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Forage husbandry

W. Bayer and A. Waters-Bayer. 1998.

Macmillan Education, Houndmills, Basingstoke,
Hampshire RG21 6XS, UK.
ISBN 0333-66856-1. Price: £7.00. 198 pp.

Forage husbandry is written for students, extension workers and farmers and is one of the practical field guides in the Tropical Agriculturist series. Written in an easy-to-read style, it focuses on forage husbandry for ruminants, especially in smallholder or non-commercial systems.

The book emphasizes how available forages, in the broadest sense of the word, are used and how they are integrated into the wider farming systems. One of the stated aims is to illustrate the opportunities for indigenous development of forage husbandry and to provide some guidelines for understanding existing forage husbandry practices, development needs and opportunities.

Beginning with an introduction to livestock keepers and their various systems, the authors then look at certain basics of livestock and forage biology, the management of livestock and forage resources, the management of natural forage, the use of forage as a subsidiary product from cultivated land, cultivated forages, forage conservation and supplementation, and research and development in forage husbandry. To conclude, they stress the need for more participatory research and development as well as the need to focus on problems and priorities set by the pastoral or smallholder communities.

Particularly useful is the series of boxes highlighting practical examples of forage husbandry from Africa, Asia, the Near East and Latin America. The book is well illustrated with diagrams and photographs. There are also useful annexes, including a glossary of terms, important forage species and suggestions for further reading.


Listeria, listeriosis and food safety (2nd edition)

E.T. Ryser & E.H. Marth, eds. 1999.

Special Sales/Professional Marketing, Marcel Dekker,
New York. Internet:

This revised and expanded second edition still maintains the scientific base covering the pure microbiological aspects of listeria and listeriosis. However, its greatest potential audience will probably be processors and, in particular, food safety/quality assurance personnel. Contributions from specialists cover the incidence and behaviour of listeria monosytogones in cheese and dairy products (both fermented and unfermented), poultry and egg products, fish and seafood products and products of plant origin as well as the control of listeria in food processing industries. These contributions make this publication an extremely useful source of scientific and practically applicable information for processors, scientists and researchers.

The editors, who were also the editors of the first edition, are to be congratulated on collating such a wealth of information with which to combat this serious food-borne disease.


World Dairy Situation 1999. Bulletin No. 339/1999: Results of annual survey presented at the Annual Sessions (Athens), September 1999.

General Secretariat, International Dairy Federation, Brussels.

E-mail: ISSN 0250-5118. Price: BF 2 500

This 1999 edition of the World Dairy Situation report includes the customary collation of figures and comments from International Dairy Federation (IDF) national committees, and other sources where such committees do not exist. Contributions from the Zentrale Markt- und Preisberichtstelle (ZMP), which continued its networking on behalf of IDF with other institutions working on the economy of the world dairy sector, have significantly added to the publication. Milk production, industrial milk processing, trade in dairy products, development of demand and consumption and prices for 1998 are presented, along with forecasts for 1999/2000. The dairy situation in 44 individual countries is summarized. This edition includes a new sector comprising an outlook on the international market for milk products, particular developments in the EU and comments from three leading figures in the field of dairy economics, representing Denmark, Canada and Argentina.

Spice science and technology

K. Hirasa and M. Takemasa. 1998. Marcel Dekker, New York.

ISBN 0-8247-0144-5. Price: US$135.00. 219 pp.

The publication is one of the few detailed sources of information on spices. Because interpretations vary, the authors have first defined the scientific terms for spices and then proceeded to provide details on spice qualities and specifications.

One of the unique features of the publication is that it details the "patterning theory" in which the relationship of each spice to each raw material cooked and to each cooking method is summarized in charts. The authors recommend this as the most suitable method for determining the efficient use of spices.

The book will be useful as a reference for a broad audience, from cooks to food processors. Chapter 6 is particularly interesting as it discusses the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of various spices.

With the growing number of consumers and their interest in new flavours, tastes and improved odours, it is expected that this publication will reappear in an expanded form in the coming years.


Attitudes to animals: views in animal welfare

F.L. Dolins, ed. 1998. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

ISBN 0521479061. 262 pp. Soft cover. Price: US$30.60 (USA/Canada);
$A 58.10 (Australia/New Zealand); US$36.90 (other countries)

Attitudes to animals consists of 17 chapters, each written by a different author. As the subtitle suggests, the book deals with views on the topic. It presents people's attitudes towards animals through analyses of literature and interviews. This makes the book rather theoretical and academic; few of the questions concerning practical improvements of animal welfare are answered - but that is not the purpose of the book. The purpose, instead, is to inform in order to provide a foundation from which readers can make their own judgements regarding ethical choices concerning animals. It is in a way a questioning book, without being too moralistic.

The main themes of the book are:

Humans are at the centre of the human-animal relationship. Although a historical and cross-cultural approach is chosen, a bias towards western perspectives and issues cannot be denied. In the chapter "Me and my totem: cross-cultural attitudes towards animals", views of western philosophers and anthropologists on totemism are given. Unfortunately, little or no reference is made to what totems mean to people, how they influence attitudes towards animals and how all this relates to animal welfare.

Animal welfare is much more in the limelight of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries than of developing countries and may generally be perceived as an aspect of western culture, a luxurious issue that only rich people can afford. In the coming 30 years, the largest growth in animal production can be expected to take place in developing countries, mostly by intensification, and most wildlife - as it appeals to the public - lives in and is the property of developing countries. Therefore, the attitudes that non-western people have towards animals will have a major impact on animal welfare on a global scale.

The six coping strategies that are used by British farmers and American scientists who use animals for research are:

These may well be different for people living in a society where there is very little criticism of or pressure against the use or exploitation of animals.

Some attention is given to how different conceptions of subjective awareness in animals affect scientific understanding of animal suffering, and a whole chapter is dedicated to defining welfare and how to assess it. This is followed by a chapter on environment enrichment for captive animals, in which it is rather strikingly concluded that only very few practical applications actually take place as a result of research findings, even when it concerns suggestions for improving animal welfare by very minor adaptations.

Animals play a very important role in the early cognitive and emotional development of children. It is then that their empathic capacity is formed and the first attitudes to animals are shaped. People's morals and ethics can be deeply rooted. However, in this book a strong effort is made not to make provocative statements concerning the ethical viewpoints. If a statement is made at all, it will be that animal welfare, the future of wildlife and indirectly our own well-being depend on how we think about animals.

The book reads well and is recommended to those who are willing to challenge their thoughts on animals.


The global strategy for the management of farm animal genetic resources: executive brief

FAO. 1999. ISBN 92-5-104267-5. 43 pp.

This easy-to-read, quality print publication is intended for the non-specialist reader. It explains through text and many charts, photos and boxes the FAO Global Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal Genetic Resources, its justifications, constituents and mechanisms. The document defines which farm, avian and animal genetic resources are considered by the global strategy and describes their role in satisfying human needs. It highlights the need to sustain biodiversity among and within these genetic resources for the sustainable development of agriculture and for food security. The publication includes a glossary of terms frequently used in the field of biodiversity, especially for animal and avian genetic resources.


Livestock feeds and feeding (4th edition)

R.O. Kellems and D.C. Church. 1998. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA

ISBN 0-13-241795-2. Hard cover. 573 pp.

This book provides an understanding of the importance of nutrition as it relates to livestock production and how various foodstuffs can be utilized to provide required nutrients. Chapters 1 to 12 cover nutrients, roughages, high-energy foodstuffs, laws/labelling, minerals/vitamins/additives and preparation/processing. Chapters 13 to 23 provide detailed information on specific species such as beef/dairy cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry, horses, rabbits and dogs/cats.

The authors have assembled a world-class text reflecting the latest information in the new "world market", safe food supplies, genetics, economic production, animal health and performance and nutrient utilization.

Understanding nutrition and feeding is essential to the production of livestock today and allows individuals and companies to compete in the world market.

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