Mulberry Germplasm and Cultivation in Brazil

J. E. de Almeida and Tamara Canto Fonseca

Instituto de Zootecnia, São Paolo, Brazil


1. Introduction

Mulberry (Morus sp.), originally from Asia, was introduced in Brazil during the colonial times. Nowadays, Mulberry is widely known, frequent in orchards, recreational rural households and gardens. Its fruits are very well appreciated for direct consumption and for making marmalades. However, commercial mulberry cultivation occurs only in regions where it is associated with sericulture.

According with the latest statistics, the mulberry area in Brazil covers approximately 38 thousand hectares (Table 1 and Figure 1), state of Paraná being the largest concentration of that area with 32.4 thousand hectares (Table 2 and Figure 2) followed by western portion of state of São Paulo, with 4.6 thousand ha (Table 3 and Figure 3) and by smaller areas in states of Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais and Santa Catarina.
 
 
 
Almei101.gif (35715 bytes)
Table 1. Areas with mulberry. (Abrasseda, 1998)
State
Mulberry area (ha)
Goiás (GO)
24
Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)
459
Minas Gerais (MG)
77
Paraná (PR)
32,428
Santa Catarina (SC)
114
São Paulo (SP)
4,645
Figure 1. Map of Brazil
Total
38,076

 

Table 2. Areas with mulberry in Paraná State, (EMATER, 1998)
 
Counties
Area (ha)
Almei102.gif (29530 bytes)
Apucarana
610,00
Campo Mourão
1243,76
Cascavel
1929,52
Cornélio Procópio
90,59
Curitiba
151,01
Francisco Beltrão
662,38
Guarapuava
213,68
Irati
1,16
Ivaiporã
2240,59
Londrina
630,44
Maringá
8775,97
Paranavai
4600,93
Pato Branco
501,72
Ponta Grossa
414,69
Santo Antônio Da Platina
1970,38
Toledo
762,87
Umuarama
7625,96
Total
32425,76
Figure 2. Map of Paraná State

 

Table 3. Area with mulberry in São Paolo State (ABRASSEDA, 1998)
 
Regional agricultural divisions
Area
(ha)
Almei103.gif (14978 bytes)
Andradina
243,04
Araçatuba 
26,88
Araraquara
66,51
Assis
125,89
Avaré
21,28
Bauru
554,13
Catanduva
78,40
Dracena
236,32
General Salgado
446,68
Itapetininga
5,15
Itapeva
41,89
Jaboticabal
2,24
Jales
35,84
Jaú
43,30
Limeira
18,37
Lins
898,80
Marília
318,86
Ourinhos
161,62
Piracicaba
15,68
Presidente Prudente
221,85
Presidente Venceslau
49,05
São João da Boa Vista
34,99
São José do Rio Preto
193,76
Tupã
775,04
Votuporânga
29,68
   
Estado de São Paulo
4645,25
Figure 3. Map of São Paulo State

 

It must be highlighted that all production of these areas is for the silkworm, and no surplus is available for other uses. Plant management includes frequent pruning which prevents plants from blossoming and fruit development, thus, plant sex is irrelevant.

According Fonseca and Fonseca (1986), the first attempt to commercially cultivate mulberry occurred in the Rio de Janeiro State, as initiative of the Emperor D. Pedro II, in the middle of 19th century. After a period of decadence, it was resumed only in 1923, in the eastern parts of São Paulo State following the Italian immigration. Later eastern São Paulo showed a decline in sericulture and western São Paulo flourished, coinciding with Japanese immigration. Nowadays. sericulture is concentrated in the northern part of Paraná State.

The causes that determined the movements of mulberry cultivation are not clear, but they must be related to various factors such as: the low income condition prevailing among rural population who sees sericulture as secure source for income generation; with the appearance of other economic alternatives; and with soil exhaustion, production and profitability decline, resulting in sericulture opening space to other activities with more intensive in capital requirements.
 
 

2. Improved Varieties and Clones

In Brazil, the totality of cultivated mulberry varieties appear to belong to Morus alba. In São Paulo State, there is an active germoplasm bank (BAG) at the Estação Experimental de Zootecnia (Livestock Experimental Station) in Gália county; one collections at the University of São Paulo state (UNESP) in Jaboticabal county; one in a spinning mill (under the trade name of Fiações de Seda Bratac), in Bastos county; and one at the Agronomic Institute of Paraná (IAPAR), in Londrina.

The Estação Experimental de Zootecnia has sericulture research as mandate and its BAG includes three collections: a) variety collection (32 clones), b) the Instituto de Zootecnia collection (42 clones), and, c) the Fukashi-Miura collection (14 clones).

Little information is available regarding which clones are used in the 38,000ha planted with mulberry. Commercial companies have disseminated the Miura and Korin clones, due to the great supply of planting material. These clones together with the Calabresa variety make the large majority of cultivated area.

Genetically modified clones (IZ & FM) are very productive and with more nutritious leaves, but being destined completely to silkworm feeding, their expansion has been limited.

Production data for this report were obtained from research carried out at Instituto de Zootecnia (Fonseca et al., 1985a,b,c,1986, 1987a,b,c). Considering that the purpose of the work was fresh biomass production for silkworm feeding, the data are in fresh leaf weight. However, according with Almeida et al. (1989), it is known that the leaf:stem ratio is 1:1 when the cut is made at 90d. For more frequent cutting leaf:stem ratio can vary.
 

Variety Collection

1 - Branca da Espanha (Spanish white). Imported from Spain. It shows good development, good adaptation, it is productive and precocious. Good propagation through cuttings.

2 - Calabresa - Imported from Italy. Optimal adaptation. It is productive, rustic and very precocious. Easy propagation through cuttings.
Estimated production is 5,079 kg/ha/year.

3 - Catânia 1. Imported from Italy. Well adapted, is vigorous and very productive. Not well propagated through cuttings.

4 - Catânia 2. Imported from Italy. Well adapted, vigorous and highly productive. Not well propagated through cuttings.

5 - Catânia Paulista. From the extinct Livestock Experimental Station at Limeira, São Paulo State. Its characteristics have some resemblance to two Catânia varieties above. It is precocious, productive and vigorous. Not well propagated through cuttings.

6 - Contadini. Imported from Italy. Well adapted, productive and precocious. Very good propagation through cuttings.

7 - Fernão Dias. From Fernão Dias county of São Paulo State. It is precocious and productive. Good propagation through cuttings.
Estimated production is 5,302 kg/ha/year.

8 - Flório. Italian origin. Not very well adapted. It is precocious but not productive. Not well propagated through cuttings.

9 - Formosa. Originary from Taiwan. Very well adapted, productive, precocious and vigorous. Easily propagated through cuttings.
Estimated production is 8,608 kg/ha/year.

10 - Galiana. Originary from Livestock Experimental Station at Gália, São Paolo State. Medium tardy, vigorous and rustic. Not well propagated through cuttings.
Data for 1m branch: leaf number, 22; mean leaf weight, 5.86g; mean stem weight, 53.1g; leaf weight:stem weight, 2.43; internodal distance 4.5cm.

11 - Iamada. Originary from Promissão county, São Paolo State. It is precocious, but little productive. Good propagation through cuttings.

12 - Kokuso 21. Imported from Japan. Not well adapted, is tardy, produces few branches that grown slowly. No propagation through cuttings.

13 - Kokuso 27. Imported from Japan. Not well adapted, tardy, produces few branches that grown slowly. No propagation through cuttings.

14 - Lopes Lins. Originated from Tietê county, São Paolo State. It is precocious and productive. Good propagation through cuttings.

15 - Miura. Originated from Bastos county, São Paolo State. It has some similar characteristics to the Calabrese variety. It is precocious, rustic and productive.

16 - Moretiana. Imported from Italy. Very good adaptation, productive and rustic. It is little tardy, no propagation through cuttings.

17 - Moscatela. Originated from Italy. Good adaptation, prococious, rustic and productive. Good propagation through cuttings.

18 - Nezumigaeshi. Imported from Japan. Good adaptation, productive, rustic and vigorous. No well propagated through cuttings.

19 - Nostrana. From the extinct Livestock Experimental Station at Limeira, São Paolo State. It is rustic, precocious and vigorous. Easy propagation through cuttings.

20 - Paduana. Coming from Borborema county, São Paolo State. It is precocious, rustic and productive. Good propagation through cuttings.

21 - Pêndula. Originated from Rio de Janeiro State. It is precocious, rustic but little productive

22 - Rosa. Originated from Italy. Good adaptation but low productivity. Slow development. Good propagation through cuttings.

23 - Rosa da Lombardia – Originary from Italy. Bad adaptation, it medium tardy, low productivity. Slow development and precocious leaf maturation. No good propagation through cuttings.

24 - Rosol. Originated from Registro county, São Paolo. It is precocious, rustic, vigorous and productive. but leaves are very wrinkled, coarse and easily broken, little adapted to feeding the silkworm.

25 - Selvagem. From the extinct Sericulture Service at Campinas, São Paolo State. It is rustic, vigorous and precocious, showing low productivity, with excessively multiblobed leaves with reduced useful foliar area.

26 - Serra-das-Araras. Coming from Ararasmountain range situated in Rio de Janeiro State. It is very precocious, rustic and with low production. Very intense blossoming Easy propagation through cuttings.

27 - Siciliana. Coming from Barbacena county, Minas Gerais State, It is precocious, rustic but with low production. Easily propagated through cuttings.

28 - Talo Roxo. From the extinct Sericulture Service in Campinas, São Paolo. It is precocious, with low production, and easy propagation through cuttings.

29 - Tietê. Coming from Tietê county, São Paolo State. It is precocious, rustic and with low production. Good propagation through cuttings.

30 - Ungaresa - From the extinct Livestock Experimental Station at Limeira, São Paolo State. It is rustic, precocious and productive. Leaves are coarse, no appreciated by silkworm.

31 - Korin. From Fiações de Seda Bratac collection, is very vigorous and productive. Good propagation through cuttings.
 

The production and agrobotanic characteristics of the varieties above are contained in Tables 4 and 5.
 

Table 4. Quantitative Characteristics of some mulberry varieties (data for 1m-branch)
 
Variety
Leaf number
Mean leaf
weight (g)
Mean branch weight (g)
Leaf/ Branch ratio
Internodal length (cm)
01. Branca da Espanha
24
4.65
42.5
2.63
4.2
02. Calabresa
26
3.04
33.5
2.36
3.8
03. Catânia 1
26
5.79
64.3
2.35
3.8
04. Catânia 2
26
6.09
50.9
3.10
3.8
05. Catânia Paulista
25
5.44
61.8
2.20
4.0
06. Contadini
31
3.29
38
2.69
3.2
07. Fernão Dias
25
4.10
38.6
2.67
4.0
08. Flório
25
2.40
37.5
1.60
4.0
09. Formosa
24
4.66
41.5
2.70
4.2
10. Galiana
22
5.86
53.1
2.43
4.5
11. Iamada
30
2.52
52.7
1.14
2.8
12. Kokuzo 21
31
7.29
75.1
3.01
3.2
13. Kokuzo 27
30
7.88
75.0
3.15
3.3
14. Lopes Lins
19
5.30
41.9
2.41
5.2
15. Miura
24
4.24
38.4
2.66
4.2
16. Moretiana
33
2.67
46.8
1.88
3.3
17. Moscatela
24
3.91
31
3.04
4.2
18. Nezumigaeshi
47
3.54
65.1
2.55
2.1
19. Nostrana
21
4.23
30.9
2.88
4.8
20. Paduana
20
8.04
44.6
3.61
5.0
21. Pendula
24
3.48
32.2
2.61
4.2
22. Rosa
28
2.47
35.6
1.91
3.6
23. Rosada Lombardia
31
4.29
62.2
2.14
3.2
24. Rosol
16
9.05
44.1
3.29
6.2
25. Selvagem
21
2.68
25.0
2.24
4.8
26. Serra das Araras
42
1.98
34.5
2.44
2.4
27. Sicicliana
23
3.17
29.5
2.48
4.3
28. Talo Roxo
24
3.95
40.1
2.37
4.2
29. Tiete
21
4.75
43.1
2.32
4.8
30. Ungareza
26
2.95
32.3
2.39
2.8
31. Korin
-
-
-
-
-

Table 5. Agrobotanic characteristics of same mulberry varieties.
 
Size (cm2) Shape Base Edge1 Surface Bark color Bud2 Flower Size2
Colour
B. da Espanha 380 Entire/Lobed Truncated S Smooth/Glossy Greyish Yellow- S ? S/White
Calabresa 240 Five lobes Lobed D Smooth/Glossy Dark greyish brown  S ? M/Purple
Catânia 1 330 Entire/Ovate Truncated D Undulated/Glossy Light greyish yellow  S ? L/Purple
Catânia 2 335 Entire/Ovate Truncated D Undulated/Glossy Light brown M ? L/White
Catânia Paulista 252 Entire/Ovate Rounded D Undulated/Glossy Whitish brown  L ? -
Contadini 257 Entire/Ovate Rounded D Undulated/Glossy Greyish brown  M ? M/Purple
Fernão Dias 274 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Cordated D Smooth/Glossy Whitish brown  M ? M/Purple
Flório 150 Entire/Cordiform Cordated S Smooth/Glossy Brown S ? S/Purple
Formosa 339 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Cordated S Smooth/Glossy Dark brown M ? M/Purple
Galiana 405 Lobed Truncated lobed S Smooth/Glossy Greyish brown  L ? M/Purple
Iamada 184 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Cordated lobed D Smooth/Glossy Greyish brown  M ? M/Purple
Kokuzo 21 408 Entire/Ovate Linear Round C Smooth/Glossy Light greyish yellow M ? -
Kokuzo 27 405 Intire/Ovate Round C Smooth/Glossy Light greyish yellow  S ? -
Lopes Lins 330 Entire/Lobed Cordated C Smooth/Glossy Light greyish brown  S ? S/Purple
Miura 276 Entire/Lobed Cordated Lobed D Smooth/Glossy Light greyish brown  L ? M/Purple
Moretiana 181 Entire/Cordiform Cordated S Smooth/Glossys Brown M ? S/Purple
Moscatela 282 Entire/Ovate Truncated S Smooth/Glossy Light brown greyish L ? S/Purple
Nezumigaeshi 213 Five lobed* Truncated Lobed S Smooth/Glossy Light yellow greyish S ? -
Nostrana 250 Entire/Ovate Rounded D Undulated/Glossy Dark brown M ? M/Purple
Paduana 404 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Cordated D Undulated/Opaque Greyish brown  L ? -
Pendula 232 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Truncated Linear D Smooth/Glossy Greyish brown  L ? M/Purple
Rosa 177 Entire/Cordiform Cordated D Smooth/Opaque Brown M ? S/Purple
R.da Lombardia 289 Entire/Cordiform Deeply cordated S Smooth/Glossy Light brown S ? M/Purple
Rosol 500 Entire/Ovate Linear D Blistered Whitish brown  S ? S/Purple
Selvagem 210 Lobed Lobed S/D Smooth/Glossy Dark brown L ? M/Purple
Serra das Araras 144 Entire/Ovate Cordated S Smooth/Glossy Brown L ? S/Purple
Sicicliana 253 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Truncated S/D Undulated/Glossy Dark brown L ? -
Talo Roxo 282 Entire/Cordiform Cordated D Undulated/Opaque Dark reddish brown  L ? L/Purple
Tiete 272 Entire/Ovate/Lobed Truncated D Smooth/Glossy Brown M ? M/Purple
Ungareza 209 Entire/Ovate Truncated Linear S/D Smooth/Opaque Dark brown S ? -
Korin - - - - - - - - -

1 S = serrated; D = dentated; C = crenated
2 S = small; M = medium; L = large
 
 

IZ Collection

This is a collection made by selected clones, originary from breeding programs conducted by researchers from Livestock Institute (Instituto de Zootecnia or IZ), which belongs to the Secretary of Agriculture of São Paulo State (Table 6). The production and agrobotanic characteristics of the IZ clones are shown in Tables 7 and 8.
 

Table 6. Origin and estimated production of IZ collection clones
 
Clone Cross-breeding
Estimated production
(kg/ha/year)
IZ30 Random breeding
8,559
IZ40 Random breeding
9,931
IZ64 Random breeding
7,945
IZ1/17 Fernão Dias x Catânia Paulista
7,686
IZ2/2 Calabresa x Catânia Paulista
6,197
IZ3/2 - Issaokina Contadini x Catânia Paulista
8,597
IZ5/2 - Capucho Branca de Espanha x Catânia
7,895
IZ6/2 Lopes Lins x Catânia Paulista
5,438
IZ10/1 - Campinas Lopes Lins x Catânia Paulista
7,984
IZ10/4 Lopes Lins x Catânia Paulista
6,698
IZ12/3 Fernão Dias x Catânia Paulista
6,104
IZ13/6 - Luiz Paolieri Fernão Dias x Kokuzo
11,844
IZ15/1 Calabresa x Nezumigaeshi
6,304
IZ15/7 - Rio da Pedras Calabresa x Nezumigaeshi
6,501
IZ19/1 Talo Roxo x Kokuso 27
5,119
IZ19/13 - Rosa da Fonseca Talo Roxo x Kokuzo 27
10,177
IZ23/8 Rosol x Catânia Paulista
5,555
IZ29/1 - Sempre Verde Capinas x Nezumigaeshi
8,224
IZ42/12 Catânia x Siciliana
5,001
IZ51/1 Brabca de Espanha x Nezumigaeshi
7.878
IZ56/4 0 Tamarina Formosa x Catania Paulista
12,043
IZ57/2 - Javanesa Fromosa x Kokuso 27
9,353
IZ1/1 Fernão Dias x Catânia Paulista  
IZ1/2
"
 
IZ1/3
"
 
IZ1/12
"
 
IZ1/16
"
 
IZ2/1 Calabresa x Catânia Paulista  
IZ3/1 Contadini x Catânia Paulista  
IZ4/1 Moretiana x Catânia Paulista  
IZ4/4
"
 
IZ5/1 Calabresa x Catânia Paulista  
IZ6/1
"
 
IZ6/3 Lopes Lins x Catânia Paulista  
IZ6/7
"
 
IZ11/9 Formosa x Kokuso 21
4,526
IZ14/1 Branca de Espanha x Catânia Paulista  
IZ16/3 Fernão Dias x Catânia Paulista
5,310
IZ18/19 Catânia x Catânia Paulista  
IZ23/3 Rosol x Catânia Paulista
4,049
IZ23/3
"
 

Table 7. Quantitative characteristics of mulberry clones of the IZ collection(data per 1m-branch) 
Clone
Leaf number
Mean leaf weight (g)
Mean branch weight (g)
Leaf/branch ratio
Internodal length (cm)
IZ 30 -
27
2.52
35.0
1.70
3.71
IZ 40
34
2.35
49.0
2.35
2.95
IZ 64
26
4.70
38.0
3.00
3.85
IZ 1/17
19
5.28
48.9
2.05
5.3
IZ 2/2
24
3.06
49.9
1.47
4.2
IZ 3/2
27
4.10
49.9
2.22
3.7
IZ 5/2
24
4.13
46.3
2.14
4.2
IZ 6/2
22
4.09
48.6
1.85
4.5
IZ 10/1
22
5.56
46.8
2.62
4.5
IZ 10/4
23
4.26
53.7
1.82
4.3
IZ 10/8
19
4.27
38.0
2.14
5.3
IZ 12/3
25
3.88
41.9
2.32
4.0
IZ 13/6
25
4.82
53.0
2.28
4.0
IZ 15/1
25
3.74
52.1
1.80
4.0
IZ 15/7
26
1.83
34.6
1.83
3.8
IZ 19/1
28
3.10
50.7
1.71
3.6
IZ 19/13
32
4.06
54.9
2.37
3.1
IZ 23/8
23
5.62
52.9
2.44
4.3
IZ 29/1
28
3.57
48.0
2.08
3.6
IZ 42/12
22
3.34
37.4
1.97
4.5
IZ 51/1
21
3.89
35.5
2.30
4.8
IZ 56/4
23
4.24
49.4
1.97
4.3
IZ 57/2
25
4.16
44.2
2.35
4.4


Table 8. Agrobotanic characteristics of mulberry clones from the IZ collection
 
 
Size (cm2)
Shape
Base
Edge1
Surface
Bark color
Bud2
Flower
VP%3
IZ 30
235
Entire/Ovate
Truncate/Round
S
Plan
greenish ligth brown
S
?
80
IZ 40
265
Entire/Cordiform
Truncate
S
Plan
greyish light green
M
?
86
IZ 64
395
Entire/Ovated
Cordate
D
Undulate
greyish ligth brown
L
?/?*
54
IZ 1/17
332
Entire/Ovate d
Cordate
C
Undulate
geryish brown
S
?
-
IZ 2/2
236
Entire/Ovated
Cordate
S
Undulate
greyish light green
M
?
-
IZ 3/2
246
Entire/Ovated
Cordate
S
Undulate
whitish light green
L
?
-
IZ 5/2
271
Entire/Cordiform
Lobed
Cordate
S
Undulate
greennish brown
M
?
-
IZ 6/2
230
Entire/Cordiform
Lobed
Deep Cordate
C
Wrinkled
greyish brown
M
?
-
IZ 10/1
301
Entire/Cordiform
Ovated
Cordate
C
Undulate
greyish light brown
M
?
-
IZ 10/4
241
Entire/Ovated
Cordate
C
Undulate
greyish green
M
?
-
IZ 10/8
396
Entire/Ovated
Deep Cordate
S
Undulate
greyish brown
M
?
-
IZ 12/3
261
Entire/Ovated
Cordate
S
Undulate
yellowish brown
M
?
-
IZ 13/6
242
Entire/Ovated
Lobed
Cordate/Lobed
D
Undulate
whitish dark brown
L
?
-
IZ 15/1
309
Five -lobes
Lobed
S
Plan
greyish dark brown
L
?
-
IZ 15/7
200
Entire/Ovated
Lobed
Cordate
S
Plan
greyish light brown
S
?
-
IZ 19/1
308
Entire/Cordiform
Cordate
C
Plan
greenish dark brown
L
?
-
IZ 19/13
332
Entire/Ovated
Truncate
C
Undulate
whitish ligth green
L
?
-
IZ 23/8
222
Entire/Cordiform
Cordate
D
Wrinkled
greenish light brown
L
?
-
IZ 29/1
201
Assimetric Cordiform
Deep Cordate
S
Plan
greenish light green
L
?
-
IZ 42/12
230
Entire/Ovated
Truncate
C
Plan
greenish light green
L
?
-
IZ 51/1
334
Entire/Ovated
Cordate
S
Rugose
greenish ligth brown
M
?
-
IZ 56/4
339
Entire/Cordiform
Cordate
S
Undulate
greenish light green
L
?
-
IZ 57/2
365
Entire/Cordiform
Truncate
S
Plan
greenish ligth brown
M
?
-

1 D = dentated; S = serrated; C = crenated
2 S = small; M = medium size; L = large
3 VP% = percentage of vegetative propagation
 
 

FM Collection

Mulberry clones selected by Mr. Fukashi Miura (FM) from Fiações de Seda Shoei-Bratac, São José do Rio Preto, São Paolo State:

Shima Korin 01 - SK02 - SK03 - SK04 – From cross-breeding Shimagoa and Korin varieties.

Shima Miura 11 - SM12 - SM13 - SM14 - SM15 – From cross-breeding Shimagoa and Miura varieties.

Fukashi Miura 3/1 - FM6/3 - FM10 - FM30 - FM3/2 –From selection into plants origine by seed
 
 

3. Mulberry Field Management

Weather

Temperature

Optimal temperature required for mulberry is situated between 24 - 28ºC; below 13o growing is stopped and so is branching and bud formation. From August to May, mulberry vegetative growing is practically continuous.

Rainfall

Ideal rainfall for mulberry could be situated between 1000 - 1500mm, distributed along the productive period and this condition met in São Paulo e Paraná States.

Relative Humidity

In general, required air humidity for mulberry is between 65% - 80%. Higher precipitation and soil humidity are contributing factors for improved leaf quality.

Photoperiod

Major mulberry areas in Brazil are located between 20o e 30o South, and it seems that there is no photoperiodic limitations to plant growing.

Altitude

In São Paulo State, in general, mulberry crops are located in altitudes that varies from 300 - 700m, far from the limit tolerated by mulberry.

Drought resistance

No research data are available relating to drought resistance for varieties cultivated in Brazil. Seasonal supply of green leaves shown by some varieties even in drought periods was qualitatively observed for some clones, for example IZ 29/1.
 
 

Soil

Although mulberry requires adequate soil quality, it can grow in most of soils available in São Paulo State. However, shallow soils should be avoided, as well as compacted, hard, impermeable and swampy soil. Whenever possible, preferred soils are deep, fertile, well-drained, friable, porous, with adequate water retention capacity and a mild acidity (pH 6.2 - 6.8).
 
 

Fertilization

Organic (manure, organic composites etc)

In general, poultry manure is applied, with a minimum dose of 0.5 kg per plant, during the winter time, at the depth of 20 to 30 cm.

Field experiments demonstrate higher productivity when mulch is applied over the mulberry plants. When available, its utilization is highly desirable, demanding, though, some necessary precaution. For examples, when residues of different origins with very high C/N ratio are used, it is recommended that chemical Nitrogen fertilizer should be applied jointly in order to accelerate the decomposition of organic material and avoid competition for Nitrogen in the soil.

Chemical Fertilizers

According to the literature there is no consensus on the ideal chemical fertilizer for mulberry plants. Among other factors, quantities to be applied will obviously depend on soil fertility.

Soil analyses have been the more viable and practical way to evaluate soil fertility. Although there have not been any to determine the amount of fertilizers required for mulberry according to soil fertility and economic factors, it is suggested to adopt the standard table of Bulletin 100 from Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (Van Raij, 1996).

According to Rùbia et al. (1976), in cases of low soil contents in P and K and all silkworm residues being applied in mulberry cultivation, the following chemical prescription could be suggested (in kg/hectare/year): 250kg of N, 65kg of P2O5, and 156kg of K2O.

In the case of manure utilization, the data presented in Table 9 can be of help to determine nutrient application rates.
 

Table 9. Typical composition of various organic materials from fresh animal and vegetal origins (Van Raij, 1996)
 
Material
C/N
Humidity
C
N
P
K
Ca
 
g/kg
Fresh bovine manure
20
620
100
5
2,6
6
2
Composted bovine manure
21
340
320
15
12
21
20
Poultry Manure
10
550
140
14
8
7
23
Swine Manure
9
780
60
7
2
5
12
Castor oil seed meal
10
90
450
45
7
11
18
Mucuna
20
870
60
3
0,6
3
2
Crotalaria juncea
25
860
70
2,8
0,4
3
2
               
Material
Mg
S
Zn
Cu
Cd
Ni
Pb
 
g/kg
mg/Kg
Fresh bovine manure
1
1
33
6
0
2
2
Composted bovine manure
6
2
217
25
0
2
1
Poultry Manure
5
2
138
14
2
2
17
Swine Manure
3
-
242
264
0
2
3
Castor oil seed meal
5
-
128
73
-
-
-
Mucuna
0,4
-
6
3
-
-
-
Crotalaria juncea
0,4
-
2
1
-
-
-

 

4. Diseases and Pests

The main mulberry pests and diseases characteristics and symptoms are described in the Sericulture Manual (Manual de Sericicultura) compiled by the Technical Committee on Sericulture (Comissào Técnica de Sericicultura) (TINOCO, 1999)
 

Principal Pests

1. Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ. Tozz, 1885). This insect attacks mulberry branches and stems, introducing its mouth apparatus (stylus) into the sap plant conductors and sucking a great deal of the plant sap. These insects shield themselves under small structures and, when the attack is intense, those structures fully cover branches and stems of the plant (figure 4). The plant is quite weakened by the attack, showing cracks that allow the entrance of pathogenic micro-organisms. In boggy soils, shadowed, poorly aired, or yet in case of crops that are not managed adequately, this attack is more severe. 

Figure 4. Mulberry branches infested by Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targ. Tozz,1885)


2. Naupactus spp These beetles belong to the Curculionidae family. Mulberry leaves feed adult phases of the insect, causing severe reduction in leaf surface, and root system feeds larvae phases. As a result, plant vigor decays, once nutrient absorption collapses and pathogenic micro-organisms are eased through plant injures. The Naupactus versatilis form has been more frequently detected in Paraná State. Its adult form presents a length ranging from 11 to 14mm, with metallic green color, which becomes darker with age, due to the loss of scale-like structures. 

Figure 5. Adult form of Naupactus versatilis


3. Migdolus fryanus Westwood - Coleoptera from Cerambycidae family. This poliphagus beetle, biologically little known, has been causing economic damages in several crops, namely in sugar-cane, and more recently, in mulberry. Adult males have black coloration (in most of the cases), dark brown or red brown, and their total length size range from 12.1 and 37.0mm. Adult females, on the other hand, show a red-brownish coloration (in most of the cases) or dark brownish, and their total length ranges from 19.5 to 35mm (Bento et al., 1995). The male exemplars have membranous and functional wings, with antennas that reaches approximately half the body size (Figure 6). Female ones have reduced membranous wings, non-functional, and antennas much shorter than the males. 

Figura 6. Adult form of Migdolus fryanus


Larvae causes the totality of the damage to the mulberry plants. Those larvae meet in the root system the ideal source of nutrition, so destroying them (Figure 7). Insect dispersion happens in the larvae phases, because in this period it is observed an increased mobility in soil environment, establishing a net of channels that are likely to be used for adults in order to reach the soil surface during mating period. 

Figure 7. Mulberry root with lesions caused by Migdolus fryanus larvae


Although most of the times plants are affected only partially, attacks can completely destroy the affected plants.

Regarding the population control of the insect, there are very few alternatives. due to biological and behavioral aspects. One of the obstacles is the fact that larvae lodge themselves in a depth of 3 to 4m into the soil, and eggs are laid in different depths.

Although there was a generalized belief that attacks were more frequent in sandy soils, nowadays studies on the subject have demonstrated that there is no linkage between the type of soil and the attack of Migdolus
 

4. "Cutting-prone" ants - Sauba ant Ant hills are true subterranean urban structures, endowed of a great number of individuals (above tem million, in a adult ant hill), and that can reach till seven metres in depth, below soil line.

Quenquéns ants from the genus Acromyrmex.- They are smaller than sauba ants and, in general, ant hills from this genus hardly reach depths larger than 50 cm. The communication from one ant hill to another is made by ocelli (orifices on the soil surface). In an ant hill 3 or more years old, three types of ocelli are observed: one for transportation of land, one for ventilation, and one for food provision.
 

5. Nematode diseases - Meloidogyne spp - Those worm species attack mulberry producing root tumours (root-knots) that make it hard for the plant to absorb nutrients and water, which could cause severe damage to the crop (Figure 8). Plants attacked present reduction in size, with leaves appearing to lack water, becoming yellower and falling down, reducing sensibly the production of leaves per area. Mulberry vitality deteriorates gradually and, in the later stages, the plant dies. 

Figure 8. Mulberry root with root-knots


Main Bacteria and Fungus Diseases

1. White root rot, caused by fungus from genus Rosellinia. This type of fungus live as saprophyte in decaying organic matter, mainly from plants left over the soil, and they can become pathogenic to cultivated plants. The diseased mulberry plants become weak, and root is led to be rotten, The hyphae emerging from the various fruiting bodies attack the smaller roots of the healthy plants, and spread to the main root system causing white root rot.
 

2. Violet root rot, caused by Helicobasidium mompa Tanaka fungus. First symptoms from this disease appear when mulberry does not sprout in the beginning of spring or when leaves suddenly appear to wither in the middle of summertime. The main disease characteristic is the existence of similar velvet veilings that colors of dark-brownish the root bark. There is the appearance of several reddish filamentous substances that colors all the root bark that are the hyphes from pathogen. 

Figure 9. Mulberry root with violet root rot


3. Mulberry Withering - This disease has been its frequency verified in mulberry cultivations of State of São Paulo, mainly in the region of São José do Rio Preto, having as main characteristics the rottening of root. Several samples of attacked plants were examined in research institutes and up to the present time, non-conclusive diagnosis are available. According with personal reports of scientific researchers from Biological Institute, the following microorganisms are detected in a sample from Guaraçaí, State of São Paulo (1997): Fusarim sp, Lassiodiplodia sp, Fusicoccum sp e nematóides Meloidogyne sp e Pratylenchulus sp.
 

4. Oídium – Phylactinia corylea Prest Karst. - Oidium is a very common disease in mulberry plants and could cause severe damage when incident on leaves, making them unable to feed silkworm, once the fungus absorbs all the leaf nutrients.

It frequently occurs in older leaves, that become covered by a grayish-white powder, made from pathogen structures, being more frequent during the spring and summer, periods when favorable conditions for its development are provided.
 

5. Rusty spot Cylindrosporium mori Targioni Tozzeti - In the beginning, the spots are smaller (less than 1 mm of diameter) and with the development of the process, they can reach more than 1 cm, with a brownish coloration, and yellowish edges. The spots use to appear in the superior part of the leaf, in the petiole and over the young branches.

In severe attacks, mulberry leaves drastically fall, causing a great deal of damage.
 

6. Other leaf spots caused by fungus - It may occur other spot attacks cause by fungus from genera Cercospora sp, Alternaria sp, Helminthosporium sp e Colletotrichum sp. Seasonally, they are more frequent during spring and summer, in periods of higher humidity and temperature.
 

7. Bacteria spots - Bacterium mori (Boyer & Lambert), Bacillus curbonianus (Macchiatti), Bacterium moricolum (Yendo & Higushi). - Mulberry is susceptible to this kind of spots, both at any age and in whatever aerial part of the plant. Seasonally, the disease is more frequently observed in summer (higher humidity and temperature).

On the leaves, initial symptoms appear as small and sparsely distributed in necrosed areas, that coalesce and torn apart in a posterior phases, making it possible the exudation of yellowish pus on the lesion. The shootings can also die, causing a oversprouting.
 
 

5. References

Abrasseda (Associação Brasileira de Fiações de Seda) 1998. Dados Estatísticos da Produção Sericicícola.

Almeida, J.E., Soares, A.R., Ramalho,M.A.P., Fonseca,T.C. 1991 Stabilité phénothypique chez le mûrier. Sericologia 3(3):469-474.

Baffi,M.H. 1992. Utilização da amoreira (Morus alba L.) cultivar Yamada para caprinos: Curva de crescimento e digestibilidade in vitro. Trabalho apresentado a Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, para graduação em Zootecnia. FCAV – UNESO, Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil.

Bento, J.M.; Vilela, ..F.; Della Lucia, T.M.C.; Leal, W.S.; Novaresti, W.R.T. 1995 Migdolus, Biologia, Comportamento e Controle. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperação para a Agricultura. Salvador, BA, 58p.

Brazão, C.S.,Takahashi, R., Sugohara ,A., Resende, K.T. 1992. Curva de crescimento e composição bromatológica da amoreira (Morus alba L.) IV Congresso de Iniciação Científica da UNESP, Araçatuba, SP, Brasil.

EMATER (Empresa Paranaense de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural) 1998. Perfil da Sericicultura no Estado do Paraná.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C. 1988. Cultura da amoreira e criação do bicho-da-seda - Sericicultura. Ed. Nobel, São Paulo, SP.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Okamoto, F. 1994. Le programme d’amelioration du murier dans l’etat de São Paulo au Brésil. Sericologia, La Mulatière, 34(4):727-733.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Paolieri, L. 1985a Caracterização de algumas variedades de amoreira. Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, 23(2):111-129.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Paolieri, L. 1985b. Híbridos naturais da amoreira. B.Indústr.anim., Nova Odessa, SP, 42(1):71-77.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Paolieri, L. 1985c. Melhoramento da amoreira por meio da hibridação artificial. B.Indústr.anim., Nova Odessa, SP, 42(2):265-276.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Schammass, E.A. 1986. Competição de híbridos naturais e artificiais e amoreira (1) . B.Indústr.anim., Nova Odessa, SP, 43(2):367-373.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Schammass, E.A. 1987a. Competição de híbridos artificiais e amoreira (2) . B.Indústr.anim., Nova Odessa, SP, 44(2):315-322.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Schammass, E.A.; Cunha, E.A. 1987b Competição de híbridos naturais e artificiais e amoreira (3) . B.Indústr.anim., Nova Odessa, SP, 44(2):323-328.

Fonseca, A.S.; Fonseca, T.C.; Cunha, E.A.; Schammass, E.A. 1987c Competição de variedades, híbridos naturais e artificiais e amoreira (4) . B.Indústr.anim., Nova Odessa, SP, 44(2):329-334.

Guideli,C., Resende,K.T., Takahashi,R, Sugoraha,A.,Reis,R.A. 1993. Produção de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.) em diferentes idades de crescimento, durante o verão. V Congresso de Iniciação Científica da UNESP. Depto de Zootecnia, FCAV, Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil.

Hara,C.H. 1993. Produção e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e proteína de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.) - Trabalho apresentado a Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, para graduação em Zootecnia. FCAV – UNESO, Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil.

Resende, K.T., Sugoraha, A., Takahashi, R, Reis, R.A., Brazão,C.S. 1992. Produção de matéria seca de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.) no outono, visando sua utilização na alimentação de ruminantes. Anais da XXIX Reunião Anual da SBZ – Lavras, MG, Brasil.

Resende, K.T., Takahashi, R., Sugoraha, A., Brazão, C., Reis, R.A., Vasconcelos, V.R. 1994a. Composição bromatológica de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). 1 – Estação de inverno. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Resende, K.T., Takahashi, R., Sugohara, A., Brazão, C., Reis, R.A., Vasconcelos,V.R. 1994b. Composição bromatológica de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). 2 – Estação da primavera. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Resende, K.T., Takahashi, R., Sugoraha, A., Reis, R.A., Hara, C., Vasconcelos, V.R. 1994c. Produção e digestibilidade de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). 1 – Estação de inverno. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Rubia, A.C.; 1976. Brasil Sobrinho,M.C.; Azeredo,J.S. Adubação mineral e calagem no sistema cepo, em solo do tipo podzolisado lins-marília. Revista da agricultura, 21(1):47.

Schmidek, A. 1999. Compisicão bromatológica e degradabilidade em caprinos de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). Trabalho apresentado a Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, para graduação em Zootecnia. FCAV – UNESO, Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil.

Silva, D.J. 1981. Análise de alimentos. Viçosa. Imprensa Universitária, 1981, 166p.

Sugoraha, A., Resende, K.T., Takahashi, R., Magario, K., Reis, R.A. 1994a. Composição bromatológica da amoreira (Morus alba L.), cultivar Yamada, em diferentes idades de crescimento. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Sugoraha, A., Resende, K.T., Takahashi, R., Guideli, C., Reis, R.A., Vasconcelos, V.R. 1994b. Composição bromatológica de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). 3 – Estação de verão. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Sugoraha, A., Resende, K.T., Takahashi, R., Guideli, C., Reis, R.A., Vasconcelos, V.R. 1994bc. Produção e digestibilidade de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). 3 – Estação de verão. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Takahashi, R., Sugoraha, A., Resende, K.T., Reis, R.A. e Brazão, C.S. 1992. Produção de matéria seca de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.) no inverno, visando sua utilização na alimentação de ruminantes. Anais da XXIX Reunião Anual da SBZ – Lavras, MG, Brasil.

Takahashi, R., Sugoraha, A., Resende, K.T., Reis, R.A e Vasconcelos, V.R. 1994. Produção e digestibilidade de cultivares de amoreira (Morus alba L.). 1 – Estação da primavera. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.

Tilley, J.M.and Terry, 1963. R.A. A two stage for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. J.Br.Grassland Soc. 18:104-111

Tinoco, S.T.J. 1999. Manual de Sericicultura - CATI, SAA, Campinas, SP.(no prelo)

Van Raij, B.; Cantarella,H.; Quaggio, J.A.; e Furlani, A.M.C. 1996. Recomendações de adubação e calagem para o Estado de São Paulo. Boletim Técnico No. 100, IAC, Campinas, SP, 285p.

Vasconcelos,V.R.., Resende, K.T., Sugihara, A., Costa,R.G. e Takahashi, R.1994. Características de degradação da matéria seca e proteína bruta da amoreira (Morus alba L.) por caprinos. Anais da XXXI Reunião Anual da SBZ, Maringá, PR, Brasil.