any project. Although implementation may be slower, and the process of dialogue with the people involved protracted, long-term success depends on full people's participation. Many examples can be given of apparent short-term success in terms of range improvement etc. but longer term sustainability of the rangelands is not achieved without taking note of the aspirations of the local population.
(vi) Full people's participation in rangeland development will require a major focus on training of technicians and the local people, as well as in-built feedback mechanisms which enable adjustments to be made during project implementation.
(vii) The importance of using "key entrance activities" to gain community confidence has been highlighted and is likely to be a feature of most rangeland development programmes where a participatory approach is adopted.
(viii) To increase the chances of success in large scale development programmes there is a need to initiate small pilot projects and extrapolate from the more successful.
(ix) NGOs can have an important role to play in the implementation of pastoral development projects, but the most appropriate NGO must be selected.
(x) It is possible to successfully settle pastoralists, without destroying their pattern of life, as long as it is recognised that their survival depends upon maintaining their overall mobility for a portion of the year so that the flexibility remains in their system to exploit natural resources.
(xi) The concept of a settled base for transhumant herders can work well by providing extra feed for feed shortage periods (from intensively managed fodder production areas) and increasing incomes, as well as providing a base for the provision of services (such as education, health etc.). The concept is particularly favourable for families, women and children.
(xii) In certain situations, the creation of wildlife reserves can have very positive effects in terms of raising awareness about the environment (including rangelands), providing alternative income sources and ensuring better integration of wildlife and livestock.
(xiii) In centrally planned economies, with a long tradition of nomadism and extensive animal husbandry, where decollectivisation of large state farms is underway, a new class of rural poor (unskilled herders) is being created with herd sizes below the viability threshold and with inadequate local and state organizations and support mechanisms.
(xiv) The problems of rangeland use are long-term yet most development projects and programmes are far too short in duration e.g. 3-5 years is common. Donors, government agencies and technical agencies like FAO must begin to put the case for longer duration projects (or a series of linked projects) which stand a better chance of success. Governments must also be fully committed to providing the resources needed over the long-term and be willing to take appropriate political and economic decisions that may be required for the sustainability of rangelands and for the long-term benefit of the peoples dependent on these areas.
(xv) The big challenge for FAO and other agencies is how to operate in a global environment and yet be sufficiently flexible in the face of existing diversity to implement specific solutions in given situations.
(xv) Changing institutional, economic and marketing conditions - nationally, regionally and globally - will have a significant effect on rangeland use in the coming decades. With globalisation, decentralisation and liberalisation, the focus on technological development will have to be in parallel with social, environmental and ecological considerations.
anon, A (1992): Jinshan Bright Pearl. China, Xinjiang No. 2817 Project, 88p., Beijing
baas, st. (1993): Weidepotential und Tragfähigkeit in Zentralsomalia - Ein integriertes Monitoring- und Evaluierungskonzept zur Bestimmung des Nutzungspotentials für Weidegebiete mit mobiler Tierhaltung.= Abhandlungen - Anthropogeographie, Institut für geographische Wissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin Bd. 51, 279 S. Berlin
baas, st. & mäckel, r. (1991): Plant communities, biomass production and fodder potential in the Rangelands of Central Somalia.= Proceedings of the IVth International Rangeland Congress (CITP), p. 200-205, Montpellier.
baas, st. & ebdon, r. (1995): Poverty perceptions among rural herders and village inhabitants, Chulut District, Mongolia. FAO Technical Cooperation Programme, Project-report, TCP/MON/4553 (unpublished).
behnke, r. & scoones, i. (1992): Rethinking Range Ecology: Implications for Rangeland Management in Africa. The World Bank; Environmental Working Paper No. 53.
behnke, r., scoones, i & kerven, c. (1993), (eds.). Range Ecology at Disequilibrium: New Models of Natural Variability and Pastoral Adaptation in African Savannas. Overseas Development Institute, London.
chatty, d. & baas, st. (1997): A PRA based training approach to community participation among Syrian Bedouins. Project: Rangeland Rehabilitation and Wildlife Conservation in the Syrian Badia, GCP/SYR/003/ITA (unpublished), Palmyra.
de haan, c. (1995): Rangelands in the Developing World. Proc. Fifth International Rangeland Congress, p. 180-184, Salt Lake City.
el-shorbagy, m. a. (1998): Impact of Development Programmes on deterioration of rangeland resources in some African and Middle Eastern Countries. Chapter 5; In: Squires, V.R. & Sidahmed Hrsg (1998): Drylands: Sustainable Use of Ranglands into the Twenty-First Century; edit., A., p. 45-70, Rome.
fao (1995): Community Participation in Range Management for Semi-Intensive Sheep Production in the Near East: A Case Study for Maín Grazing Area in Jordan. 65 S, FAORNE.
li-menglin, yuan bo-hua & suttie, j. w. (1996): Winter feed for transhumant livestock in China: the Altai experience. World Animal Review, Number 87/2, p. 38-44, Rome.
mäckel, r. (1995a) Angewandte Physiogeographie der Tropen dargestellt an Beispielen aus Afrika.= APT Berichte 1, S. 2-14, Freiburg i. Br.
mäckel, r. (1995b): Assement and demonstration of causes for range condition and changes in Southwestern Marsabit District, Kenya. APT Berichte 3, Freiburg i. Br.
mirreh, m. m. (1999): GCP/SYR/003/ITA - An illustrated booklet of project activities and progress. Project GCP/SYR/003/ITA, 22 S. Palmyra.
Pratt, d. j., le gall, f. & de haan, c. (1997): Investing in Pastoralism: sustainable natural resource use in arid Africa and the Middle East., D.C.= World Bank Technical Paper 365, Washington.
reynolds, s. (1998): Kazak herders, winter feed and transhumant systems in Altai Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. In: Proceedings of the third meeting of the Temperate Asia Pasture and Fodder Working Group, 9.-13. March 1998, p. 82-87, Pokhara, Nepal.
reynolds, s., batello, c. & baas, st. (1999): Perspectives on Rangeland development. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).= Proceedings of the VI International Rangeland Congress 1999/1, p. 160-165, Townsville.
scoones, i. (1995): Living With Uncertainty. New directions in pastoral development in Africa. Intermediate Technology Publications. London.
sidahmed, a. e. (1993): Viewpoint: Do we need new terminologies in rangeland management? In: Rangelands 14(4), p. 201, Rome.
swift, j. & baas, st. (1999): Pastoral institutions and approaches to risk management and poverty alleviation in Central Asian countries in transition; Internet publication; http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/ROdirect/Roan0018.htm.
unso (1994): Pastoral Development in Africa, Proceedings of the first technical consultation of donor and international development agencies, Paris, 13.-14. December 1993, UNSO/UNDP, 150 S.New York.
zaroug, m. g. (1995): Rangeland - Sustainable Range-Dependent Small Ruminant Production Systems in the Near East Region. pp. 6-51, FAORNE, Cairo.
Address of the Authors:
Dr. Stephan Baas, Stephen Reynolds, Caterina Batello
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)