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ARCHIVE LATEST ASF situation in Asia update

19 December 2019, 16:00 hours; Rome

Disclaimer

Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added since the last ASF China situation update appears in red. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Local governments and international sources (World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]), as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.

 

 Overview

Hazard: African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal animal disease affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate.

 

Affected provinces:
China: Anhui, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jilin, Liaoning, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shanxi, Yunnan, Hunan and Guizhou, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Qinghai, Guangdong, Gansu, Shandong and Hainan Provinces, Tianjin, Chongqing, Shanghai and Beijing Municipalities, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang, Xinjiang Uygur and Tibet (Xizang) Autonomous Regions and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR).

Mongolia: Bulgan, Darkhan-Uul, Dundgovi, Orkhon, Selenge, Töv Provinces and Ulaanbaatar.

Viet Nam: All provinces and municipalities.

Cambodia: Ratanakiri, Tboung Khmum, Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kandal Provinces.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea: Chagang-Do.

Lao People’s Democratic Republic: All provinces and municipality.

Myanmar: Shan State.

The Philippines: Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Cavite Provinces, and Metro Manila (Caloocan, Malabon and Quezon Cities).

Republic of Korea: Gyeonggi-do, Gangwon-do* and Incheon City (* wild boar only)

Timor-Leste: Dili City.

Indonesia: North Sumatra Province.

Map 1. ASF situation in Asia (August 2018 to date)

ASF situation in China (August 2018 to date
Click to enlarge - Source: China: MARA, Viet Nam: WAHIS & media information, Other: WAHIS.

 

 Situation update

Mongolia

Since its first report on 15 January 2019, 11 outbreaks in 6 provinces and in Ulaanbaatar have been reported, involving 105 farms/households. More than 3,115 pigs, more than 10 percent of the total pig population in Mongolia, have died/been destroyed due to the ASF outbreaks.

 

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the occurrence of the first ASF outbreak in Chagang-do on 23 May 2019 [reference].

 

Republic of Korea

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 17 September 2019, ASF was detected in domestic pigs in 14 farms (Gyeonggi-do (9), Incheon City (5)); and in 46 wild pigs from Gyeonggi-do (30) and Gangwon-do (16) [reference].

 

China

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) confirmed its first ASF outbreak in Liaoning Province on 3 August 2018, 164* outbreaks detected in 32 Provinces / Autonomous Regions / Municipalities / Special Administrative Region, about 1,193,000 pigs have been culled [reference].

 

The Philippines

Since the Department of Agriculture confirmed the first ASF outbreak started on 25 July 2019, there have been a total of 24 ASF outbreaks in nine provinces/cities on Luzon Island. As of 30 November, 497 barangays are said to be affected, with 136,770 pigs are said to be depopulated [reference].

 

Viet Nam

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) confirmed its first ASF outbreak on 19 February 2019, all 63 provinces/cities reported outbreaks, about 5,950,000 pigs have been culled. According to the Review Conference on Animal Health in 2019 held on 16 December 2019, of the 667 ASF affected districts in 63 provinces/cities, 412 districts (61.7%) in 56 provinces/cities have passed 30 days after the last outbreak without recurrence [reference].

 

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Since the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Salavan Province on 20 June 2019, more than 165 ASF outbreaks were reported, in all 18 Provinces / city; 39,000 pigs have died or been destroyed due to the ASF.

 

Cambodia

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Ratanakiri Province on 2 April 2019, ASF outbreaks were detected in 5 Provinces.

 

Myanmar

Since the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Irrigation confirmed the first ASF outbreak on 1 August 2019, a total of 4 ASF outbreaks were reported in Shan State.

 

Indonesia

The Ministry of Agriculture confirmed the first ASF outbreak in Indonesia in North Sumatra Province, posted detailed information on OIE WAHIS on 17 December 2019. Since the first ASF outbreak started on 4 September 2019 in Dairi, 392 backyard farms in 16 regencies have been affected; 28,136 pigs have been lost [reference]. FAO is liaising with the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health Services (DGLAHS), and has submitted a Discussion Paper to the DGLAHS on Approaches for Minimising Risks and Impacts of African Swine Fever Outbreaks in Indonesia.

 

Timor-Leste

The Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries announced the confirmation of ASF outbreak on 27 September 2019. The disease started on 9 September, a total of 100 outbreaks in smallholder pig farms has been recorded in the Capital City, Dili [reference1, reference2].

 

Actions taken by China

 

MARA released the 2019 edition of the ‘ASF Epidemic Emergency Implementation Plan’ [reference1]. MARA updated regulations on pig slaughterhouses: It task pig slaughter enterprises to conduct self-inspection by using PCR. If ASF is detected, the slaughtering enterprise should stop production for 48 hours, then apply for evaluation to resume production [reference2]. MARA released a comprehensive “Technical guideline for restocking of the African swine fever affected pig farms” on 10 September 2019 [reference3]. MARA released the “three-year action plan to accelerate the recovery and development of pig production” on 4 December. The plan aims to stabilise pork market and to recover production capacity. It differentiate areas into a) Production area, b) Consumption area, c) Megacities, and d) balanced area, and promote implementation of the most appropriate method for the area [reference4, reference5]. Ahead of winter holiday season, 40,000 tons of frozen pork has been released from the Central Reserve [reference6]. MARA hold a press conference entitled “pig production trend” including active Q&A on the ‘three-year plan’, ‘middlemen’ issue, and further release of pork from the central stockpile before festivities [reference7].

Figure 1. Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China

Number of ASF reported village by region by onset month* in China
Click to enlarge - * Including detection in live pigs in intercepted vehicles. For cases with unknown onset date, detection date, confirmation date or reporting date was used.

Source: Veterinary Bureau, MARA, China.

 

Actions taken by the Republic of Korea

 

To prevent ASF spread to southern parts of the country, MAFRA set a buffer zone (outside the 10km radius of affected farms) that is separating the affected zone from southern free zone; controlling the traffic of feed vehicles between zones [reference1]. On 27 October, an enhanced emergency measure reinforcement plan was released; including installation of wide-area fence from west to east side of the country and the use of firearms in the buffer zone to drive wild boars [reference2]. Currently a joint public-military intensive surveillance is going on within the newly developed fences [reference3].

Figure 2. Cumulative number of affected communes/week in Viet Nam

Newly affected communes/week in Viet Nam including estimated number of communes affected anytime in the past
(Calculated figure)

 

Actions taken by Viet Nam

 

Viet Nam has implemented movement control of pigs and pig products from affected communes. The Central Committee of the Communist Party issued the Directive (No.34-CT/TW, 20 May) to strengthen their leadership and operational instructions for effective ASF response, control and prevention. National Steering Committee for ASF prevention and control requested National Steering Committee against smuggling and People's Committees of provinces to conduct measures to prevent, promptly detect and strictly handle cases of smuggling, illegal transportation, trafficking of animals, animal products, especially pigs and pig products into Viet Nam (No.10/BCDDTLCP, 16 October).

 

Actions taken by Cambodia

 

Cambodia implemented movement control of live pigs, pork and pork products, stamping out, disposal and disinfection in affected villages. Further investigations have been carried out in neighbouring areas. The authorities are strengthening farm biosecurity and testing animals at slaughterhouses [reference].

 

Actions taken by Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

The Ministry designates Red Area around an outbreak, to control the movement of pig and pork products, and prohibits pork consumption; and yellow Area (3 km radius from the red areas) as designated surveillance zones.

 

Actions taken by the Philippines

 

The Philippines has been implementing its 1-7-10 protocol to manage, contain and control the spread of the disease i.e. all pigs within 1-kilometer radius of infected farms will be culled; limit animal movement and swine farms will be under strict surveillance and testing within a 7-kilometer radius; swine farms within a 10-kilometer radius will be required to submit a mandatory report on the disease [reference1]. The country will be divided into- Containment Zone and Free Zone; within the Containment Zone, there will be: infected zones, buffer zones, surveillance zones, and protected zones [reference2].

 

 FAO’s recommendations

Countries of the region

  • Animal disease containment in its broadest sense should be prioritized within the highest levels of governments.
  • Preparedness (e.g. contingency planning, standard operating procedures— SOPs, secured financial support) for improved early warning, detection and notification, early reaction, and coordination needs to be in place and reviewed periodically in relation to changing disease situation.
  • Application of strict biosecurity measures specific to the different swine producing sectors including frequent cleaning and disinfection of farms, transport vehicles, and improved husbandry practices and production systems.
  • Strengthening surveillance and monitoring of transport of live pigs as well as pork products.
  • Good communication and coordination with swine producing commercial sector and swine famers are essential to strengthen cooperation in ASF prevention, detection, and control. Awareness and training of all stakeholders, from veterinarians to farmers, intermediaries and other value chain actors is needed.
  • Communication to public is to be in place to avoid the rumours leading to food safety perceptions and consumption disruption.
  • Farm registries, animal identification and censuses are essential to enable animal health interventions.
  • Prohibition of swill feeding where feasible; highly regulated where not.
  • Strengthening proper disposal of food waste (food services, airports, seaports), which may contain uncooked pork products.
  • Outbreak control strategies must be in place. The strategies need to be developed in consultation with the private sector (pig producers and allied industries, such as transport, feed operators) for improved disease management options and compliance.

National Considerations, Inter-Regional Collaboration and Solidarity

  • Strengthening intraregional networks on disease management and diagnostic protocols.
  • Understanding pig and pork value chains within the country and with neighbouring countries is essential for improved risk management.

 

 FAO’s actions

  • FAO EMC-AH mission to Timor-Leste to assess ASF situation and response strategy (December 2019)
  • First cohort of trainees have completed the FAO tutored e-learning course on ASF (December 2019) and plans to offer this in 2020 to multiple regions developed.
  • The 2019 Annual Coordination meeting of the Project Steering Committee for the FAO-China South-South Cooperation project was held in Kunming City, China, including discussion on ‘ASF prevention and control’ (December 2019).
  • ECTAD/FAO co-organized the 3rd Meeting of the GF-TADs standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia and 4th regional workshop on swine disease control in Asia (November 2019) [reference].
  • The Regional Laboratory Coordinator undertook a mission to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to provide laboratory equipment, reagents and training on ASF diagnostic methodologies (4-8 November 2019).
  • FAO EMC-AH mission to Papua New Guinea to assess ASF preparedness and response strategy (October) [reference]
  • ECTAD Viet Nam uploaded a video clip to YouTube on technical advice [reference].
  • Inception Workshop for the Regional Technical Cooperation Programme on African Swine Fever Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia was held in Bangkok (August 2019) [reference].
  • ECTAD/FAO Regional office for Asia and the Pacific attended the 2nd standing group of experts on African swine fever (SGE-ASF) meeting for Asia held in Tokyo, Japan (July 2019) [reference].
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Lao PDR to assess the ASF situation and preparedness and response strategy (June 2019).
  • FAO and World Bank joint presentation at the G7 CVO meeting (May 2019).
  • OIE and FAO delivered a joint presentation on ASF at the 87th OIE General Session, OIE, Paris (May 2019).
  • FAO deployed an EMC-AH mission to Cambodia from 27 May to assess the ASF situation and response strategy (May 2019).
  • In Cambodia, the private sector organized an awareness-training program entitled "Breeding pigs under ASF threat", at which FAO ECTAD Cambodia presented the regional ASF situation (May 2019).
  • FAO project on ASF Emergency Preparedness and Response in East and Southeast Asia” started (April 2019).
  • Beijing International Symposium on ASF was jointly organized by MARA, FAO and OIE in Beijing (APRIL 2019).
  • The GF-TADS Standing Group of Experts (SGE) on ASF for Asia was held in Beijing, hosted by MARA (April 2019).
  • FAO in collaboration with the General Directorate of Animal Health and Production (GDAHP), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Cambodia, organized a National Consultative Workshop on the Development of ASF Preparedness and Response Plan (ASF-CPRP) in Cambodia (April 2019).
  • FAO organized a workshop on ASF Preparedness & Response Plan and portable PCR in Cambodia (April 2019)....[and more]

Useful links

  • African swine fever (ASF) detection and diagnosis. A manual for veterinarians (2017) [English, Русский, 中文]
  • Carcass management for small- and medium-scale livestock farms [Link]
  • African Swine Fever in wild boar - Ecology and biosecurity [Link]
  • FAO FOOD OUTLOOK [May’19, ASF special report from p65; Nov’19]  
  • Presentations of the 1st Standing Group of Experts on African Swine Fever (SGE-ASF) for Asia are available here
  • Presentations of the International Symposium on Prevention and Control of ASF also available Part 1: Strategy, Part 2: Eradication, Part 3: Control measures, Part 4: Diagnosis and vaccines.
  • Regional strategy for the control of ASF in Africa (FAO, AU-IBAR and ILRI, 2017) [Link]
  • Manual on the preparation of African swine fever contingency plans (2001) [Link]
  • Rapid risk assessment of ASF introduction into China (Mar 2018) [Link]
  • Good Emergency Management Practice: The Essentials [Link]
  • Good practices for biosecurity in the pig sector (2010) [Link
  • ASF awareness video [Link]
  • OIE disease card [Link], OIE Manual (2012) [Link], OIE Code [Link], OIE weekly ASF situation reports [Link]
  • Global ASF Research Alliance [Link
  • Official map of ASF detection in Russian Federation in far-eastern Siberia 2007-2019 [Link]

 


* Number corrected.