Table of Contents

0.0 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION, DO I WANT TO BE A DAIRY PRODUCER?

2.0 TAKING CARE OF DAIRY CATTLE

3.0 CALVING TIME

3.1 Whether or not to Expect Calving Trouble

3.2 Signs of a Cow which is Calving Soon

3.3 What to Do at Calving Time

3.4 What to Do in Assisting a Calving Cow

4.0 AFTER THE CALF IS BORN

4.1 Weaning

4.2 Calf feeding

5.0 MILKING THE DAIRY COW

5.1 Milk Let-down

5.2 Udder preparation, Washing and Milking

5.3 Boiling and Storing tlie Milk

6.0 BREEDING THE DAIRY COW

6.1 Selecting the Cow

6.2 Selecting the Bull

6.3 Organising the Mating

6.4 Signs of Oestrus

7.0 SELECTING BREEDERS

7.1 Selecting a Breeding Bull

7.2 Selecting the best Replacement Heifers

8.0 ACHIEVING THE BEST BREEDING EFFICIENCY

9.0 IMPORTANT FARM TECHNIQUES AND MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES

9.1 Castration

9.2 Dehoming Calves

9.3 Cattle Identification

9.4 Training Heifers to the Milking Bail

10.0 DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION

10.1 Foot Lameness

10.2 Calf Diarrhoea (Scours)

10.3 Calf Pneumonia

10.4 Intemal Parasites

10.5 Mastitis

11.0 PASTURES FOR DAIRY PRODUCTION

11.1 Areas Suited to Dairy Production

11.2 Choice of Pasture Varieties

11.3 Grasses for Drought Prone Areas

11.4 Legumes for Dairy Pastures

11.5 Shrub Legumes

12.0 DAIRY FARM MANAGEMENT

12.1 Identifying Problems and Constraints

12.2 Pasture Management for Dairy Farmers

12.3 The use of Fertilizer

13.0 WEED CONTROL

13.1 Weed Control in Pastures

13.2 Some Common Weeds of Established Pastures and Their Control

14.0 ALTERNATIVES TO FENCED GRAZING SYSTEMS

14.1 Concentrate Feeds

14.2 Mineral Supplements

14.3 Crop Residues and Industrial By-products

14.4 Cut and Carry

14.5 Tethering

14.6 Water Requirements of Cattle

14.7 The Effect of Heat

15.0 A FEW FACTS ABOUT HIGH PRODUCING DAIRY COWS

15.1 Feed Conversion

15.2 Body Condition Scoring

16.0 FINANCIAL ASSESSMENT OF SMALLHOLDER DAIRY FARMING

16.1 A Gross Margin for a Small Dairy Farm

16.2 Beef Production on the Same Farm

16.3 Analysis of Returns

17.0 SUPPLEMENTARY FEEDING

17.1 General Principles

17.2 How do Cows use Feed through their Digestive systems?

18.0 FEED QUALITY

18.1 The Physical Characteristics of Forage

18.2 Chemical Composition of Feedstuffs

19.0 FEED UTILIZATION

19.1 Maintenance

19.2 Growth

19.3 Milk Production

19.4 Reproduction

19.5 Pregnancy

19.6 Weight gain

20.0 FEED REQUIREMENTS FOR DAIRY COWS

20.1 Energy

20.2 Protein

20.3 Minerals and Vitamins

20.4 Nutritional Requirements

21.0 BETTER UTILIZATION OF LOCALLY AVAILABLE FEED RESOURCES

21.1 What Local Supplements are Available and how to use them?

22.0 SILAGE MAKING FROM LOCAL CROP RESIDUES

AND BY-PRODUCTS

22.1 Why Make Silage?

22.2 How to Succeed in Silage Making?

22.3 How Make Silage?

22.4 Practical Examples of Successfiil Silage Combinations

23.0 MANUFACTURE AND UTILIZATION OF MULTINUTRITIONAL FEEDBLOCKS

23.1 What are Feed Blocks and their Main Effects on Animals?

23.2 What are the Ingredients in the Formula of Blocks

23.3 How to Make Feedblocks

23.4 How to use Feedblocks

24.0 THE ECONOMIC AND NUTRITIONAL BENEFITS OF FEEDBLOCKS,AS COMPARED TO MULTIMINERAL SALT BLOCKS

24.1 Feedblocks are Simple to Make Locally and at Low Cost

24.2 Feedblocks are More Advantageously Nutritional than Saltblocks

25.0 SOME PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF FEEDING DAIRY COWS

25.1 Which are the Priorities for Feeding Dairy Cows?

25.2 How can Farmers Formulate Rations for Their Own Dairy Cows?

25.3 Some Practical Examples of Dairy Cow Rations

25.4 Are there Other Points to be Outlined on Dairy Cow feeding?