Reports Archive: 33rd session - Appendix 7

 

 

Foot and mouth disease in EGYPT

History of FMD disease in EGYPT

 

 

  • Foot and mouth disease (FMD), one of the most wide spread diseases affecting cloven-footed animals, which has a detrimental effects on meat and milk production.

  • The disease has been reported in Egypt over the last 50 years. The first detection of the disease was in 1950 when strain SAT2 caused an outbreak.

  • The most sever outbreak in Egypt took place in February 1987.

  • The disease affected 63,430 cattle and buffaloes, 11,178 sheep and goats and 230 swines with mortality rate reaching 4%, 2% and 100% respectively.

Table 1: Number of infected and dead animals with FMD

Year of
outbreak

Animal species

Infected cases

Deaths

%

1987

Bovine

63 430

2 521

4

Caprine, Ovine

11 178

186

2

Swine

230

230

100

 

 

  • In March 1993 an outbreak took place in 11 governorates, twenty foci represented by 2027 cattle, 1827 buffaloes were clinically infected.

  • In November and December 1997 sporadic cases of mild FMD took place.

  • In 1998 no cases.

  • The virus was isolated from tissues of infected animals and identified by standard criteria as Mouse inoculation, CF, ELISA and Polymerase Chain Reactor (PCR).

  • Serological techniques have confirmed the virus as an O1 strain, which could be the same serotype reported in Egypt.

 

Table 2: Epidemic Foci of FMD in Egypt

 

 

Year

Number
of foci

Locations

1993

20

Sharkia, Dakahlia, Assiut,
Monoufia, Kaliobia, Gharbia,
Ismailia, Dumiat, Cairo,
Beni suef, Kafr El Sheikh

1994

0

 

1995

0

 

1996

0

 

1997

5

Monoufia, Kaliubia, Giza,
Dakahlia and Fayoum

1998

0

 

*FMD Control Program*

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1) The Quarantine measures:

 

  • a) The quarantine measures applied in Egypt, prohibits the importation of alive bovine, ovine, caprine or deboned meat or animal products except from countries free from FMD at least 6 months before importation to prevent the entrance of strains other than strain O1 to the country.
  • b) The newly imported animals are put in quarantine stations for 33 days and vaccinated against FMD with serotype O1 vaccine.

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2) Notification

  • a) Disease surveillance system is continuously adopted by the national veterinarians distributed all over the country working in different positions as field vets, abattoirs, vaccination campaigns and quarantine stations. Notification can be also received from owners or any member of the public. The veterinary directorate notifies the chairman of the GOVS who immediately direct a diagnostic team to investigate and provide an expert opinion, samples are taken to the diagnostic labs.
  • b) Notification for the health directorate in the governorate to apply the sanitary measures for the human beings.

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3) Infected farms

Must be put under quarantine measures for 21 days after the recovery of the last infected case or death. Animals in contact and animals in the surrounding area must be vaccinated (Ring vaccination, a buffer zone).

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4) Sanitary measures

Disinfecting of all premises using Formaline 1-2%/Sod. Carbonate 4% or Sod. Hydroxide 2%. All the farm utensils and tools must be also disinfected. Hygienic disposal of animal wastes and contaminated rations.

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5) Treatment

After taking samples for lab. Diagnosis, lesions are disinfected with Sod. Carbonate 2% or Boric Acid 4%, Glycerol Alum or Glycerol Borax. Washing feet with Copper Sulfate 4%.

Udder and teats lesions are washed with Boric Acid 4%.

Using antibiotics to combat the secondary invaders.

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6) Vaccination

Using the binary ethylene imine inactivated vaccine produced from the locally isolated strain sero type O1. Hydro gel aluminum adjuvant is used. The vaccine is produced in VSVRI at Abbassia.

We vaccinate cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goat and camel every 6 months (twice yearly) and every 4 months for dairy farms, calves are vaccinated at age of 6 weeks.

In Egypt vaccination against most of the infectious and contagious disease is obligatory and free of charge.

Click here for Table 3. The Number of vaccinated animals against FMD (1990-1998).

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7) Sero-surveillance

Sero-surveillance to assess the immune status after Vaccination Campaigns, 5112 animal serum samples has been collected during 1998 and the laboratory results were satisfactory.

Table 4. Total Number of collected serum samples for sero Surveillance for assessing the immune status of vaccinated animals against FMD from 1995 to 1998.

 

Year

Total
samples

Protected

Non
protected

%
protection

1995

4 620

2 727

1 893

59

1996

2 520

2 407

113

95.5%

1997

5 037

4 355

692

86.4%

1998

5 112

4 401

711

86.1%

 

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