India - FAO wheat database

India Agro-ecological zones

Crop yield is the function of many factors like weather, soil type and its nutrient status, management practices and other inputs available. Of these, weather plays an important role, probably more so in India where aberrant weather such as drought, flood, etc., is a rule rather than an exception. Efficient crop planning, therefore, requires proper understanding of agro-climatic conditions. This calls for collection, collation, analysis and interpretation of long-term weather parameters available for each region to identify the length of the possible cropping period taking into consideration the availability of water.

The agro-climatic zone planning aims at scientific management of regional resources to meet the food, fiber, fodder and fuel wood without adversely affecting the status of natural resources and environment. While assessing the resource base required is the holistic perspective, development will have to be achieved through an appropriate mix of crop production and allied activities including horticulture, forestry, animal husbandry and agro-processing etc. improved farming systems technologies will replace traditional crop production approach to minimize regional variations in rural incomes.

With the 329 million hectares of the geographical area the country presents a large number of complex agro-climatic situations. However, for the purpose of this exercise, Planning Commission has delineated 15 agro-climatic regions which were proposed to form basis for agricultural planning for the Eighth Plan. The 15 regions are:

1. Western Himalayan Region

2. Eastern Himalayan Region

3. Lower Gangetic Plains Region

4. Middle Gangetic Plains Region

5. Upper Gangetic Plains Region

6. Trans-Gangetic Plains Region

7. Eastern Plateau and Hills Region

8. Central Plateau and Hills Region

9. Western Plateau and Hills Region

10. Southern Plateau and Hills Region

11. East Coast Plains and Hills Region

12. West Coast Plains and Ghat Region

13. Gujarat Plains and Hills Region

14. Western Dry Region

15. The Islands Region

Among all these zones, wheat is being mainly cultivated in zones 1-9, and with low coverage in zones 10, 13 and 14.

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