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Treatment of sarcoptic mange in camels

Drs Muntasir O.A. Al-Ani and Mushin Al-Nabi of the Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory Al-Wazeria in Baghdad, Iraq, have issued a report on some interesting results achieved in the treatment of camel mange.

Two formulations were used for the application of the insecticide diazinon: in one case it was diluted in 1/100 ml water and in the other in 1.25/1 000 ml liquid paraffin.
The effectiveness of the first formulation was not satisfactory as examination of a deep skin scraping revealed the presence of living mites even after the treatment had been repeated four times at 15-day intervals.The second formulation, on the other hand, gave good results after just one application, following which examination of a deep skin scraping revealed only dead mites or no mites at all. This indicates the effectiveness of using liquid paraffin as a diluter and softener to break down the keratinized area of the skin and as a means of enhancing the deeper and more effective penetration of the insecticide used.

New courses in international animal health and veterinary laboratory science

The University of Edinburgh is offering new courses in international animal health and veterinary laboratory science.

International control of animal diseases. Following the introduction of the M.Sc./M.Phil. course in Veterinary Laboratory Science in 1996, from October 1997 a new modular M.Sc./M.Phil. course (International Animal health) will be offered at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies.

Veterinarians who have been trained in the control of animal disease and zoonotic infections at both national and international levels are increasingly needed. The freer movement of farm animals within Europe and growing European collaboration in animal health sciences are factors which have led to the development of these new courses. The need for flexible training programmes and the recent advances that have occurred in diagnostic sciences, together with the need for training and updating of veterinarians in the application of immunological and molecular sciences to disease investigation, have also been determining factors in the design of courses in a modular format.

Flexible training. For the first time, modularization of the courses enables a mix of "epidemiology" and "diagnostic laboratory" modules to be taken, reflecting the needs of people involved in national or international animal disease control. It also enables the course to be taken sequentially in ten-week blocks over several years, part time (up to five years) as well as full time (12 to 24 months for an M.Sc./M.Phil. degree).

The move to a modular format is in response to the needs and requests of graduates in each of the disciplines of animal health, production and development in tropical and non-tropical areas for an increasingly specific portfolio of theoretical and practical skills, including the ability to conduct and evaluate research in more than one discipline. Research projects (three and 15 months in M.Sc. and M.Phil., respectively) often involving overseas research projects, constitute an important part of all courses and are allied with the requirements and interests of participants. Seven modularized courses are now available, four aimed particularly at veterinary graduates, but all of the courses (with the exception of Tropical Veterinary Medicine and Tropical Veterinary Science) are open to non-veterinarians and draw on the depth of animal health, production and development expertise available in Edinburgh's institutions.

Tropical and temperate. The new M.Sc. courses in International Animal Health and in Veterinary Laboratory Science are also of relevance to tropical and non-tropical areas because of the choice of related modules. The M.Sc./M.Phil. titles of Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Tropical Veterinary Science, Tropical Animal Production and Health, and Sustainable Rural Development in the Tropics will continue, and in all courses "core" and "optional" modules are available. A wide choice of modules is offered in aspects of animal health (including international control of animal disease, epidemiology, diagnostic research laboratory sciences, sustainable utilization of wildlife, immunology and pathogenesis of infectious diseases), tropical livestock production and agricultural development.

Further details are available from: The Director, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine (CTVM), Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, Easter Bush, Edinburgh EH25 9RG, Scotland; through e-mail (; and from the CTVM home page on the Internet at

Follow-up to the World Food Summit

Following the World Food Summit, which took place in November 1996, FAO is in the process of establishing the mechanisms to promote and coordinate the follow-up actions, both within the Organization as well as with external partners. A detailed interdepartmental work plan of activities is being prepared which, in addition to its Special Programme for Food Security, will constitute the main thrust of FAO's follow-up action. It will include the following two new initiatives:

Over the past two years, attention has been directed towards the mobilization of extrabudgetary resources in support of SPFS activities. As a result, funding support has been obtained from Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan, France and some other bilateral and multilateral sources.
Agreements have recently been signed with the presidents of the World Bank and the African Development Bank by which they promised to support the SPFS pilot phase activities in Africa by providing up to US$1.5 million per country.
The pilot phase, which comprises four interrelated and complementary components, is planned and implemented by the governments and rural communities concerned through the mobilization and training of local personnel and the supply of seeds, tools and equipment within the framework of people's participation and gender-sensitive activities. Technical and financial assistance is provided by national and international sources. The four components are as follows:

The results obtained, including costs and returns to producers, at each site for each season, are quantified and analysed to reorient operations during the next season and to provide a firm analytical basis for implementation in additional locations or for preparations for the expansion phase of the SPFS.
As resources become available from external and national sources, the pilot phase may be extended to include different ecological and administrative areas of the countries involved.

Wageningen Agricultural University, the Netherlands

The Wageningen Agricultural University's section for Animal Production Systems is involved in research and education related to the study of these systems, with a special emphasis on sustainability. To discuss the implications of this work for livestock development, eight papers have been combined on a diskette and on a World Wide Web site. They are entitled "A view on current issues in livestock production", and the Animal Production Systems section encourages a direct exchange of views and experiences regarding this subject. The diskette can be obtained by sending an e-mail or a written request to Animal Production Systems, Wageningen Agricultural University, PO Box 338, 6700 AH Wageningen, the Netherlands; e-mail:; World Wide Web site: www-vh/dps/diskette.html.

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Reunión regional sobre reducción del impacto ambiental de la producción animal intensiva en zonas periurbanas

La Junta Agroempresarial Dominicana (JAD) organizó con el apoyo de la FAO el mencionado evento en Santiago de los Caballeros, del 10 al 14 de junio de 1996. En la reunión participaron once especialistas en las disciplinas relacionadas con el tema de varios países (España, México, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba y Chile), representantes de diversas instituciones locales y productores pecuarios.

Los objetivos de la reunión fueron intercambiar experiencias y promover la futura colaboración en la áreas de reducción, manejo y procesamiento de excretas, y proponer soluciones a corto, mediano y largo plazo para resolver el problema específico de contaminación de la zonas del Cibao de la República Dominicana.
La reunión consistió en dos días de visitas de campo a granjas, dos días de presentación de ponencias y discusión, medio día de conclusiones y recomendaciones y de medio día para la demostración de la instalación de un biodigestor plástico.

La región del Cibao, que es la zona agrícola más importante de la República Dominicana, cuenta con una gran densidad de población animal y humana. Estas altas densidades, aunadas a una deficiente o inexistente planificación del tratamiento y uso de los residuos sólidos y líquidos de las granjas, particularmente las porcinas, están causando graves problemas de contaminación del aire, suelo y aguas (superficiales y subterráneas).
La gran concentración de la producción porcina se originó con la repoblación de los cerdos después de su eliminación total debido a la fiebre porcina africana, al recomendarse sistemas muy intensivos de producción basados en la alimentación con concentrados hechos a partir de maíz y soya. La concentración de materia orgánica y de nutrientes contenidos en los residuales de las granjas, que son desechados en superficies limitadas, ciertamente muchas veces menores que las superficies donde originalmente se produjeron esos insumos, está causando daños muy serios a la flora, fauna e incluso a los habitantes de las zonas aledañas.
Este problema no es exclusivo de la República Dominicana, y se verifica en todas aquellas zonas donde se importan grandes cantidades de alimento, y no se ha planificado adecuadamente el manejo y uso de las excretas.
Uno de los problemas principales de las sustancias residuales es el agua contenida en las mismas, cuyo exceso proviene del lavado de instalaciones y animales. Su volumen se ve significativamente aumentado al permitir la mezcla del agua de lluvia (1 200 l por m2 de superficie expuesta) debido al deficiente diseño de los edificios y demás instalaciones.
Otro problema serio en muchas granjas es el desperdicio de alimento, que se provee en comederos rudimentarios o de diseño deficiente. Este alimento forma parte de las sustancias residuales al limpiar los corrales junto con los excrementos.
Varias conclusiones y recomendaciones resultaron de esta interesante reunión desde los puntos de vista ambientales, institucionales, legales, de sistemas de producción, sociales y económicos, válidas no solo para la República Dominicana sino para otros muchos países y regiones con problemas similares.
Aunque cada granja, dependiendo de su número de animales, localización y superficie de terreno agrícola, dará una solución diferente al tratamiento y uso de los desechos, una estrategia general podría ser la siguiente: 1) reducción al mínimo del gasto de agua y de los desperdicios de alimento; 2) separación de sólidos, comenzando con la recogida de los excrementos sólidos por separado si fuese posible, y utilizando alguna de las varias técnicas disponibles; 3) tratamiento y eventual utilización de los sólidos (por ejemplo, ensilaje con otros ingredientes para su uso como alimento; compostaje para su uso como abono orgánico; tratamiento con lombrices para la producción de humus); 4) tratamiento de los líquidos en un biodigestor (el biogás puede ser usado para la cocción de alimentos, calentamiento de lechones, secado de productos, generación de electricidad, etc.); 5) utilización directa del efluente del biodigestor como fertilizante, su secado con rejillas o mallas, o su ulterior purificación con plantas acuáticas (lirio acuático, Lemna, etc.) para reciclaje en la finca.
A mediano y largo plazo, un sistema de producción basado mayormente en alimentos producidos localmente (jugo caña de azúcar, productos de la palma de aceite, yuca, plantas acuáticas, forrajes de alta calidad) causará menor contaminación ambiental, al poder permitir un reciclaje efectivo de los nutrientes. La alimentación con una fuente de energía baja en proteína (jugo de caña, aceite de palma, harina de yuca) tiene la ventaja adicional de poder reducir signi-ficativamente el contenido de aminoácidos no esenciales de la dieta, y al mismo tiempo las excreciones de nitrógeno en las excretas.
La memorias de la reunión están siendo preparadas para su publicación. Para mayor información, dirigirse a M. Sánchez, Dirección de Producción y Sanidad Animal, FAO, Roma.

Regional technical training support programmes on multipurpose integrated and sustainable use of animal resources

Livestock are an essential and integrated part of many farming systems in developing countries. Nevertheless, the general perception that livestock are responsible for worldwide environmental destruction has made policy-makers and international organizations move away from livestock development issues, thereby creating a critical hiatus in technical support and training in this field. The specific lack of support for the integration and multipurpose utilization of livestock resources has not only caused a serious underutilization of an important resource, but it has also led to a loss of skills to the detriment of certain countries. To try to reverse this trend, the FAO Livestock Production Systems Group is currently trying to stimulate the establishment of regional technical training support programmes on the integrated and sustainable use of animal resources.

The establishment of these networks is intended to provide adequate and appropriate technical support and training to projects, institutes, intermediate users (non-governmental organizations [NGOs]), and farmers. The programme will be implemented through local institutes and NGOs which, in many cases, have specifically requested this type of technical support. The activities, however, will not only respond to an existing need perceived by farmers, but will also diffuse income-generating and diversifica-tion technologies that will be instrumental in attaining stable and more profitable utilization of existing farm resources as well as a further demand for the services provided.
As part of this worldwide initiative, various projects and meetings are being organized in Nicaragua, in collaboration with the Programa Regional de Fomento de la Tracción Animal (FOMENTA); in Colombia, with the Centro para la Investigación en Sistemas Sostenibles de Producción Agropecuaria (CIPAV); and in Bolivia, in collaboration with the Centro para el Desarrollo Social y Económico (DESEC). In addition, various other initiation projects and meetings are planned in Uganda and Thailand. Moreover, the Livestock Production Group is also actively participating in workshops in India (Creativity at Grassroots), in Ethiopia (Improving Donkey Utilization and Management) and in Cuba (Energy and the Environment), all of which will further aid the assumption of livestock's critical position in the establishment and maintenance of sustainable and income-generating farming environments.

Situation de la fièvre aphteuse en Europe en 1996 et mesures de contrôle: Balkans, Grèce et Turquie

Epidémie de type A dans les Balkans

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Foyers de type O en Thrace turque, Grèce et Bulgarie

Pour de plus amples informations, veuillez contacter Yves Leforban, Secrétaire de la Commission européenne de lutte contre la fièvre aphteuse, Division de la production et de la santé animales, FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italie.

FAO activities on meat drying

Meat drying is a traditional low-cost meat preservation method which allows the storage of meat, meat products and animal by-products without refrigeration over a prolonged period. It is of particular relevance in locations where no cold chain system exists.

FAO's Animal Production Service has initiated development activities in meat drying technologies with the aim of making meat drying methods more efficient but also sustainable, simple and cheap.
For this purpose, so-called "solar drying methods" have been developed. Solar drying differs from the traditional open-air sun drying in that it is always performed in closed systems. Solar drying systems consist of a solar energy collector and a drying chamber. The drying chamber is a simple structure comprising a wooden frame covered by transparent plastic. The solar collector is a sheet of darkened metal over which a sheet of plastic is placed to trap the hot air as it rises.
The solar collector should be as long as possible in order to ensure sufficient solar energy absorption. The hot air collected in the solar collector is driven by natural convection or with the assistance of fans (which may be driven by photovoltaic solar absorbers) into the drying chamber where the meat to be dried is placed.
Meat is usually cut into strips or flat pieces and hung on hooks or placed on a wire grid or mesh. Meat can also be partially dried, passed through a meat grinder and the resultant pellet-like pieces completely dried in the solar facility. This last preparation allows the dried meat to be used for a broad range of meat products such as hamburgers and pies, or to be used in soups, etc.
In order to disseminate these newly developed meat drying technologies, particularly in African countries, to date three regional training courses for African meat processors and extensionists have been held at the site of a meat drying development project in Kumasi, Ghana. A publication on meat drying technologies is currently being prepared and will be available at the end of 1997.

World Animal Review on the Internet

World Animal Review will be put on the Internet shortly. We are in the process of preparing a home page which will include announcements of future editions as well as lists of contents and editorials of the latest issues. The home page may be accessed through the FAO Agriculture Department (AG) and the Animal Production and Health Division (AGA) which, in turn, provide information on the various activities and programmes undertaken in the field of livestock. The site is:

Summary report of the FAO Technical Consultation on the Principles for Rational Delivery of Public and Private Veterinary Services, Rome, Italy, 25-27 March 1997

The objectives of this consultation were to discuss and agree on the technical, biological, economic and socio-cultural principles for the delivery of public and private veterinary services, particularly in African countries, with the aim of highlighting the rationale for a balanced approach when reorganizing the structure and responsibilities of veterinary services.

The consultation was attended by 16 experts from Australia, Ethiopia, France (2), Ghana, Kenya, Mali, the Netherlands, Nigeria, the Republic of South Africa (2), the Sudan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States and Zimbabwe as well as observers from Italy and the Permanent Representations to FAO of Kenya and Ghana.
It was generally agreed to establish a Negotiating Framework for Rationalizing Delivery of Public and Private Veterinary Services consisting of four stages, each with a set time frame. The framework will define who should be consulted, state the desired output of each stage and outline the process necessary for the reorganization of veterinary services in line with changing needs and economic factors.
The finalized "Principles for Rational Delivery of Public and Private Veterinary Services with Reference to Africa", which include the Negotiating Framework, will be published as an FAO technical document. In the meantime, they have already been discussed through an electronic conference. Both the document and the comments from the electronic conference will be placed on the FAO Animal Production and Health Division's World Wide Web home page.
Follow-up electronic conferences and workshops on the same subject are planned for the Latin American and Asian regions.
For further information please contact David Ward, Senior Officer, Animal Health Service, Animal Production and Health Division, Room C-520. Tel.: 39 6 52256464; e-mail:

Trypanosomiasis in goats in Zambia

K.A. Bealby, R.J. Connor and G.J. Rowlands. 1996.
Nairobi, ILRI. 88 pp.
ISBN 92-9146-008-7.

The publication describes a four-year study carried out at Kakumbi Research Station, Zambia, on the impact of trypanosomiasis in goats. The effects of this disease were related to its interaction with helminth infections and productivity parameters such as individual and herd growth and fertility. The findings confirmed trypanosomiasis was a major constraint to goat production, increasing mortality by as much as 42 percent while reducing fertility by up to 28 percent. It was therefore concluded that these two effects significantly reduce herd growth and potential offtake as well as the availability of meat, milk and skins, thus adversely affecting people's health, welfare and food security, and consequently impeding socio-economic development, particularly under village conditions.

The methods and results of each of the four annual studies are presented and discussed in some detail and, on the basis of the results, the authors raise the difficult issue as to how the knowledge may be applied to benefit rural farmers.
The book contains much information that would be useful to those working towards the improvement of livestock production throughout the tsetse-infested areas in Africa.


Goats of the world

V. Porter. 1996. Ipswich, UK, Farming Press, Miller Freeman Professional Ltd. 180 pp. and 20 colour plates.
ISBN 0-85236-347-8.
Price: £24.95.

This book is a valuable reference tool for those with an interest in the goat. It follows some 30 books on rural themes, written by the same author, including Cattle handbook to the breeds of the world.

The book is an exhaustive review of goat breeds from all continents, and a very careful and precise screening of each traditional or new goat production zone. It is enriched with location maps and colour plates, painted to scale by the well-known wildlife artist, Jake Tebbit, and illustrating more than 180 breeds and wild species. In addition to providing a brief zootechnical description, an attempt has been made to give a phylogenetic history of each breed, showing a deep knowledge of the evolution of the genus through domestication and selection, from the ancestral wild species to the modern breeds. The text is well documented and reflects the huge compilation exercise undertaken using all available sources, backed by a very broad bibliographic research. This has been achieved with the shrewdness of a police investigator: in particular, numerous references to ancient authors are compared and crossed and bear valuable witnesses on population movements and transfers, crossbreeding, local initiatives, etc., which have led to the formation of the current breeds. Considerable attention has been paid to rare and endangered breeds. All aspects of goat production are covered: meat, milk, pelts and fibre. Highly specialized European breeds are described as well as the hardy breeds used by herders in East African savannahs and the feral goats of Australia and the Falkland Islands. It should be a standard book of reference for the bookshelves of every professional interested in goat keeping and biodiversity.

The book is available from the publishers: Farming Press, Wharfedale Road, Ipswich IP1 4LG, UK. Tel.: 01473 241122; fax: 01473 240501.


Trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, biology and control

G. Hide, J.C. Mottram, G.H. Coombs and P.H. Holmes, eds. 1997.
CAB International. 366 pp. ISBN 0-85199-139-4.

This book was conceived as a tribute to the 100 years of studies on trypanosomiasis and it draws on a wide range of scientific and research expertise in order to update the reader on recent progress and current trends in biological investigations. This is supported by a comprehensive list of recent and selective references at the end of each chapter. Emphasis is placed on the integrating of research themes and in highlighting the comparative aspects that may improve the overall understanding and efficiency in dealing with these diseases. For those with a love of history, the introductory chapter by K. Vickerman charts the Landmarks in trypanosome research since the time of David Bruce. Moving through progress made in the genetic and biochemical understanding of the parasites, the diseases and mechanisms for their control, the book concludes with a consideration of their socio-economic impact and the sustainability of current trypanosomiasis control strategies.

The latter chapter is somewhat disappointing, placing undue emphasis on the specific southern African situation and on consideration of control techniques of limited and outdated application.
Overall, the publication will be a valuable addition to the libraries of scientific and higher-level technical workers involved in trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis research and control.


Focusing livestock systems research

A.C.W. Roeleveld and A. van den Broek, eds. 1996.
Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Royal Tropical Institute (KIT), KIT Press. 152 pp. ISBN 90-6832-085-8. Price f.45.

This book presents the papers and discussions of a workshop, held in Mali in 1992, and aims at providing an experience-based exploration of the methodological issues in diagnostic studies of livestock systems. Chapter 1 provides a useful, albeit rather brief, description of the activities and some of the major issues concerned with the diagnosis of livestock systems. Chapters 2 to 9 present case-studies from Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia which relate the experiences and results of the use of diagnostic methods to help focus on-farm livestock research and development interventions. Unfortunately, not all these chapters are comprehensive or clear in the description and critical assessment of the methodology used. In addition, the evaluation of collected data and the all-important process of priority setting do not receive the attention they deserve. The book would have benefited from the further inclusion of results obtained in subsequent research and extension work, which is the final test for the evaluation of any priority-setting methodology.

Nevertheless, the chapters provide much practical information that was previously confined to project documents and internal publications. The final chapter of the book reviews all case-studies and highlights some of the major pitfalls and methodological problems encountered. All in all, this is a useful publication and the critical reader could gain a lot of helpful information and practical guidance for the future execution of similar diagnostic studies.


Dairy India 1997 (5th ed.).

P.R. Gupta, ed. and publ. 903 pp.
A-25 Priyadarshini Vihar, Delhi 110092, India.
ISSN 0970-9932. Price: US$295.

The recently published 5th edition of Dairy India 1997 provides a remarkable 900-page compilation of information on all aspects of India's achievements in developing its dairy industry. It covers feeding, breeding and health aspects of animal production; supply of inputs and services; cooperative development; processing; distribution; marketing; and research and development; including such topical items as the Uruguay Round Agreement and its effect on Indian dairying. It contains a series of more than 70 articles by specialists and 250 statistical tables and graphs. The database section includes lists of analytical laboratories, associations, consultants, cheese manufacturers, dairy cooperatives, plants, dairy product dis-tributors, equipment manufacturers, feed manufacturers and dairy periodicals as well as a useful Who's Who section.

India has a human population of 953 million (including 70 million dairy farmers), a dairy animal population of 57 million cows and 39 million buffaloes, producing 74.3 million tonnes of milk annually, and the country is well on the way to becoming the world's largest milk producer by 1998.
India has increased milk production threefold since the 1960s and has also achieved the efficient distribution of milk to millions of consumers in the rapidly growing cities throughout the country under the "Operation Flood" programmes and under the overall guidance of the National Dairy Development Board at Anand, which gave birth to the well-known "Anand Pattern" of cooperative dairying. This is the world's largest and most successful dairy development project. It has succeeded in linking poor, often landless rural milk producers with rapidly growing urban markets through cooperative structures that own and operate facilities ranging from village collection centres to large modern dairies.
This edition of the Dairy India yearbook encapsulates many elements of India's successful approach and provides an extremely useful source of information on dairy development for policy-makers and implementing agencies.


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