http://www.cipav.org.co/lrrd/lrrd12/3/bist123

The potential of agro-industrial byproducts as feeds
for livestock in Lebanon

 G Bistanji, S Hamadeh S, Hajj Hassan*, F Tami and  R Tannous

 Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, American University of Beirut, Lebanon 
Email: [email protected] 
*Agriculture Research Institute, Tal ‘Amara, Lebanon

 

Abstract

Grazing systems in semi-arid areas offer only limited potential for intensification, and livestock production is becoming increasingly crop-based. A number of agro-industrial byproducts are available for animal feeding. Crop residues along with agro-industrial byproducts can play an important role in the feeding of sheep and goats under different management systems. 

A survey was conducted at more than 30 factories covering the major agro-industries in Lebanon to identify and quantify the potential byproducts generated by the agro-industrial sector. The total amount generated by the surveyed factories revealed that large amounts of byproducts are being wasted. In fact, about 90 % of these byproducts are available all year round. An estimation of the total nutritional quantity and quality of byproducts revealed a significant potential for their use as livestock feeds thus cutting down on the important feed deficit in Lebanon. 

Key words:  Byproducts, livestock, nutritive value

Introduction 

The importance of roughage as a feed resource is decreasing at the expense of cereals and agro-industrial byproducts (Steinfeld et al 1998). Food crops leave a variety of residues (straws, stalks, leaves etc.) that are utilized for animal feeding. Poor quality roughage comprises the only part of the diet for ruminant animals in most Middle East countries, for a considerable part of the year. Animals on such diets are on negative energy balance and supplementary feeding with energy and nitrogen has been used for improving the nutritional status of animals (Capper et al 1989, Hadjipanayiotou et al 1975). 

A number of agro-industrial byproducts are also available for animal feeding (Qureshi 1987). Although they constitute the main feed resources, in many developing countries (Qureshi 1993), they are not reported in statistical series of any country in the region (Nordblom and Shomo 1995). 

Crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts can play an important role in the feeding of sheep and goats under different management systems. Such residues can supply a substantial part of the maintenance requirements of small ruminants in the Asian region (Jayasuriya 1985).   

Agro-industrial byproducts are abundant in Lebanon. A study conduced in 1973 revealed the following byproducts: Wheat bran, Dried beet pulp, Beet molasses, Citrus pulp, Citrus molasses, Carob pulp, Dried whey, Tomato pulp, Spent grains, Olive pulp and Leftovers from canning industries for a total quantity of 60,651 tons (IFAD 1991). During the last two decades, the agro-industrial sector has grown and developed into a major sector with a total of 359 enterprises, as estimated by the Arabic Union of Agro-industries (Jaber 1996). 

Nevertheless, new information on the quantity and availability of these byproducts is scarce. In addition, although many neighboring countries, in the region, adopted and developed techniques for incorporating these byproducts in feed-blocks for livestock production, the latter has not been yet introduced to Lebanon. In this study, agro-industrial byproducts were surveyed to identify potential byproducts for animal feed and to quantify its potential in terms of nutritional quality and quantity. 


Methodology 

According to the study conducted by the Arabic Union of food industries, the food industry sector in Lebanon includes around 360 factories. Each sector consists of several sub-sectors (Table 1). Under this study, a survey was conducted to identify and quantify the potential byproducts generated by the agro-industrial sector. A total of 30 factories were randomly included in the survey to represent a total of 230 medium to large factories from the sample of 15 industries according to the relative importance and the size of the factory. 

A detailed questionnaire was designed to provide basic information of kind and quantity of product produced, seasonal distribution of production schedule and byproduct kind, quantity and management. Data generated from the survey were to provide information on byproduct quality, quantity and its availability during the season. In addition, nutritional potential of these by-products in terms of protein, fiber and metabolic energy was also evaluated.  


Results and discussion 

The survey conducted in 1997 - 1998 revealed the major potential byproducts in Lebanon. A summary of all potential byproducts with their relative quantities and seasonal distribution is listed in Table 1 indicating those fifteen agro-industries having byproducts with potential use for livestock feed. Only three sub-sectors had no significant byproducts namely: the nut, chocolate and concentrate juice industries. The total amount generated by the 27 factories (13% of total factories) surveyed was 78,265 tons of potential byproducts. Major byproducts included: sesame hull, olive cake, potato peel and damaged pieces, citrus pulp, fruit and vegetables pulp, skin, core and leftovers, wheat bran, corn residues, sunflower, breads and cakes leftovers, whey, poultry wastes, grapes leftovers, spices leftovers, sugar beet pulp and molasses, carob leftovers, spent grain and brewer’s yeast. About 90 % of the byproducts are available all year round; the rest are available in fall, winter and spring seasons.  

Table 1. Results of factory survey (1997-1999)

Byproducts

Sector

No. Factories Visited

Total Factories No.

%  from every industry

Product qty/ton/ season

Byproduct Qty/Tons

Seasonal production

 

Sesame hull

Arabic sweets & canning industries

4

20

20

15,530

1,109

all year round

 

Olive cake

Olive oil industry

1

2

50

250

75

Fall-winter

 

Potato peel & damaged pieces

Potato chips industry

2

5

40

3,465

2,772

all year round

 

Citrus pulp

Juice industry (fresh)

2

2

100

4,874

2,545

Fall-winter-spring

 

Fruit & vegetable pulp/skin/core leftovers

Canning and packing industry

5

37

14

11,290

5,292

all year round
 (different intervals)

 

Wheat bran

Cereals/Mill industry

2

3

67

140,000

32,200

all year round

 

Corn residues

Cereal/Mill industry

2

 

 

10,000

360

all year round

 

Sun flower

Sunflower oil indust

2

 

 

40,000

6,000

Fall-winter-spring

 

Breads & cakes leftovers

Cereals / Bakery industry

2

8

25

3,607

482

all year round

 

Whey

Milk industry

2

29

7

119

78

all year round

 

Poultry wastes & leftovers

Poultry industry

1

5

20

(1.5  
million  heads)  

980

all year round

 

Grapes & Anis seed & skin

Alcohol industry wine & Arak

2

36

6

600

70

fall

 

Spices leftovers

Spice industry

1

13

8

104

6

all year round

 

Sugar beet pulp

Sugar industry

1

1

100

300,000

13,500

all year round

 

Molasses

Sugar industry

 

 

 

300,000

12,000

 

 

Carob leftovers

Molasses industry

1

8

13

60

40

Fall-winter

 

Spent grains ( 80% moisture)

Alcohol/ beer industry

1

3

33

8,000

640

all year round

 

Brewer's yeast (in suspension)

Alcohol/beer
Industry

 

 

 

8,000

117

all year round

 

No byproducts

Nuts industry

1

33

3.03

-

-

 

 

 

Chocolate industry

1

15

6.67

-

-

 

 

 

Juice industry (concentrate)

1

10

10.00

-

-

 

 

Grand total

-

30

170

13.04

-

78,266

-

 

Moreover, the survey indicated (Table 2) that few byproducts commonly used for feed are being sold, namely: wheat bran, and sugar beet pulp, and to some extent molasses, and olive cake. The rest of the byproducts were either disposed of or given away for free. Potato chips industry, vegetable processing and brewer’s grain industry had to dispose their byproducts at a significant cost depending on the quantity and the season. The on site processing of the byproducts into feed blocks would reduce the solid waste management and environment pollutants on the national level, and may generate income for these industries.    

Table 2.  Fate of the byproducts generated by only eighteen companies included in the survey:

Byproduct

Number of companies

Quantity Tons

Sold  
US$ / Tons

Disposal
cost US$ / season

Potato peal

1

2,190.00

-

2,500.00

Vegetable pulp/seed

1

200.00

-

1,500.00

Brewer’s grain

1

640.00

-

15.00

Whey

1

78.00

-

0.00

Sesame hull

1

980.00

-

0.00

Bakery (cake /bread)

1

50.00

-

0.00

Winery (grapes: seed/skin)

1

70.00

-

0.00

Jam / Juice leftovers

2

263.00

-

0.00

Canned legume leftovers

1

450.00

-

0.00

Vegetables pulp / seeds

1

700.00

-

0.00

Flower essence pulp / hay

1

50.00

-

0.00

Olive cake

1

75.00

10.00

 

Apricot seeds

1

150.00

40.00

 

Molasses (karob)

1

40.00

14.00

 

Sugar beet pulp

1

13,500.00

60.00

 

Wheat bran

2

32,200.00

100.00

 

 

 As shown in Table3, both the quantity and quality of the byproducts are notably high in terms of their nutritional values and amount produced. The quantity of by-product surveyed (70,156 tons) and representing around 13% of the total sector, is estimated to provided a total of 184, 8484 and 8528, in one year, of ME (106 Mega-calories), CP (tons), and CF (tons) respectively. In developing countries, crop residues, agro-industrial byproducts and animal wastes that are not utilized can fill the gap of supply and demand for conventional feed resources (FAO 1985 and Hadjipanayiotou 1997). Agro-industrial byproducts such as sugar-beet pulp, citrus pulp, olive cake, tomato pulp, brewer’ grain, poultry excreta and others, can be utilized as straight feeds and/or supplements for upgrading the nutritional value of cereal straws and of feedstuffs available for grazing from the range during the long dry period (Amin 1997). High moisture agro-industrial byproducts such as citrus, sugar beet and tomato pulp are of high nutritional value. In some countries these byproducts are given to animal fresh and/or after being sun-dried. (Hadjipanayiotou et al 1993, Economides 1986). 

Table 3.  Some Agro-industrial by-products with estimated nutrient composition: (Metabolisable energy ME, crude protein CP, and crude fiber CF), and their estimated total quantities of nutrient per year:

 

 

Amount, tons/yr

ME, Mcal/kg

Mcal, 106 tons/yr

CP, %

CP, tons/yr

CF,
%

CF, tons/yr

 

Sesame Hull

1,109

2.76

3.06

45.50

504.60

5.70

63.21

 

Citrus Pulp dried citrus meal

2,545

2.83

7.20

6.50

165.42

13.10

333.40

 

Wheat Bran

32,200

2.37

76.30

15.20

4894.40

10.00

3220.00

 

Sun Flower Residues

6,000

2.10

12.60

6.70

402.00

35.10

2106.00

 

Whey dried product

78

2.87

0.22

16.70

13.00

0.20

0.16

 

Grapes,  skin and seeds

70

0.93

0.06

11.80

8.26

29.00

20.30

 

Sugar Beet Pulp

13,500

2.58

34.08

8.80

1188.00

18.00

2430.00

 

Sugar Beet Molasses

12,000

1.44

17.28

6.60

792.00

0.00

0.00

 

Poultry Wastes With Litter

980

2.22

2.17

21.90

214.62

14.40

141.12

 

Bread / Cake dried bakery wastes

482

3.23

1.56

9.80

47.24

1.20

5.78

 

Yeast Brewers

117

2.87

0.33

43.80

51.25

2.90

3.40

 

Brewer's Grain

640

2.46

1.57

27.10

173.44

13.20

84.48

 

Olive Cake* 
skin, pulp, seed after oil extract

75

3.55

26.62

5.00

3.75

15.00

11.25

 

Corn Residues Husks & leaves

360

2.30

0.83

7.30

26.28

30.20

108.72

 

TOTAL

70,156

 

183.90

 

8484.26

 

8527.82

 

*Data from: Feeding Ensiled Crude Olive Oil Cake, M. Hadjipanayiotou, Livestock Production Science 59 (1999) 61-66; All other Data from: US Canadian Tables of Feed Composition, NRC
ME in MCal/kg for Ruminants; Crude Protein, and Crude Fiber Data is expressed 100% DM

 

The above results clearly indicate the availability of byproducts for use as feed supplements for livestock animals, thus cutting down on the large feed deficit in Lebanon, estimated at 60% of the needs. An economic analysis of the production of feed blocks using agro-industrial byproducts and assessment of their value in improving the economic sustainability of the small ruminant production in the small ruminant systems is needed. 


References 

Amin M 1997 The Effect of Byproduct Feed Blocks on the Weight of Awassi Sheep Grazing Stubble. In: Improvement of Crop-livestock integration Systems in West Asia and North Africa, ICARDA, Aleppo, pp. 29-40  

Capper R P, Thomson E F and Rihawi S 1989  Volantary intake and digestibility of barley straw as influenced by variety and supplementation with either barley grain  or cottonseed cake. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 26: 105-118 

Economides S 1986 Nutrition and Management of sheep and goats. In: Small Ruminant Production in the Developing Countries. Animal Production and  Health Paper No. 58. FAO, Rome, Italy. pp 61-73 

FAO 1985 Better utilization of crop residues and byproducts in animal feeding: research guidelines. Animal Production and Health Paper. No.50 FAO, Rome, Italy. p 213

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Qureshi A W 1993 Issues related to sustainable development of livestock production. In: Strategies for sustainable animal agriculture in developing countries. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, No. 107, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 1-5 

Qureshi A W 1987
Current Trends and Possibilities of Increasing Small Ruminant Production in the Near East. In: Small Ruminants in the Near East. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper, No. 54, FAO, Rome, Italy, pp. 21-22

Steinfeld H, de Haan C and Blackburn H, 1998 Livestock-Environment Interactions, Issues and Options, Report. pp 56. FAO Rome, World Bank Washington

Received 10 April 2000

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