Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture



 
 








Table of Contents


Edited by
Ross C. Gutteridge
and
H. Max Shelton

Department of Agriculture The University of Queensland
Queensland 4072, Australia
 
 

Cover photographs:
Background: Aerial view of twin-row leucaena planted in Central Queensland for cattle feed, by Col Middleton.
Top: Sesbania grandiflora growing on bunds in irrigated terraces on Lombok, Indonesia for timber and cattle feed, by Ross Gutteridge.
Middle: Young penned buffalo being fed on leaves of Gliricidia sepium and elephant grass on Bali, by Max Shelton.
Bottom: Bundles of fuel wood from Leucaena leucocephala on Lombok, Indonesia, by lan Partridge.

Published by the
TROPICAL GRASSLAND SOCIETY OF AUSTRALIA INC.

Available in printed form (US$20) from:-
The Tropical Grassland Society of Australia Inc. 1998
c/- CSIRO Cunningham Laboratory 306 Carmody Road
St Lucia Queensland 4067

ISBN 0 9585677 1 9

Produced on Docutech and bound by USQ Printing Services,
Toowoomba.
New cover design by I.J. Partridge

Originally published in 1994 by:
CAB Intemational, Wallinford, Oxon OXIO 8DE, UK.
North America: 845 North Park Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, USA
Asia: PO Box 1 1 872, 50760 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Caribbean: Gordon Street, Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago.
Reprinted with permission, 1998.

Titles of related interest from CAB International:
Grassland Dynamics: An Ecosystem Simulation Model
J.H.M. Thornley 1998
256 pages ISBN 0 85199 227 7

Temperate Forage Legumes
J. Frame, J.F.L. Chariton and A.S. Laidlaw 1998
336 pages ISBN 0 85199 214 5

Lupins as Crop Plants: Biology, Production and Utilization
Edited by J.S. Gladstones, C. Atkins and J. Hamblin 1998
544 pages ISBN 0 85199 224 2

Grass for Dairy Cattle
Edited by J.H. Cherney and D.J.R. Cherney 1998
416 pages ISBN 0 85199 288 9

Forage Seed Production, Vol. 1: Temperate Species
Edited by D.T. Fairey and J.G. Hampton 1998
432 pages ISBN 0 85199 190 4

Forage Seed Production, Vol. 2: Tropical and Subtropical Species
Edited by D.S. Loch and J.E. Ferguson 1999
480 pages ISBN 0 85199 191 2

Gaseous Nitrogen Emissions from Grassiands
Edited by S.C. Jarvis and B.F. Pain 1997
480 pages ISBN 0 85199 192 0

The Ecology and Mainagement of Gf@@ing Systems
Edited by J. Hodges and A.W. lliius 1996
480 pages ISBN 0 85199 107 6 (Hbk) 1302 8 (Pbk)

The Biology of Grasses
G.P. Chapman 1996
288 pages ISBN 0 85199 111 4
 
 


Table of Contents


Preface

Acknowledgements

Contributors

Abbreviations


Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 The Role of Forage Tree Legumes in Cropping and Grazing Systems
Introduction
Legumes in agriculture
Tree legumes
Tree legumes
Tree Legumes as Forage for Animals
Tree Legumes and the Environment
Tree Legumes for Fuelwood
Conclusions
References


Chapter 2: Origins and Characteristics of the Principal Forage Tree Legume Species

2.1 Leucaena leucocephala - the Most Widely Used Forage Tree Legume
Introduction
Botanical Description and Genetic Variation
Uses
Climate and Soil Adaptation
Establishment
Toxicity
Pests and Diseases
Conclusions
References
2.2 Gliricidia sepium - a Multipurpose Forage Tree Legume
Introduction
Taxonomy
Ecology
Distribution
Uses
Use of Gliricidia as a Forage
Conclusions
References
2.3 The Perennial Sesbania Species
Introduction
Origins and Botanical Description
Environmental Adaptation
Geographical Areas of Use
Establishment
Productivity and Management
Nutritive Value
Animal Production
Fuelwood and Timber
Soil Fertility Improvement
Other Uses
Conclusions
References
2.4 Calliandra calothyrsus - a Multipurpose Tree Legume for Humid Locations
Introduction
Taxonomy
Origin and Geographic Distribution
Ecology
Agronomy
Uses
Conclusions
References
2.5 Albizia lebbeck - a Promising Forage Tree for Semiarid Regions
Introduction
Nomenclature
Botanical Description
Distribution and Ecology
Productivity
Silviculture
Diseases and Pests
Animal Production Value
Other Uses
Allied Species of Interest
Conclusions
References
2.6 Erythrina Species - Pantropical Multipurpose Tree Legumes
Introduction
Botanical Description
Origins
Environmental Adaptation
Establishment and Cultivation
Production and Management
Utilisation of Erythrina
Conclusions
References
2.7 Other Species of Multipurpose Forage Tree Legumes
Introduction
Acacia angustissima, A. boliviana and A. villosa
Acacia saligna - Golden Wreath Wattle
Chamaecytisus palmensis, Tagasaste or Tree Lucerne
Codariocalyx gyroides
Desmanthus virgatus
Faidherbia albida
Flemingia macrophylla
Prosopis Species
References


Chapter 3: Agronomy and Management of Tree Legumes

 

3.1 Diversity within Tropical Tree and Shrub Legumes
Introduction
Leucaena
Gliricidia
Calliandra
Sesbania
Desmodium and Codariocalyx
Conclusion
References
3.2 Environmental Adaptation of Forage Tree Legumes
Introduction
Climatic Adaptation
Edaphic Adaptation
Conclusions
References
3.3 Establishment of Forage Tree Legumes
Introduction
Root Systems of Tree Legumes
Factors Affecting Seedling Growth Rates
Planting Methods
References
3.4 Microbial Symbioses of Tree and Shrub Legumes
Introduction
Non-symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation
Mycorrhizae
Conclusion
References
3.5 Defoliation Management of Forage Tree Legumes
Introduction
Inherent Tolerance to Repeated Defoliation
Defoliation and Growth
Tree Size and Timing of Defoliation
Future Research
Conclusions
References
3.6 Seed Production of Forage Tree Legumes
Introduction
Principles of Reproductive Development
Practical Aspects of Seed Production
Conclusions
References


Chapter 4: Animal Production from Tree Legumes

 

4.1 The Nutritive Value of Tree Legumes
Introduction
A Definition of Nutritive Value
Chemical Composition of Forage Tree Legumes
Voluntary Intake and Digestibility of Tree Legume Foliage
Limitations to Nutritive Value of Forage Trees as a Sole Feed
References
4.2 Tree Legumes as Dietary Supplements for Ruminants
Introduction
What is a Supplement?
Leguminous Trees as Supplements to Low Quality Forage
The Comparative Value of Forage Tree Legumes
Effects of Forage Tree Legumes on Animal Performance
The Use of Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Grass Silages
Conclusions
References
4.3 Anti-nutritive and Toxic Factors in Forage Tree Legumes
Introduction
Screening Techniques for Plant Toxins
Secondary Plant Compounds in Forage Tree Legumes
Conclusions
References
4.4 Management of Anti-nutritive Factors - with Special Reference to Leucaena
Introduction
Strategies for Managing Anti-nutritive Factors
The Leucaena Story
Natural Distribution of the DHP Degrading Bacteria
Implications of the Leucaena Work
References
4.5 The Role of Leucaena in Improving the Productivity of Grazing Cattle
Introduction
The Effect of Leucaena on Liveweight Gain
The Role of Leucaena in Improving Milk Production
The Effect of Leucaena on Reproduction in Cattle
Grazing Management of Leucaena
Conclusions
References
4.6 The Role of Acacia aneura in Animal Production
Introduction
Value of Mulga
Supplements for mulga
New Directions
Summary and Conclusions
References


Chapter 5: Multipurpose Use of Tree Legumes in Tropical Farming Systems

5.1 The Use of Tree Legumes for Fuelwood Production
Introduction
Fuelwood Properties
Drying Fuelwood
Managing Trees for Fuelwood Production
Nutritional Considerations
Control of Wildfires
Conclusions
References
5.2 Forage Tree Legumes in Alley Cropping Systems
Introduction
Alley Cropping
Benefits of Alley Cropping
Crop Performance
Effect of Alley Cropping on Soil Properties
Effect of Alley Cropping on Soil Erosion
Effect of Alley Cropping on Weed Suppression
Management of Alley Cropping Systems
Conclusions
References


Chapter 6: Insects and Diseases of Tree Legumes

6.1 The Leucaena Psyllid
Introduction
Life Cycle
Damage
Techniques for Assessing Psyllid Numbers and Damage
What Options are there for Combatting the Psyllid?
References
6.2 Diseases of Tree Legumes
Introduction
Acacia
Albizia
Calliandra
Erythrina
Faidherbia albida
Gliricidia sepium
Leucaena
Prosopis
Sesbania
Potential Control Strategies
Future Research Needs
References
6.3 Insect Pests of Forage Tree Legumes: Biology and Non-chemical Control
Introduction
Insect Pests of Forage Tree Legumes in the Tropics
Non-insecticidal Techniques in Insect Control
Conclusions
References


Chapter 7: Regional Studies Using Tree Legumes

7.1 Management of Mulga (Acacia aneura) Scrublands in Southwest Queensland
Introduction
Climate
Soil Characteristics
Vegetation
Ecology
Germination and Establishment
Range Condition
Management
Management of the Whole Property as an Enterprise
References
7.2 Acacia nilotica: a Tree Legume out of Control
Introduction
Taxonomy
Distribution and Habitat
Uses
History of Invasion in Australia
Ecology
Phenology
Seed Production
Seed Dispersal
Effect of Trees on Grass Production
Acacia nilotica as a Browse Plant in Queensland
Quality of Browsed Components of A. nilotica
Management of Grazing Systems with a Browse Component
Anticipating Weediness Problems
References
7.3 Beef Production from Broadacre Leucaena in Central Queensland
Introduction
Leucaena in Central Queensland
Future Research Needs
Conclusions
References
7.4 Management Options for Leucaena in the Burnett Region of Queensland
Introduction
Suitable Sites for Leucaena
Agronomy of Leucaena
Grazing Systems and Cattle Production
Commercial Adoption of Leucaena
References
7.5 Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) in the Philippines
Introduction
Historical Background
The Extension of SALT Nationwide
Soil Erosion Control
Crop Productivity
Labour Management
Conclusions
References
7.6 The Use of Forage Tree Legumes in Timor, Indonesia
Introduction
Historical Perspectives
Leucaena, a Miracle Multipurpose Tree in Timor - its Rise and Fall
Local Utilisation of Forage
Introduced Species
Conclusions
References


Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture