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ARCHIVE Sub-Saharan Africa HPAI situation update

11 April 2018, 17:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued on 09 May 2018


Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last Sub-Saharan Africa HPAI situation update appears in red. For poultry cases with unknown onset dates, reporting dates were used instead. FAO compiles information communicated by field officers on the ground in affected countries, from regional offices, and from World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE], as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material in the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.



Situation: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes) with pandemic potential in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Confirmed countries (H5N1): Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria and Togo.
Confirmed countries (H5N8): Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
Animal/environmental findings: Please see reports from individual countries below.
Number of human cases: None reported to date.

Map 1. Officially reported HPAI outbreaks (H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes) in Sub-Saharan Africa, by onset date (1 October 2016 – 11 April 2018)

Officially reported HPAI outbreaks (H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes) in Sub-Saharan Africa, by onset date (1 October 2016 – 14 February 2018)
Click to enlarge. Note:  Map A shows confirmed H5N8 HPAI events observed since 01 October 2017; Map B shows confirmed H5N1 and H5N8 HPAI events observed between 01 October 2016 and 30 September 2017.



 Situation update

South Africa H5N8 HPAI

  • Number of outbreaks* to date169
  • Regions affected: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Kwazulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North West, Western Cape
  • Outbreaks reported since last update: 5
  • Most recent outbreaks: Observed on 11 March 2018 in North West Province

Table 1. Summary of countries with no new H5N1 HPAI events reported


1° Administrative regions affected

Date of last observed outbreak

Date of last outbreak report

# reported outbreaks to date

Burkina Faso Bazéga, Boulkiemde, Houet, Kadiogo, Poni, Sanguié, Comoe, Kourweogo, Boulgou, Ioba, Nayala, Nahouri*, Yatenga 21/07/2015 02/10/2015 68*
Cameroon Adamaoua, Centre, South and West 31/03/2017 31/03/2017 22
Côte d’Ivoire Abidjan, Bassam, Belier, Bouaké, Comoe, Gontougo, Lagunes 27/08/2016 03/10/2016 67
Ghana Greater Accra, Ashanti, Central, Eastern, Volta, Western 26/10/2016 23/11/2016 63
Niger Maradi, Niamay 21/02/2016 02/07/2016 2
Nigeria Abia, Adamawa, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Lagos, Nassarawa, Ogun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto and Zamfara 29/05/2017 02/06/2017 800
Togo Maritime 07/06/2017 03/07/2017 3

*Please note that the administrative regions affected and the total number of confirmed H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in Burkina Faso has been revised based on information received from the country.


Table 2. Summary of countries with no new H5N8 HPAI events reported



1° Administrative regions affected

Date of last observed outbreak

Date of last outbreak report

# reported outbreaks to date

Cameroon Extreme North 02/01/2017 14/02/2017 1
Dem. Rep. Of the Congo Ituri 01/12/2017 03/03/2018 35
Niger Tillaberi 23/01/2017 13/04/2017 1
Nigeria Kano, Nasarawa, Ogun 25/01/2018 02/02/2018 4
Uganda Budaka, Kalangala, Masaka and Wakiso Districts 16/01/2017 06/02/2017 24
Zimbabwe Mashonaland 17/05/2017 01/06/2017 1


For a phylogenetic tree of H5N8 viruses isolated from outbreaks in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa please click here. Acknowledgements: Misheck Mulumba, Lia Rotherham, Antoinette van Schalkwyk, Alison Lubisi, Marco Romito, Princess Moswa-Kato and Chantel De Beer; Agricultural Research Council-Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Campus (ARC-OVR) affiliation.

Figure 1. Case counts of reported H5N1 HPAI poultry outbreaks in Sub-Saharan African countries by MONTH based on onset date

Case counts of reported H5N1 HPAI poultry outbreaks in Sub-Saharan African countries by MONTH based on onset date
Click to enlarge - Note: Where onset date was not available, reporting date was used (source: EMPRES-i).


 FAO's support to countries

Global level

  • HQ (AGAH/EMPRES), ECTAD-Accra and RAF liaising with affected countries and those at risk;
  • USD 6.2 million mobilized from FAO internal resources (SFERA and TCP), AfDB, ROK and USAID (under GHSA funding and the EPT2 program) to support assessments and immediate response;
  • FAO issued a press release on H5N8 HPAI in Uganda on 1 February 2017, the first time that HPAI was confirmed in the East Africa region;
  • FAO issued a Qualitative Risk Assessment addressing H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in the Central African region.
  • FAO issued a Risk Assessment addressing H5N8 HPAI in Uganda and the risk of spread to neighbouring countries.
  • FAO South Africa commissioned a socio-economic impact study following the Zimbabwe H5N8 HPAI Outbreak as a means of supporting evidence based policies and decisions.
  • FAO South Africa has supported a Consultancy and Validation workshop to review and update the Southern African Development Community (SADC) HPAI strategic plan.
  • On 6 April 2018 FAO Cameroon provided the National Veterinary Laboratory (LANAVET) with 1.3 tonnes of materials and equipment for sample collection, transport, storage and analysis, funded by USAID under the FAO EPT2 program.

Peer-reviewed Publications

  • Ekong P.S., Cardona C.J., Bryssinckx W., Ikechukwu-Eneh C., Lombin L.H., Carpenter T.E. Spatial clustering of pathology submissions during the initial introduction and spread of avian influenza H5N1 in poultry in Nigeria in 2006-2007. Veterinaria Italiana 2018 March 31;54(1):13-20. doi: 10.12834/VetIt.870.4301.3. [reference]. The present article describes the spatial distributions and evaluated clustering of the free of charge (FOC) submissions from poultry farms at the global, local, and focal levels between the 2006 and 2007 epidemic in Nigeria. A significant global clustering of the FOC submissions was observed. Significant local clusters of submissions were observed in the North-East, North-Central, and South-West zones. There was significant decline in FOC submissions with increasing distance from National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom. These results indicated that the geographic area of influence of the FOC submission program in Nigeria was limited to regions closer to the diagnostic laboratory.
  • Gambaryan A., Gordeychuk I., Boravleva E., Lomakina N., Kropotkina E., Lunitsin A., Klenk H.D., Matrosovich M. Immunization of Domestic Ducks with Live Nonpathogenic H5N3 Influenza Virus Prevents Shedding and Transmission of Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Virus to Chickens. Viruses. 2018 March 31;10(4). pii: E164. doi: 10.3390/v10040164. [reference]. A low pathogenic H5N3 wild aquatic bird virus was used to assess prevention of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) transmission between ducks and chickens. The ducks orally infected with a H5N1 HPAIV excreted the virus in feces. All chickens that were in contact with the infected ducks became sick, excreted the virus, and died. However, the ducks orally inoculated with 10⁴ 50% tissue culture infective doses of the H5N3 virus and challenged 14 to 90 days later with H5N1 HPAIV did not excrete the challenge virus. All contact chickens survived and did not excrete the virus. Our results suggest that low pathogenic virus of wild aquatic bird origin can be used for the prevention of transmission of H5N1 viruses between ducks and chickens.