Manual on meat inspection for developing countries in preparation
Meat and meat products in human nutrition in developing countries
Construction and operation of medium-sized abattoirs in developing countries
Small-scale poultry processing
Strategy for sustainable livestock production in the tropics
Carabao production in the Philippines
Buffaloes of Pakistan
Reproduction in domesticated animals
Meat inspection, which is generally the responsibility of governmental authorities, is an indispensable sanitary control procedure carried out prior to meat marketing. Those parts of a carcass or even entire carcasses unfit for human consumption because of pathological lesions or deterioration in meat quality must be discarded or used in inedible products (animal feed, fertilizer, etc.). There is a notable lack of trained personnel for the meat inspection services, however, particularly in developing countries. In the past, FAO has been involved in providing training courses for meat inspectors in most developing regions and a strong demand for such courses is expected to continue.
In order to facilitate the training of meat inspectors, who are generally classified as veterinary assistants, a manual on meat inspection for developing countries is being prepared by FAO. This Animal Production and Health Paper will be different from the meat inspection handbooks already available since it addresses the needs of meat inspectors and veterinarians who are involved in routine sanitary control in abattoirs in developing countries. The publication will contain more than 200 instructive colour photographs of pathological lesions found in slaughtered animals (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, equines, rabbits, game and poultry) together with concise descriptions of the different cases and their evaluation. The situation in developing countries will be covered by authors from the African, Asian, Latin American and Near East regions. The manual is expected to be published in early 1994.
1992. Food and Nutrition Paper No. 53. Rome, FAO. 91 pp.
Jointly commissioned by FAO's Food Policy and Nutrition Division and the Animal Production and Health Division, this publication provides information on nutrition strategies with emphasis on developing countries. It points out that a variety of foods can supply enough of the complete range of required nutrients and that much of the malnutrition in the world is a result of relying too heavily on a single staple food. Improvements in the diet depend on the knowledgeable selection of foods that complement one another in the nutrients that they supply. It is difficult to obtain such variety in many regions, however. Meat can complement most diets, especially those dependent on a limited selection of plant foods, as it is a concentrated source of high quality protein and its amino acid composition usually compensates for any nutritional shortcomings of the staple food.
In its three main chapters ("Meat Production and Quality", "Role of Meat and Meat Products in Human Nutrition" and "Meat and Health"), all important technical and nutritional aspects of meat as food are discussed, and a comprehensive annex of tables provides detailed data on meat production, consumption and nutrient composition.
This publication is intended as a source of information for livestock and meat technologists, nutritionists, food scientists and dieticians concerned with the production, processing and consumption of meat to improve the nutritional quality of the diet and the health of the population.
1992. Animal Production and Health Paper No. 97. Rome, FAO. 199 pp.
In many developing regions there is a growing need to provide more extensive modern abattoirs and meat processing and marketing facilities, particularly in urban areas. This publication seeks to redress the absence of suitable guides for meat industry personnel and their technical advisers.
The purpose of these particular guidelines, therefore, is to disseminate information to meat industry personnel, engineers, architects and others on the requirements for the establishment of medium-sized, semi-industrialized abattoirs, including design, construction using local resources and operation. The potential for optimum byproduct-processing facilities according to the scale of the enterprise envisaged is included, together with technical details of equipment that can be manufactured locally. Where appropriate, reference is made to improving existing premises and to retaining parts of some of the more traditional meat handling practices. Design information on the necessary provision of whole-sale and retail meat markets is also given.
This publication provides a variety of different meat-plant layouts as well as drawings and photographs of suitable abattoir equipment. The different chapters refer to the siting of abattoirs, general principles of abattoir design, design of lairages, design and technology of slaughter and dressing facilities, abattoir by-product processing. refrigeration, waste treatment and energy supply.
1992. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper No. 98. Rome, FAO. 109 pp.
The production of poultry on a smallscale is very important in least-developed countries, particularly in places distant from main commercial and industrial centres. Although small-scale processing facilities are still needed, many manufacturers of small-scale equipment have not survived the passing of time and recent commercial developments. This book has been written to demonstrate that it is still possible to establish a small operation with the appropriate equipment and facilities.
The slaughter of poultry in suitable surroundings using hygienic methods is essential for the production of wholesome meat, extension of the shelf-life of the product, reduction of postharvest losses and protection of public health. This book addresses these issues and hopes to persuade the small-scale poultry producer on a budget that it is worthwhile to establish the proper facilities.
The book is divided into five chapters. The first chapter puts poultry into context by giving a general background and description of poultry production and processing throughout the world. The second chapter outlines the general principles of planning, economics, design and construction of small-scale poultry-processing plants. The concepts behind three models are developed and plant layout and construction details, including that of effluent treatment, are given. Chapter 3 describes how these models are intended to operate, covering most aspects of poultry right through to the market place. Chapter 4 is devoted to health, hygiene and routine maintenance and Chapter 5 to poultry-meat marketing.
The reader is advised to seek more comprehensive information if new facilities are to be built or if existing buildings are to be redesigned. This publication only intends to provide guidelines to poultry processing and cannot cover all necessary technical details. Above all, it attempts to be realistic in its approach to the situation in developing countries.
T.R. Preston and E. Murgueitio, 1992. Consultorías pare el Desarollo Rural Integrado en al Trópico (CONDRIT) Ltda, Cali, Colombia. 89 pp.
This book opens with a short but comprehensive analysis of past attempts to introduce livestock production systems used by industrialized countries into developing countries. A discussion of the results show, on the one hand, that the overwhelming majority of farmers in developing countries cannot afford to adopt such systems without strong off-farm support, including efficient and cost-effective field support, subsidies and stable and profitable marketing outlets. On the other hand, specialized livestock systems that are used by industrialized countries and that aim at maximum outputs are totally dependent on economic subsidies. They also consume a huge amount of fossil fuel, require and encourage high capital concentration, underutilize the biological capacity of ruminants by feeding them excessive amounts of grain and contribute to considerable environmental hazards, food-quality risks and irresponsible disregard for animal welfare. It is concluded therefore that there is enough evidence to justify the proposal of alternative systems for livestock production, and for appropriate implementation strategies, that can be adopted by farmers in developing countries.
Development is not viewed here only from technical and economic angles, but also from a political standpoint relevant to decisions on development policies. Appropriate emphasis is given to the much greater vulnerability of poorer countries to unpredictable changes in prices and to the inability - even within a financial centre - to predict these changes. In contrast to industrialized countries, fossil fuel cannot be envisaged as the major tool used to promote economic development among non-oil-producing developing countries. Increasing environmental threats, mainly from the industrialized world, cannot be ignored any longer, and development models must no longer be driven solely by economic considerations without proper assessment of any side-effects (medium- and long-term) that may result from large immediate outputs at high levels of productivity in industry and factory farming.
The authors present a strategy on which agricultural development activities in the tropics may be based. It focuses on the role of livestock within the farm production system, particularly on ways of improving animal nutrition, which represents the most important and ubiquitous constraint to increasing livestock productivity in the tropics. The approach calls for better use of all farm resources (crops, trees, local livestock), permanent employment opportunities, reduced dependence on imported inputs and increased control by the rural community of its technical and commercial activities.
Farming plans using this approach optimize the complementarily between inputs and output from different crops, diverse livestock/fish species and trees kept within the farm, taking advantage of their particular biological features, such as high energy or protein yields, nitrogen fixation capacity, digestive capacity of high fibre feeds, high feed/animal product conversion capacity and high annual reproductive rate.
Two integrated farming systems are discussed in detail: one bases livestock feeding on cereal crop residues while the other makes use of sugar cane and its derivatives. Models for the latter are presented for use on a small family scale, at entrepreneurial level and at the level of a biomass refinery. Other systems, including using agro-industrial by-products as animal feed, recycling organic waste and grazing low-fertility grass-land in arid regions, are also discussed.
The book closes with a brief description of policies for sustainable animal agriculture. It highlights the responsibility of governments in industrialized countries to promote livestock production systems that take into account the long-term economic, ecological, ethological and sociological effects. It calls for a redefinition of agricultural research priorities in the least-developed countries, including identifying immediate needs of farmers, reinforcing multipurpose use of local resources and strengthening the overall use of the biological chain in the farming plan and of off-farm support services. An improvement in training and the exchange of information is also called for. The conclusion sums up the concept of sustainability, whereby natural ecosystems are enhanced, rural structures are strengthened, local resources and farm inputs are preferred and human and animal stress levels are kept to a minimum.
1992. Philippine Council for Agriculture' Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development (PCARRD). 234 pp.
The technical content of this publication is drawn from the results of international cooperation projects involving the Philippine Government, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and FAO over the last decade (1981-1991).
Technical results are presented and discussed in seven chapters. The first chapter provides the global background of the role of the buffalo within the Philippine agricultural sector and its present use by producers. A description of the research and development objectives of a national buffalo production improvement programme that involves international technical assistance to test crossbreeding prospects is also given. Results of crossing imported riverine buffaloes (Murrah and Nili Ravi, with chromosome complement 2n = 50) with carabao (swamp buffalo, with chromosome complement 2n = 48) are included as well.
The second chapter outlines field efforts to produce and test perfommance traits of F1 and F2, with reference to carabao controls, in at least three management systems: extensive range grazing, intensive semi-confined and semi-extensive smallholder farmer system. Tables summarizing the evolution of the number of animals of different genotypes for each management level are unfortunately missing; these would have provided an adequate background against which the numerous tables attempting to compare different genotypes may have been evaluated.
Reproduction issues of carabao are discussed at great length in Chapter 3, based on a large amount of very interesting experimental results. Crossbreeding results are drawn from a small sample of animals, however, which limits the reliability of otherwise interesting trends that suggest normal fertility levels in crossbred female and male individuals. The incidence of re productive failure is higher in crossbred females than in purebred carabao, and Murrah bulls showed better overall semen quality and recovered more quickly from seasonal stress than crossbred bulls did.
Nutrition issues are covered in detail in Chapter 4 including local resources, feeding systems in use, field trial results on supplementary feeding and the improvement of the nutritive value of local feed resources, and estimations of nutrient requirements for maintenance. Calf feeding, unfortunately, is not discussed.
Draught power is the subject of Chapter 5. Ploughing, pack-use and sledge-pulling studies comparing group results from carabao and crossbred individuals (four in each group) are presented, as well as results from training adult carabao and crossbred females (groups of three each) for back-riding, sledge-pulling and heavy log-pulling. Results from these studies suggest that the groups have similar abilities as draught animals.
Carabao health issues are discussed at length in Chapter 6. Major diseases, their incidence and mortality levels are described, as well as disease problems of neonates and growing carabaos. Mortality rates obtained for native, exotic and crossbred carabaos at Central Luzon State University are also given.
The final chapter deals with socioeconomic aspects of carabao production and presents results of a field survey that comprised 37 respondents. Preliminary results from an analysis made of costs and returns are presented, suggesting a very large increase in profits for backyard operations because of the use of crossbred animals.
The information presented in this publication is the result of development efforts and provides a good foundation for the newly established Philippine Carabao Centre. This centre will attempt to correct the present deficiencies in scientific data and compensate for the current incomplete or preliminary results, which are presented here.
S. Karam Shah. 1991. Pakistan Agricultural Research Council. 135 pp.
The technical information found in this publication was compiled with assistance from FAO. The author presents a great wealth of data on Nili Ravi and Kundhi buffaloes drawn from some 200 references. Seven main chapters cover such topics as milk and meat production, breeding and reproduction, health and draught power. Presentation of content and comments will appeal mostly to specialists, especially the chapters dealing with reproduction, breeding and genetics and nutrition. The chapter on meat production does not have the same coherent presentation as those for the other technical topics: most of it relates to nutrition and feeding trial results, with some information on calf crop (production and losses), slaughter and live-weight estimation. No data are provided on calf feeding results, nor is there any description of calf management up to weaning.
The book finishes with an interesting interpretation of relationships among riverine milking buffaloes, in which the author makes an analysis of historical developments that occurred in the subcontinent to support his belief that the Murrah breed is in fact the outcome of the Nili Ravi/Kundhi breed, resulting from historical southeastern displacement of local populations and their domestic animals.
G.J. King, ed. World Animal Science Series, Vol. B9. 1993. University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada. 608 pp. Price: US$328.
As all consumable products, such as eggs, meat and milk, are obtained through the exploitation of the reproductive processes of livestock, efficiency is extremely important in intensive production units. Each technological innovation in this field must be critically evaluated before its widespread introduction, and this requires an extensive knowledge of reproductive biology.
This volume presents comprehensive, current discussions of the individual aspects comprising the complete reproductive process in domesticated animals, covering various technological procedures for the regulation and manipulation of particular events. It provides extensive coverage of reproductive anatomy and includes avian reproduction, supplying original and often innovative figures. This book will be of great value to agriculturists and veterinarians as well as to food and environmental scientists.
The book is available from Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., PO Box 1991, 1000 BZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands, or PO Box 882, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10159, USA.