Fodder Oats In Nepal
Pasture and Fodder Research Division
Table of Contents
2.0 Background History
3.0 Importance of Oats
4.0 Details of Fodder Oats Introduction
5.0 Performance Evaluation of Oat Cultivars
6.0 Quality Evaluation of Oat Cultivars
7.0 How Farmers Cultivate Fodder Oats
8.0 Cultivation of Oats in Different Areas
8.1. Cultivation of Oats in Resource-poor Farmer Areas
8.2. Cultivation of Oats in Commercial Dairy Pocket Areas
10.0 Further Work Needed
Inadequate feed supply and poor nutrition during the dry winter months (December to April) is one of the biggest constraints to the promotion of livestock development in Nepal. Malnutrition over a significant part of the year reduces the condition of the animals and adversely affects production levels.
Cultivation of oats (Avena sativa L.) in Nepal was started some 100 years ago by landlords in the Terai region (bordering India) in order to provide green fodder during the dry winter months for their elephants. However, testing of oat cultivars started on government farms and stations only in the 1970s. Cultivation of oats on larger areas became more popular during the 1980-1994 Livestock Development Projects, when the main objective was to increase livestock productivity through better feeding and proper healthcare and management. At present oat cultivation is concentrated mainly in Khetland (irrigated land) of the Terai and Low-hills and in the Bariland (rainfed) both in the Low and Mid-hills regions.
With the introduction of new management systems (proper amounts of manure and fertilizers, multicut cultivars, better combinations such as oats + vetch and oats + peas) both commercial dairy farmers and resource-poor farmers have greatly reduced the feed shortage problem for their animals during the dry winter months as well as achieving a 30% reduction in the cost of feed. The result has been that under forage based milk production systems in the peri-urban areas of Illam, the production cost of one litre of milk is around Rupees 10.0 (USD 0.13), whereas in urban areas of the country under the concentrate + paddy straw feeding milk production system the cost of one litre of milk is about Rupees 18.0 (USD 0.23). Also, for resource-poor farmers oat cultivation has resulted in a net profit of Rs. 1538 per animal per month per arable land area of 0.075 ha.
With the introduction of multicut cultivars and new management technologies, the yield of fodder oats has gone up from 15-20 tons/ha to 50-93 tons/ha. For commercial dairy pocket areas, the oat cultivars Awapuni, Swan (NEP), Caraville, Charisma, Canadian and Kent are recommended up to an elevation of 1600 m. Oats + vetch is the best mixture for high yields and improved soil fertility. For resource-poor farmers, oat cultivars Canadian and Kent are recommended and a combination of oats + vetch .
Oat cultivation is practiced by various groups of farmers up to an altitude of 2000 m, however, its economical fodder production level is found to be about 1600 masl in Khetland (irrigated cultivated lands).
Oat seed production is a viable source of income generation in many areas of Nepal and under optimum management practices oats can produce on average 2 tons of seed per hectare after taking one cut for fodder. The total area under oats is 2,172 hectares and 43,440 households are now cultivating oats.
Nepal is a small and land-locked country covering 14.7 million ha. Of the total land area, 27.5% is cropland (20.7% of the land is cultivated, 6.8% is non-cultivated inclusions [NCIS]), 11.8 % is grassland, 37.4% is forest (with more than 10% tree cover), 4.8% is shrubland, and 18.5% is other land covered by ice or rocks and urban areas (Table 1).
Table 1. Land Use, 1985-86 (000ha)
The human population is 2.2 million while the number of livestock is estimated at: cattle 7.02 million, buffalo 3.52 million, sheep 0.85 million and goats 6.32 million. About 8.68 million livestock units [Livestock Unit : one livestock unit is equivalent to a female adult she-buffalo weighing 300 kg liveweight] are reared on 14.7 million ha of land with a density of 0.59 livestock units/ha which may be among the highest stocking rates in the world (Pariyar,1993).
Livestock production is a very important industry both on a national scale and for farming families, yet animal productivity is constrained by lack of fodder. The estimated total fodder production in Nepal is 6.1 million tons TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients), only 64% of the fodder required by livestock.
Fodder is collected from all land use systems, and the major sources are: crop residues, forest, grazing land, shrubland and non-cultivated inclusions. Fodder from the 3.0 million ha of cropland contributes to 47% of the total available TDN. Fodder from 5.5 million ha of forest contributes 30% of the total available TDN. The total available TDN produced from 706 thousand ha of shrubland is 7% per year. Fodder from the 1.7 million ha of grassland is 5% of the available TDN, and almost 1.0 million ha of non-cultivated inclusion contribute 11% of the total available TDN (Table 2). The estimated feed balance shows that there is a feed deficit of 36% in Nepal.
Table 2. Feed Balance Sheet (TDN) for Ruminants ('000mt)
Requirement for Buffalo
Available TDN from: Grazing land
(% with respect to Requirement)
Source: CBS, 1993; DFAMS, 1992; HMGN/ADB/FINNIDA, 1988; Pariyar, 1993.
The great demand for food, fodder and fuel wood imposed by the increasing human and animal population have caused continuous deforestation, overgrazing and intensive cultivation of steep slopes which have resulted in severe soil erosion and serious environmental degradation.
The average area of arable land farmed by a family has dropped from more than one ha during the 1960s to less than 0.25 ha per family today. Many rural households (almost half) now have less than 0.18 ha, from which they can barely meet half of their staple food requirement. This is forcing impoverished families to become increasingly dependent on the Government as well as on communal forests and rangeland (FAO, 1992; Pariyar, 1992; HLFFDP, 1996).
2.0 Background History
Role of Livestock and Production Systems
Livestock are raised from the plain areas of the Terai to the rain shadow areas of the Himalayas, but in all ecological regions, a strong integration of crops with livestock, forestry and marketing exists.
High hills (> 2500 masl)
In the high hills people are influenced by Tibetan culture and Thakalis, Sherpas and Bhotias live in separate single ethnic settlements. Climate varies from warm temperate to alpine.
The livestock production system is based primarily on cultivation and grazing. Cultivation includes annual cultivation of crops on rainfed and irrigated land, and perennial crops. Grazing includes the movement of ruminant livestock and the utilization of vegetation.
In these areas the herds are made up of yaks, chauries (offspring of yak-cattle crosses), cattle, sheep, goats and horses, reared on semi-pastoral or transhumance systems. Livestock move together in an annual cycle according to their specific requirement and grazing availability at different altitudes. Yaks occupy an ecological niche at high altitudes (3000-5000 m), chauries move between 1500 and 4000 m, while cattle move between 2000 and 3000 m.
In contrast, sheep, goats and horses are more adaptable to altitude and move between 1200 and 4000 m. Plant growth is limited by generally cold weather and short growing season. Barley, buckwheat and potato are the major crops grown. Field crop production is less efficient due to the longer time required for crops to mature. The vegetation at higher altitudes is accessible for grazing only during the summer (July-September). After that herds are then moved to lower areas for winter (December-March); however, as yaks are adapted only to cold climates, these animals are seldom taken below 2500 m.
Livestock provide milk and fibre and their dried manure is a major source of energy for cooking. The crossbred males (Dzopas) are used for local transport and also supply meat for local people. Goats and sheep supply meat and fibre. The use of mules, sheep and goats for trading and transport of basic inputs (grain, salt, building materials, etc.) provide an important source of income.
Mid hills (500-2500 masl)
In the mid hills people are more influenced by the predominant Hindu culture and Brahman, Chhetri, Newars, Magars, Tamang, Gurung, etc., live in multi-ethnic settlements. Here livestock keeping although it constitutes an integral part of agriculture, is only secondary to crop cultivation. Climate varies from subtropical to warm-temperate and the major cereals grown are paddy (rice), wheat, maize and millet.
Cattle, buffalo and goats are the main grazing livestock for a farm household. The predominant system of livestock rearing is the sedentary system and the animals make daily grazing forays from their villages and return every evening. The forages utilized in the region include: grazing in the forest, on cultivated land after harvest, and on fallow land; also crop residues from paddy, maize, millet, wheat, mustard, soybean and vegetables; grass gathered from terraces and forests; as well as tree fodder gathered from farmer-owned trees and forest trees.
Cattle are grazed and only lactating buffaloes and improved cattle i.e. Jersey and Holstein crossbreds are stall-fed with the associated labour requirement to cut and carry fodder. Female calves are reared as herd replacements while male calves are either reared for replacement draught oxen or neglected. The disposal of surplus cattle, both male calves and cull females at the end of their reproductive life, is a problem because of prevailing religious beliefs inhibiting their sale for slaughter and use for meat.
There is potential to increase the total annual feed production from cultivated land by including winter fodder such as oats, oats + vetch, and oats + pea mixtures. The concentrate feeds used include: farmer-produced rice bran, maize flour, (also barley, oats in Surkhet, Illam, Sindhupalchok, Kavre etc.) plus common salt; compound feeds are rarely brought in, unless justified by access to an urban liquid milk market.
Cattle and buffalo are the source of milk, manure and draught power. Sheep and goats are used for meat and fibre. Cultivation of land and transportation of materials are done by oxen.
Terai (< 500 masl)
The Terai is also characterized by multi-ethnic settlements predominantly influenced by Hindu culture. Cattle and buffalo are the source of milk, manure and draught power. Oxen are used for transportation and land cultivation. Although chemical fertilizers have become increasingly important for the intensive cropping systems of the Terai, manure from ruminants is still the main source of nutrient replenishment and soil fertility maintenance. In many areas where massive deforestation has reduced the supply of fuelwood, dung is an important source of fuel.
Cattle, buffaloes and goats are the main grazing livestock for a farm household in the Terai. The predominant system of livestock rearing is the sedentary system and the animals make daily grazing forays from their village and return every evening. Compared with the mid-hill region, there is less grazing land and forest; therefore, more crop residues are fed and the amount of stall feeding relative to grazing is more in the Terai than in the mid hills.
Although there is a similar shortage of feed during the winter and before the onset of the monsoon, most of the productive and draught livestock are well looked after and others are maintained simply on the nutrients available from grazing.
The forages utilized in the Terai generally include: grazing on roadsides, uncultivated land, forest (near the Siwalik), on cultivated land after harvest, and on fallow land; crop residues (paddy, wheat, maize, millet, cotton, sugar cane tops, lentils); the cultivation of fodder oats, berseem, and oat and vetch mixtures have become popular with farmers in dairy pocket areas. Home-produced rice bran, wheat bran, maize, gur (farm produced evaporated sugar cane juice), broken pigeon pea, plus salt are the major feed ingredients either given alone or in combinations with the basal diets such as rice and wheat straw. Cattle are generally grazed, but also stall-fed on crop residues and forage crops. Lactating buffaloes and improved cattle i.e. Jersey and Holstein crossbreds, are given supplementary concentrates.
Female calves are reared as herd replacements while male calves are either reared for replacement draught oxen for ploughing and for pulling carts, or they are neglected, slaughtered, or sold to buyers from India. Buffaloes are also used for ploughing in the Terai, whereas they are hardly used at all for that purpose in the mid hills.
3.0 Importance of Oats
The inadequate feed supply and poor nutrition during the dry winter season (December-April) is one of the biggest constraints to the promotion of livestock development in Nepal. Although Rajbhandary and Shah (1981) reported that "livestock get the most green matter from June to September and the quality of forage available during this period could be regarded as more or less adequate", it is a different story in winter when rice straw, maize stover and other fibrous crop by-products are important foods (Gatenby et al., 1989), because the crop residues are very poor in quality.
In the hills and the Terai, during the dry winter season, animals are fed merely sub-maintenance rations and are virtually in a semi-starved condition for a period of seven months. Thus malnutrition over two thirds of the year drastically reduces the condition of the animals and adversely affects production. Therefore, there has always been a need to find a source of green forage for the dry winter (Kshatri et al., 1993).
It has already been established that oats (Avena sativa L.) and vetch (Vicia villosa var. dasycarpa)can be grown as fodder crops on all types of soils, apart from alkaline or waterlogged conditions, in all regions where wheat and barley are grown. Oats, as the most important cereal fodder crop, can also be grown in the winter season in the areas where wheat and barley are grown. In addition, oats are quick growing, palatable, succulent and nutritious and acceptable to all categories of livestock and can be fed in many forms such as green forage, silage, hay, straw and grains, including during the lean period (December to April) of the year. It has also been established that vetch can fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO,1984 as quoted by Kshatri et. al , 1993) reported that vetch could fix up to 110 kg of N/ha and could also be grown during the winter season as a forage legume.
Although testing and use of two cultivars of oats (Kent and Swan) had taken place on the various Livestock Development Farms since the 1970s, oats were first introduced to Nepalese farmers on a relatively large scale during the First and Second Livestock Development Projects from 1980 to 1994.
This introduction of oats for farmer use had two broad major objectives:
(a) to alleviate inadequate feed supply and poor animal nutrition during the dry winter, and
(b) to reduce the cost of production of animal by-products, mainly milk.
4.0 Details of Fodder Oats Introduction
Oats (Avena sativa L.) are commonly called Jai in most parts of Nepal. Fodder oats are an important animal feed for all categories of livestock and the grains are used as concentrate feed and are very much relished by horses, sheep and poultry. It is also an essential highly nutritive fodder used by dairy farmers and can be fed in any form, i.e. as green forage, silage, or hay during scarcity periods of the year. It is most widely cultivated by dairy farmers in order to feed their milking cows and buffaloes. Relatively small quantities of green forage are fed to goats, poultry and bullocks.
Oats have been under testing since the 1970s, but the two cultivars Kent and Swan were distributed to relatively large numbers of farmers only after the inception of the Second Livestock Development Project (1980-1994). The exact year of the introduction of fodder oats to Nepal is not documented, although Pande (1997) stated that oats were introduced some 48 years ago. However, during a survey conducted in Sarlahi and Rautahat districts in 1992, farmers indicated that the big landlords of the Terai region who kept elephants as a sign of their prosperity, used to cultivate oats at least more than 100 years ago. It is also believed that due to the open border with India oat seed was brought from India by these landlords and was then cultivated to feed their elephants. Although native cultivars of oats are found in different parts of the Terai and in rain shadow areas such as Mustang, little identification or evaluation work has been undertaken.
Up to the mid 1980s Swan and Kent were cultivated in most part of the country as winter fodder. In the 1980s, 22 cultivars of oats were brought from New Zealand. The Pasture and Fodder Division, started its adaptability testing under multi-locational trials particularly in Pakhribas, Lumle, Khumaltar, Tarahara, Janakpur, Ranjitpur, Nepalganj and Khumaltar. In the 1990s one cultivar of oats called Canadian was received by a volunteer from Canada and was included in different testing sites. Similarly, in the same year two cultivars from Pakistan, Swan (PAK) and PDLV G-5 (PAK) were received and put into the testing programme. Again in the 1990s some cultivars of oats, such as Bundel 851, Bundel 810, JHO 822 and JHO 810, were received from India. Details of the origin, cultivar characterization and perfomance in different testing sites of the country are presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Origin and Characteristics of Oat Cultivars
Good straw yield, early yield.
Tall , broad leaf , good quality fodder
Broad leaf, thick stem, good quality fodder
Good fodder yield in irrigated conditions.
Broad leaf, thick stem,
Canadian/ New Zealand
Tall, good straw yield
Good straw yield, good tiller number, optimum yield in low fertility soils.
Tall, good tiller number, tolerates low fertility soil, good quality fodder.
Tall, good tiller number, tolerates low fertility soil.
Early producer, better in low-mid-hills
Early producer, better in low-mid-hills
Long duration, with broad leaf and good leaf area.
Long duration, good straw yield, broad leaf with good leaf area.
Good straw yield
Tall, good straw yield
Good for low fertility soils
Good for low fertility soils
Better for irrigated conditions
Tall, early feed available,good straw yield.
NARC-1( PAK )
Tall and higher straw production.
Early : 180 to 190 DOM; Medium : 191-200 DOM and Late : > 201 DOM = Days of Maturity.
5.0 Performance Evaluation of Oat Cultivars
A detailed on-station varietal testing of different cultivars was done in Khumaltar as well as on other research stations. Agronomic characteristics, green matter yield (ton/ha), seed yield (ton/ha) were evaluated for each cultivar. These studies were carried out to document the performance of the cultivars and to fulfil the request of the Department of Livestock Services in order to prepare a suitable but productive minikit for farmers.
Plant performance is dependent on management and environmental factors. Morphological characteristics of sixteen oat cultivars tested at Khumaltar indicated that the tallest cultivars were NARC-1 (PAK), Bundel 851, PDLV G-5 (PAK) , Canadian, Swan (PAK) and Awapuni. Tiller number differed from 5 to 6 per plant and leaf number per plant was in the range of 4 to 5. Days of Maturity (DOM) ranged from 180 to 212 days. Cultivars with early days of maturity were Kent, 346/2, 323/02, Swan (PAK), and Swan (NEP); with medium days of maturity were Canadian, PDLV-G5 (PAK), and Bundel; and cultivars with late days of maturity were NARC-1 (PAK), 83INC 19 G3, CDA 1001, Awapuni, Taiko, Omihi, Charisma and Caraville (see Annex - I).
Green matter and seed yield differed with station to station, under irrigated and rainfed conditions and under different ecological conditions. The average green matter yield ranged from 10.3 tons/ha for Omihi [Annex II] to 60.9 ton/ha for 346/2 in Khumaltar, whereas in Tarahara the lowest green fodder yield was obtained from Bundel 851 (27.8 ton/ha), and from 323/02 (28 ton/ha) while the highest yielder was Kent (40 ton/ha). In Pakhribas, Lumle, Rasuwa, Nepalgunj and Parwanipur, the highest yielders respectively were Caraville (38 ton/ha), Caraville (17.9 ton/ha), Bundel 851 (17.1 ton/ha), PDLV-G5 (16.8 ton/ha) and Kent (20.9 ton/ha); see Annex - II.
In Khumaltar the highest seed yield was obtained from Swan (NEP) (3.9 ton/ha)( See Photo 1) followed by NARC-1 (PAK) (2.5 ton/ha) and Caraville (2.4 ton/ha). In Tarahara, Kent produced 3.2 ton/ha and Caraville 2.1 ton/ha. In Pakhribas the cultivars with the best seed production potential were Amuri (2.2 ton/ha) and Caraville (2.0 ton/ha). In Lumle, Rasuwa and Nepalgung the best potential seed yielders were respectively Bundel 851 (3.36 ton/ha), Awapuni (4.4 ton/ha) and Kent (2.7 ton/ha); see Annex - III.
1. Oat seed production in Khumaltar
6.0 Quality Evaluation of Oat Cultivars
Reaction of farmers to oat cultivation has been very positive; oats was liked for its green forage yield during the dry winter. Increased milk yield from feeding fresh green oat forage was reported by all the farmers who had lactating animals. This was due to its palatable, succulent and nutritious nature. In 1989/90 quality analysis of oats from eleven sites of the Koshi Hill Command Areas in Pakhribas (1020 to 1650 masl) was undertaken. Similarly, fifteen cultivars of oats were analysed in Khumaltar in 1996 (See Photo 2). In both cases CP (crude protein) content at pre-bloom stage was more than 7% (except from Awapuni, PDLV (PAK), and NARC-1 (PAK). Although CP content depends on the stage at which the plant is harvested, in most cases oats have been regarded as nutritious cereal fodder (see Annexes IV and V).
2. Data recording of different oat ultivars
7.0 How Farmers Cultivate Fodder Oats
Different methods of fodder oats cultivation are adopted by farmers; the three common ones are:
(i) Cultivation on Khetland (Irrigated land) in the Terai
Paddy is harvested in the second week of November, followed by two ploughings to thoroughly prepare the land. Rich farmers use tractors whereas substantial farmers use the Desi plough (which ploughs to a depth of 30 cm) pulled by a pair of oxen or buffaloes. 5-7 tons per hectare of Farm Yard Manure (FYM) and 100 kg urea are then broadcast. The total amount of urea is divided into the number of cuttings to be taken while all the quantity of FYM is applied as a basal dose. If four cuttings are to be taken then the 100 kg of urea is divided into four parts and 25 kg is applied as the basal dose along with FYM. The fodder oat seed rate is maintained at 100 kg per hectare and is sown (broadcast) in the fourth week of November. The first cutting is generally taken in the fourth week of December (after a month). The area to be harvested per day depends on the number of animals. When half of the area is harvested, urea is top dressed according to the size of the plot and irrigation is given. By the time the other half is harvested, the first half is ready to be harvested again. Fodder oats can be harvested up to the month of April.
(ii) Cultivation on Khetland (Irrigated land) in the Low hills
After the paddy is harvested in the third week of November, one ploughing is done by local plough (to a depth of about 23 cm)(See Photo 3) and FYM is broadcast at 5 tons per hectare. After a second ploughing to thoroughly prepare the land, 50 kg/ha of urea is applied, split into basal and other doses depending upon the number of cuttings to be taken. 120 kg/ha of oat seed is sown (broadcast in the furrows made by the local plough -See Photo 4) in the first week of December, followed by the use of a land leveller to level the land and to ensure that the seed has good soil/moisture contact. A first cutting is taken in the second week of January (50 days after sowing) (See Photo 5) and subsequent cuttings are taken at 40 day intervals. Split doses of urea and irrigation water are applied after each cut.
3. Land preparation in the Low-hills 4. Land preparation + oat sowing in the Low-hills 5. Harvest of oat and pea in the Transitional Zone
(iii) Cultivation on Bariland (Rainfed) in the Low and Mid hills
Maize is harvested in the last week of August. After that one ploughing is done to eradicate weeds and maize roots, FYM is applied at the rate of 7-10 tons/ha and a second ploughing is done to thoroughly prepare the land, to mix in the FYM and to level the land. Seed is sown (broadcast) at 120 kg per hectare in the first week of September and a spade is used to ensure good seed contact with soil and moisture. A first oat cut is generally taken in the first week of November (60 days after sowing). Subsequent cuttings are taken at 45 day intervals.
In all cases, if seed is to be harvested then no further fodder cuts are made after taking the initial cut for fodder.
8.0 Cultivation of Oats in Different Areas
As it is well established that fodder oats has the potential to produce nutritious fodder during the dry winter, the Department of Livestock Services (DLS) initiated oat cultivation in all seventy-five districts of the country through the distribution of minikits for winter fodder oats alone and in mixture with vetch (both Vicia bengalensis cv Popany and Vicia villosa var. dasycarpa cv Nemoi were used), pea (Pisum sativum) or berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), depending on their suitability for particular areas.
At the same time research focussed on resource-poor farmers and commercial dairy farming areas. There were two major farmer issues to be addressed:
(a) shortage of fodder in the dry winter period (December to April), and
(b) high cost of producing milk.
In fact, for the researchers one additional problem faced by the farmers was identified, and that was the low average fodder oat production per hectare. Kshatri et al.(1993) stated that the average fodder oat production by farmers in the eastern hills was between 18-22 ton/ha which was less than the 60 ton/ha obtained in a similar Indian context (Pathak and Jukhmola, 1983).
In the five sites of the Farming Systems Research Command areas, oat cultivars such as Amuri and JHO 822 had produced an average fodder yield of 15.5 ton/ha, and from Swan 18 ton/ha. These yields were obtained by the farmers under 80:40:20 N:P205 : K20 and a two cuttings management system.
Although it was observed that the fodder yield differs from one location to another due to environmental and management factors such as altitude, soil type, rainfall, fertilizer etc., the overall production of fodder oats on farmers fields was not satisfactory. In the Low hills, the average production was reported to be 15-20 ton/ha in three cuts and in the Terai, it was 20-25 ton/ha in three cuts.
For seed production, an average production figure(in tons/hectare) from farmers land was not known to the extension officers in order to be able to fix the area to produce the amount of seed required by the Department of Livestock Services.
8.1 Cultivation of Oats in Resource-poor Farmer Areas
In the context of Nepal, resource-poor farmers comprise that group of farmers who have less than 0.5 ha of land, have one to two milking buffaloes and for whom the main livelihood is derived from sale of milk to peri-urban areas.
Oats Production in Farming System Research Sites
Oats as a sole crop and in mixture with vetch was introduced in five resource-poor farmer sites of mid hill regions. In Pumdi Bhumadi, cultivars Amuri and JHO 822 both produced an average of 15.5 ton/ha. In Kotjhari, Kent + vetch produced 19.4 tons/ha and Swan + vetch 20.6 tons/ha. In Khandbari oats were tested at an altitude of 1,675 m and the yield observed from Swan was 18 tons/ha. At Patan Baitadi sites the Kent + vetch combination gave a yield of 28.7 tons/ha, whereas in Naldung, Swan + vetch combination gave an average yield of 20 tons/ha. All trials were done under 80:40:20 ( N: P2O5 and K20) application in Khetland and under two cuts of management (Table 4).
Table 4. Description of the sites
Parameters Khandbari Naldung Pumdi Bhundi Kotjahari Patan Baitadi Rainfall (Average/Year) 1200 mm NA 4000 mm 1390 mm 1559 mm Temperature (Average/Year) 8° - 34° C NA 8° - 20° C NA NA Farming Situation Lowland partially irrigated Lowland partially irrigated Completely Rainfed Lowland fully irrigated Lowland fully irrigated Villages Covered Mankamasna Pangma Malta Chisapani Baluwapata Gairigaun Mesogaun Pumdi Bhundi Kotgaun Kumaigaun Khatrigaun
Pumdi Bhundi Dominant Cropping Pattern R-W-F
R-W- Mustard Maize -W
R= Rice, W= Wheat, F= Fallow, NA = Not Available [information was not found]
Oats Production in Leasehold Group Sites
A new system of management
In leasehold farmers group sites in both the low and transitional belts, one ploughing with local plough was done after paddy harvest. FYM at the rate of 5 ton/ha was broadcast uniformly and another ploughing done. 80:60:40 kg ( N: P2O5 and K20)was the recommended dose of fertilizer, where N was used in three split doses, applied after each cut under irrigated conditions, otherwise it was applied as one basal dose under rainfed conditions (with the chemical fertilizer applied in the furrows, covered with a thin soil layer and immediately seed was sown on the same line and smoothly covered with soil). After sowing, a land leveller was used to ensure good seed contact with soil and moisture. Where oats were sown in mixtures with vetch and peas then these were first inoculated (See Photos 6, 7 and 8). The first cutting was taken after 45-50 days and subsequent cuttings after 30 days.
8. Oat + pea field in low hills of Nepal 7. Oat production field in the Low hills 8. Oat and vetch cultivation in the Low hills
In the low belt of all leasehold districts, relatively larger amounts of green fodder were obtained from the oats and legume mixture combination than from the sole crop of either oats or legume. During 1996-1998 at low altitudes the average production of oat + vetch, oat + pea, and oat was 31, 27 and 25 tons/ha respectively, however a tremendous increase in yield was found during 1999-2001, due to better management by the farmers and the realization of the contribution it could make to milk yields (Table 5). Comparing the two methods i.e. recommended (fertilizer) and the original farmers' practice (non-fertilizer use), the recommended method gave more than twice the yield in both low hills as well as in the transitional belt. Detailed information is given in Annexes VI and VII.
In Makawanpur, the highest yield was obtained from oats+vetch; in Kavre from oats + berseem; in Sindhuplanchowk from berseem; in Ramechap from oats+peas and in Dhading it was oats+berseem. Under farmers practice of manure application (control) the treatments which gave highest yields were: oats+vetch, oats + vetch, berseem, oats+vetch and oats + vetch in Makawanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchowk, Ramechap and Dhading respectively. This suggests that at low rates of manure applicaton, the oats + vetch combination performed best (Table 6 ). Detailed information is given in Annex VIII.
Table 5. Average green matter yields (tons/ha) for various crop combinations (fertilized and unfertilized) in Makwanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchok and Ramechap (1996-1998) and in Makwanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchok, Ramechap and Dhading (1999-2001) in the Low Belt (400-1200 masl).
Treatments Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Oats + vetch 31 41 42 50 25 34 Oats + pea 27 41 32 48 24 36 Oats 25 31 29 39 21 24 Oats + Berseem - 40 - 51 - 30 Berseem - 33 - 49 - 18
Treatments Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Oats + vetch 14 26 18 38 10 15 Oats + pea 13 22 16 34 8 16 Oats 12 18 14 25 9 13 Oats + Berseem - 22 - 30 - 14 Berseem - 19 - 30 - 13
In the transitional belt(See Photos 9 and 10) under the recommended practice of manure and fertilizer application, oats + vetch, oats + vetch, oats + vetch, oats and oats were the highest yielders in Makawanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchowk, Ramechap and Dhading sites respectively. However, under the control practice of manure application, the treatments oats + vetch, oats + pea, oats + vetch, oats and oats were the highest yielders in Makawanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchowk, Ramechap and Dhading districts respectively (Table 6). Detailed information is given in Annex IX.
9.Oat cultivation in the Transitional Zone 10.Oat harvest in the Transitional Zone
Table 6. Average green matter yields (tons/ha) for various crop combinations (fertilized and unfertilized) in Makwanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchok and Ramechap (1996-1998) and in Makwanpur, Kavre, Sindhupalchok, Ramechap and Dhading (1999-2001) in the Transitional Belt (1200-1800 masl) .
Treatments Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Oats + vetch 18 31 22 45 14 23 Oats + pea 14 29 19 39 9 22 Oats 16 29 26 43 9 22
Treatments Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Oats + vetch 10 17 14 21 5 12 Oats + pea 8 17 10 22 6 11 Oats 8 17 12 21 5 11
Oat Seed Production in Leasehold Group Sites
In order to make seed available at sowing time to the farmers and also to generate sales and income for farmers, seed production activities were conducted with the leasehold farmers. During 1996/1998, the highest average seed yield was obtained from the location of Ramechap (Annex X). In Kavre and Sindhupalchok districts, all three treatments produced a consistent level of seed, however, in Makawanpur, oat as a sole crop produced as high as 3.6 tons/ha of seed. In Ramechap, oats + vetch combinations gave 2.6 tons/ha of oat seed.
During the 1999-2001 period, 5 districts both in the low altitude belt (400-1200 m) and the transitional belt (1201-1800 m) were selected for seed production, from oat, vetch, pea and berseem (low altitude belt) and oat, vetch and pea in the transitional belt. The range of oat seed yield was 1.82 to 5.3 tons/ha, for vetch: 0.12 to 1.1 tons/ha, for pea: 0.02 to 0.5 tons/ha. in the transitional belt; in the low belt the highest yields were for oats: 3.7 tons/ha, vetch: 1.1 tons/ha, pea: up to 0.7 tons/ha and berseem: 1.1 tons/ha (see Annexes XI and XII).
8.2 Cultivation of Oats in Commercial Dairy Pocket Areas
In order to upgrade the feed situation in dairy pocket areas, a continuous programme of dairy farmer oriented research was conducted in six districts of Nepal. During 1996-1998, dairy pocket areas selected for integrated research were in Rupandehi, Kaski and Illam districts, whereas from 1999-2001 areas were in Kavre, Dhading and Rautahat districts.
Two projects (one involving the testing of eight promising oat cultivars and the other oats in mixtures with vetch (Vicia dasycarpa) and pea (Pisum sativum) were undertaken from 1996 to 1998 in Rupendehi (500-600 masl), Kaski (800-850 masl) and Illam (1500-1550 masl) and during 1999 to 2001 in Kavre (890-1020 masl), Dhading (810-840 masl) and Rautahat (500-550 masl).
Under the recommended method [i.e: FYM 5 ton + N:P2O5: and K2O at 80:60:40 kg/ha] all eight cultivars yielded more than under the normal farmers practice [Farmers practice: FYM @ 5 ton/ha]. Similarly, although environmental and management factors play a major role in fodder production, higher yields were obtained in subsequent years (Tables 7 and 8). The comparison of performance of oat cultivars under recommended and normal farmer practice methods of cultivation is shown in Annexes XIII and XIV.
Table 7. Average green matter yield (ton/ha) in Dairy Pocket Areas of Rupendhi, Kaski, and Illam (1996-1998) and Kavre, Dhading and Rautahat (1999-2001).
Fertilizer ( recommended method: FYM 5 ton + N:P2O5: and K2O at 80:60:40 kg/ha)
Treatments (cultivars) Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Caraville 27 69 29 93 24 53 83 INC 19 G3 26 59 27 78 24 42 Canadian 26 68 27 91 25 51 Awapuni 26 61 29 70 19 48 Charisma 24 60 33 83 22 47 Taiko 27 59 29 75 19 50 Kent 27 60 29 65 24 55 Swan 26 58 30 71 22 48
Non-fertilizer ( Farmers practice: FYM @ 5 ton/ha)
Treatments (cultivars) Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Caraville 19 41 23 52 15 31 83 INC 19 G3 19 39 25 46 15 26 Canadian 19 48 21 64 14 39 Awapuni 17 35 24 39 14 32 Charisma 18 41 21 49 14 34 Taiko 21 39 27 46 17 30 Kent 20 38 27 39 15 34 Swan 19 39 24 45 14 31
Table 8. Average Green Matter Yield ( ton/ha) in Dairy Pocket Areas of Rupendehi, Kaski, Illam (1996-1998) and Kavre, Dhading and Rautahat (1999-2001).
Fertilizer ( recommended method : FYM 5 ton + N:P205:K20 @ 80:60:40 kg/ ha in oats, and in mixture FYM 5 ton + N:P205:K20@ 20:60:40 kg /ha)
Treatments Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Oat + vetch 36 52 41 68 35 49 Oat + pea 33 45 40 48 25 40 Oat 27 46 35 51 23 41
Non- fertilizer ( Farmers practice: FYM @ 5 ton/ha)
Treatments Average Maximum Minimum 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 1996-1998 1999-2001 Oat + vetch 24 36 29 38 20 28 Oat + pea 21 38 24 40 20 27 Oat 19 35 25 31 16 23
The results obtained in farmers fields over the six year period (1996-2001) indicated that the growing of oats as a sole crop was not profitable for fodder production or for enhancing the nutritional status of the soil. At all sites in the six districts, the oats + vetch combination was outstanding in terms of green fodder production under both management practices. For more detailed information see Annexes XV and XVI.
Since the inception of the first and second livestock development projects the popularity of oats cultivation has very substantially increased. Oats cultivation has also been boosted with the major thrust given by HMG to milk production. With the increase of irrigation projects, the formation of dairy development enterprises/co-operatives at village level by the Department of Livestock Services (DLS), National Dairy Development Corporation (NDDC) and with the creation of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) there has been increased emphasis on improved milk breeds and an intensification of oats cultivation. More and more wheat cultivation areas have been converted into oats, oats + vetch and berseem cultivation and according to the Department of Livestock Services, the cultivation of oats, vetch and berseem have been considerably increased. Pande (1997) stated that before the 1980s fodder cultivation was confined to an area of 36 ha of cultivated land. Because of its economical impact on the milk industry, particularly in the Terai and low hills, some 2000 ha of cultivated land were under winter fodder crop cultivation in the 1990s.
The Livestock Master Plan (1993) stated that oats and berseem were estimated to be grown on about 4,400 ha in the Terai and Mid-hills, although the accuracy of this estimate is questionable. Therefore, the Deparment of Livestock (DLS) was requested in 2001 to give the present status of land under oat cultivation and information are summarized in Table 9. Data are included from five Development Regions for oats, vetch and berseem seed distribution. The seed distribution was undertaken by the District Livestock Development Offices and the areas growing oats + vetch and berseem estimated. The total cultivated area in the country is 3,052,00 ha of which 0.08% of the area is under winter fodder cultivation. Oats and vetch cultivation occupies 0.07% (2,172 ha) of the area of the total cultivated land (Table 9). However, seed distribution from farmer to farmer is not included to this estimation, therefore the actual areas cultivated could be larger than those indicated in Table 9 and could be in excess of 3,500 ha.
Table 9. Annual Area Coverage by Oats + Vetch and Berseem Cultivation in Nepal, 2001.
Oat seed (kg)
Vetch seed (kg)
Area coverage (ha)
No.of house holds
Berseem seed kg
Area coverage (ha)
No.of house holds
Eastern Development Regions
Central Development Regions
Western Development Regions
Mid-Western Development Regions
Far-Western Development Regions
Source : DLS, 2001.
[Note:There are five development regions in Nepal. There is one Regional Directorate of Livestock in each region. Information about the demand for seed, animals and others for the whole region is collected by the regional office for different Districts under them. Based on the demand the regional office procures seed from Central, Regional and Districts. Then seed or animals are distributed to the clients. The above table indicates that seed flow is largest in the Western Development Regions and the Central Development Regions of the country].
Seed rate for oats+ vetch: 100 kg/ha; area coverage for each household @ 0.05 ha.
Seed rate for berseem: 25 kg/ha; area coverage for each household @ 0.1 ha.
The other important aspect of oats cultivation is its multi-cut nature, green fodder availability in winter (Dec-April) and its direct impact on maintenance of milk production during the winter season. Feeding trials conducted to see the effect of oat feeding on milk yield have indicated that considerable increases in milk yields could be obtained by feeding 6-8 kg of green oats per day per milking buffalo. The daily average increment of milk yield ranged between 0.3 to 0.45 litres per day in the command area of Lumle.
A case study was done in Kavre which revealed that using oats + vetch mixtures the milk production increased by 30 litres per animal (buffalo) per month on average. At the same time the demand for purchasing concentrates was reduced by 30 kg per month and milk production was extended by an extra eight weeks. This resulted in an additional net profit of 1538 Rupees per month (USD 22) under conditions where on average, the total cash income of families was USD 264 (over a 4 month period).
Proper utilization of fallow land is the other important impact as after paddy harvest, some of the cultivated land used to remain fallow for the winter season, but now these lands are being utilized for the cultivation of oat fodder. There are therefore strong economic reasons why the area under winter fodder production has increased every year.
10.0 Further Work Needed
Cultivars for higher altitudes (3000-3800 m)
Fodder oat cultivation practices are being adopted in Nepal in areas up to around 2,000 masl (e.g. Khimti at 1994 m), however, its cultivation on a larger scale is mainly in the commercial dairy pocket areas and resource-poor farmer areas of the Terai region and low hills up to 1600 masl. However, research on oat cultivation has started on areas up to 3250 m altitude in Chandanbari sub-centre of the Agriculture Research Station, Dhunche (1950 masl). There is a need to introduce better cultivars for the high hills for hay making and off-season fodder production.
At present in Nepal a total of twenty oat cultivars are in use. All of them are multi-cut and have become naturalized. Breeding has not, so far, been done for better and higher fodder yielding cultivars. Cultivars are identified and selected on the basis of their performance in multi-location sites, therefore, new germplasm capable of giving high yields and good quality forage is required for testing. There are some native fodder oats varieties found in different parts of the country (Terai, Mustang, Rasuwa, etc) which should be selected, evaluated and conserved (so that native germplasm is not overlooked). New cultivars are also needed for testing in different ecozones of the country, with the main requirement that the cultivars should need only minimum inputs for optimum production!
Oats for Summer Cultivation
Personal experiences have shown that oats can also be cultivated for green fodder as well as for seed, also in summer in Dhunche, Rasuwa (1950 m). In high altitude areas of about 3500-3800 m, the aim would be to cultivate oats as a summer fodder for hay production, to feed the ruminants in winter. Therefore, cultivation of oats in summer in particular sites/locations for particular use and to address a particular farming system needs to be done, with some specific oat cultivars. Past experience has shown that up to 1950 m oat cultivation in summer is affected by weed infestation, but above this altitude further research is needed.
Green Oats + Straw Ratio
The common practice of feeding green oats differs between the two main groups of farmers: resource-poor farmers cultivate oats in small areas (250 m2) whereas commercial dairy farmers cultivate oats in larger areas (1500 m2). The area coverage for oats cultivation differs with the flock of animals and market opportunities. Resource-poor farmers feed fresh green oats(See Photo 11) to their animals along with paddy and wheat straw; commercial farmers feed oats to their animals after chopping it into small pieces with paddy (See Photo 12) and wheat straw. Therefore, further work is needed to find out the economical ratio for green oats and paddy/wheat straw mixtures in order to reduce the concentrate feed cost and to increase milk production.
11. Feeding green fodder oats 12. Chopping straw and oats for feeding
Proper Utilization of Oat Grain
In some parts of Nepal (Illam) oat grain is fed to milking cows after boiling the grains. Although it is found to be very useful for increasing milk yields, the processing of oats seed for human consumption would be more important for feeding the poor and for increasing food security.
- Oats extract more soil nutrients than are presently being applied by resource-poor farmers (5 tons FYM/ha) and the growing of oats in winter has tended to hamper the production of the following cereal or other food crops (e.g. potatoes etc.);
- Most of the fodder oats are grown during the winter reason and oats are fed green by the cut and carry system. Utilization as hay and silage is very rarely practiced.There is a need to introduce early, medium and late type fodder oat cultivars and to perform evaluation work in high altitude areas.
Annual Report. 1996-2001. Pasture and Fodder Research Division, NARC, Khumaltar. Nepal.
Annual Report. 1996-2001. Pasture and Fodder Research Division, Hills Leasehold. Nepal.
CBS, 1993. National Sample Census Agriculture Nepal. Central Bureau of Statistics, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu.
DFAMS, 1992. Handbook of Agricultural Statistics, Nepal. His Majesty's Government of Nepal. Ministry of Agriculture, Kathmandu.
DLS, 2001. Distribution and area coverage by major winter fodder species in five development regions; Workshop on forage seed, Department of Livestock Services, March -12, 2001, Harihar Bhawan, Kathmandu.
FAO, 1992. Government Co-operative Programme . Plan of operations. Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project (GCP/NEP/049/NET), Kathmandu, Nepal.
Gatenby, R.M, Neopane, S.P and Chemjong, P.B.1989. Traditional Feeding Practices for Buffaloes in the Koshi Hliis. PAC Technical Paper 99.
HLFFDP. 1996. Agrisilvi-pastoral approach to poverty alleviation and rehabilitation of degraded land, strategies, policies and procedures. Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project. Working Paper 19, Kathmandu, Nepal.
HLFFDP. 1996-2001. Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project Progress Report. Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project, Kathmandu, Nepal.
HMGN/ADB/FINNIDA, 1988. Master Plan for the Forestry sector, Nepal. 1. HMGN/ADB/FINNIDA.
Kshatri, B.B, P.B. Chejong & P.P. Rai, 1993 . Preliminary Result of a Study of Winter Forage (oats and combination of oats and vetch) in the Koshi Hills of Nepal, Working Paper no. 62, Pakhribas Agriculture Centre.
LAC 1991. Prabadi Sangalo No. 1-4, Lumle Agriculture Centre.
LMP.1993. Livestock Master Plan, ANZDEC Limited/APROSC, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Mandal, P. 1998. Studies on Green Forage Production of Ten Cultivar of Oats. Regional Agriculture Research Station, Tarahara
Neopane, S.P. & N.P. Shrestha. 1990. Cultiviation of Four Different Varieties of Oats, Veterinary Review Number 5, Pakhribas Agriculture Centre.
Pande, R.S. 1997. Fodder and Pasture Development in Nepal. Udaya Research and Development Services (P.) Ltd. Kathmandu, Nepal.
Pariyar, D. 1992. Agroforestry System in Nepal. Seminar on Regenerative Agriculture 21-23 September, Pokhara, 1992.
Pariyar, D. 1993. Existing Feed Situation in Different Regions of Nepal and Strategies Developed to Increase Feed Production. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Grassland Resources. August 15-20, 1993, Huahot, China.
Pariyar, D. 2000. A Case study: Oat + Vetch Utilization for Milk Production. Proceedings of the Third National Animal Science Convention, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Pariyar, D., Munakarmi, P. B., Shrestha, K. K., & C.K. Mishra. 1999. Performance of fodder species and their mixture in dairy pocket areas of Illam, Kaski and Rupendehi. Proceedings of the Third National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal. Khumaltar, Nepal.
Pariyar, D., Munankarmi, P.B., Shrestha, K.K. & C.K. Mishra. 1996. Assessment of Winter Fodder and their Mixture in Dairy Pocket Areas. Proceedings of Second National Workshop on Livestock and Fisheries Research in Nepal.
Pathak, N. N. and R.C. Jakhmola. 1983. List of Forage and Livestock Production. Bikash Publishing House, Gazziabad, U.P, India.
Rajbhandary, H. B. and S.G. Shah. 1981. Trends and Projections of Livestock Production in the Hills of Nepal. MOA/ADC, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Tamrakar, N.L. & D.N. Tiwari. 1997. Study on Productivity of Different Cultivar of Oats at RARS Nepalgung. Regional Agriculture Reserch Station, Nepalgung.
Tiwari, D.N. 1998. Effect of Sowing Dates on Biomass & Seed Production of Oats Cultivars under Rainfed Condition. Regional Agriculture Reserch Station, Nepalgung.
Annex I. Agronomic Characteristics of Oat Cultivars During 1996 in Khumaltar
S.N. Cultivars Plant Height (cm) Tiller No/Plant Leaf No/Plant. Leaf Length ( cm ) Leaf breadth ( cm ) DOM Seed Yield ton/ha Straw Yield ton/ha Maturity type 1 NARC 1(PAK) 123 5 5 29.0 2.58 208 2.5 15.2 Late 2 83 INC 19G3 89 6 5 27.9 2.75 210 1.9 8.9 Late 3 CDA 1001 73 4 5 36.9 2.93 212 1.58 9.3 Late 4 Awapuni 107 .6 5 24.33 2.15 207 0.97 9.3 Late 5 Kent 81 5 4 21.05 1.37 188 1.7 12.4 Early 6 346/2 74 6 4 23.09 1.2 188 2.0 6.8 Early 7 323/02 96 6 5 28.22 2.08 188 1.1 15.3 Early 8 Swan (PAK) 114 4 4 28.55 2.17 189 1.3 13.0 Early 9 Canadian 107 5 4 25.4 2.25 197 1.0 11.4 Medium 10 PDLV G5 (PAK) 109 5 4 28.7 2.28 191 1.5 11.8 Medium 11 Swan (NEP) 82 5 4 22.65 1.24 180 3.9 6.0 Early 12 Taiko 104 6 5 30.0 2.03 206 1.5 11.8 Late 13 Omihi 78 5 5 33.0 2.38 215 1.28 13.77 Late 14 Charisma 78 6 5 27.97 2.13 210 1.8 11.8 Late 15 Bundel 109 6 5 27.7 1.87 198 1.7 8.6 Medium 16 Caraville 82 6 5 26.9 2.22 208 2.4 12.6 Late Av. 94 5 5 27.59 2.10 199 1.74 10.01
DOM : Days of Maturity. Fertilizer : N:P205:K20 @80:60:40 + 5 ton FYM per hectare. Irrigation: 2 [S.N. = Serial Number)
Annex II. Green Matter Yield in ton/ha During 1997
S.N. Cultivar Khumalar Tarahara Pakhribas Lumle Rasuwa Nepalganj Parwanipur 1 Kent 36 40 27.42 13.8 13.81 6.3 20.90 2 Swan 32 36 32.65 14.3 13.81 - 19.92 3 Amuri 34.7 - 29.49 - - - - 4 Caraville 45.7 38 38 17.9 8.25 - 15.35 5 Taiko 51.0 - - 17.2 9.88 - - 6 Omihi 10.3 35.8 - - 10.85 7.8 17.20 7 346/2 60.9 29.5 - 12.7 13.42 7.5 20.0 8 Charisma 46.0 - - 15.3 10.59 13.7 - 9 Swan (PAK) - - - - 10.87 10.8 - 10 PDLV-G5 (PAK) - - - - 13.37 16.8 18.30 11 Bundel 851 - 27.8 - - 17.10 13.8 20.0 12 83INC 19G3 48.5 - 24.47 15.7 14.94 - - 13 323/02 59.0 28.0 - - 13.38 5.2 20.0 14 Awapuni 16.8 - 32.45 16.4 15.75 - - 15 CDA 1001 19.9 30.2 27.48 - 13.76 - - 16 Canadian - 32 - - 8.32 5.5 20.90 17 NARC1 (PAK) - 35.3 - - 6.87 9.9 17.20 18 JHO 810 - - 28.46 - - - - 19 JHO 822 - - 24.51 - - - -
Fertilizer : 80:60:40 NPK + 5 ton FYM per hectare. Irrigation: 2, Number of cuts: 2,
Mandal, P.1998. Neopane and Shrestha, 1990. LAC, 1991. Tamrakar and Tiwari, 1997. Tiwari, D.N.1998. Annual Report, PFRD, 1996-2001.
Annex III. Seed Yield in ton/ha during 1997
S.N. Cultivar Khumalar Tarahara Pakhribas Lumle Rasuwa Nepalganj 1 Kent 1.7 3.2 1.4 2.56 2.2 2.7 2 Swan 3.9 1.8 1.9 2.43 4.5 1.3 3 Amuri 1.8 1.7 2.2 3.10 - - 4 Caraville 2.4 2.1 2.0 2.97 2.5 - 5 Taiko 1.5 - - 3.29 2.1 2.4 6 Omihi 1.3 - - 2.97 2.4 - 7 346/2 2.0 - - - 2.1 2.1 8 Charisma 1.8 - - - 2.7 2.6 9 Swan (PAK) 1.3 - - 2.83 2.0 - 10 PDLV-G5 (PAK) 1.5 - - - 2.0 2.6 11 Bundel 851 1.7 - - 3.36 3.3 - 12 83INC 19G3 1.9 - - - 3.0 - 13 323/02 1.1 - - - 2.3 - 14 Awapuni 0.9 - - - 4.4 - 15 CDA 1001 1.4 - - - 4.1 - 16 Canadian 1.0 - - - 2.5 - 17 NARC1 (PAK) 2.5 - - - 2.7 -
Fertilizer : N:P205:K20 @ 80:60:40 + 5 ton FYM per hectare. Irrigation -2, Number of cuts : 0.
Source :- Mandal, P.1998. Neopane and Shrestha, 1990. LAC, 1991. Tamrakar and Tiwari, 1997. Tiwari, D.N., 1998. Annual Report, PFRD, 1996-2001.
Annex IV . Proximate analysis of green forage (Percent dry matter basis)
S.N. Cultivar %DM %CP %EE %CF %NFE %TA 1 Kent 24.9 7.7 5.1 22.5 55.5 9.2 2 Swan (NEP) 31.4 8.3 4.2 26.4 51.8 9.3 3 323/02 31.9 8.4 4.2 24.6 53.4 9.4 4 346/2 27.5 8.4 4.5 23.3 54.5 9.3 5 Canadian 29.1 6.4 3.3 22.4 58.5 9.4 6 Charisma 25.2 8.6 3.8 22.2 56.0 9.4 7 Caraville 31.4 8.1 3.9 17.2 61.7 9.1 8 Awapuni 24.3 6.7 5.7 20.6 57.8 9.2 9 83INC 19G3 21.7 12.5 3.6 21.6 53.5 8.8 10 Taiko 24.3 12.9 6.2 19.5 52.4 8.9 11 Bundel 851 23.0 10.4 4.0 20.1 56.1 9.4 12 Omihi 22.1 8.5 4.4 20.4 57.6 9.1 13 CDA 1001 23.1 7.4 4.6 20.8 57.9 9.3 14 PDLV (PAK) 26.0 6.4 3.2 25.1 55.9 9.4 15 NARC-1 (PAK) 25.3 6.8 3.7 25.2 55.9 9.3 Average 24.42 7.99 3.95 20.63 52.21 8.62
Fertilizer : N:P205:K20 @ 80:60:40 + 5 ton FYM per hectare. Irrigation - 2, Stage of plant : Pre-bloom .
Proximate analysis was carried out at Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Khumaltar (1996).
Annex V. Proximate analysis of green forage (Percent dry matter basis)
S.N. Cultivar %DM %CP %EE %CF %NFE %TA 1 Kent 21.68 20.91 2.57 19.11 43.72 12.43 2 Swan (NEP) 22.15 19.38 2.54 18.68 45.61 13.75
Proximate analysis was carried out at Veterinary Investigation and Analytical services Section (VIASS), PAC (1989/90).
Annex VI. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Low Belt (400-1200 M), during 1996-1998
Annex VII. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Low Belt During 1999-2001
Annex VIII. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Transitional Belt (1201-1800 m), During 1996-1998
Annex IX. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Transitional Belt during 1999-2001
Annex X. Seed Production (ton/ha) in Low Belt (1996-1998)
Annex XI. Seed Production (ton/ha) in Low Belt (1999-2001)
Annex XII. Seed Production (ton/ha) in Transitional Belt (1999-2001)
Source - Annual Report, HLFFDP/PFRD, 1996-2001.
Annex XIII. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Commercial Dairy Pocket Areas (1996-1998)
Rupendehi (500- 600 m)
Kaski (800-850 m )
Illam (1500-1550 m)
83 INC 19 G3
Annex XIV. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Commercial Dairy Pocket Areas (1999-2001)
83 INC 19 G3
Source - Annual Report, PFRD.1996-2001., Pariyar, D.1993., Pariyar, D. 2000, Pariyar et al., 1999. Pariyar et al.,1996.
Annex XV. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Commercial Dairy Pocket Areas (1996-1998)
Fertilized N Fertilized Fertilized N Fertilized Fertilized N Fertilized Oats +Veatch
Annex XVI. Production of Green Matter (ton/ha) in Commercial Dairy Pocket Areas (1999-2001)
Fertilized N Fertilized Fertilized N Fertilized Fertilized N Fertilized Oats +Veatch
Source-Annual Report ,FRD.1996-2001., Pariyar, D.1993., Pariyar, D. 2000, Pariyar et al., 1999. Pariyar, D. et al.,1996.