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ARCHIVE Sub-Saharan Africa HPAI situation update

14 November 2018, 17:00 hours; Rome

The next update will be issued on 12 December 2018


Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last Sub-Saharan Africa HPAI situation update appears in red. For poultry cases with unknown onset dates, reporting dates were used instead. FAO compiles information communicated by field officers on the ground in affected countries, from regional offices, and from World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE], as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material in the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.



Situation: Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes) with pandemic potential in countries of Sub-Saharan Africa.
Confirmed countries (H5N1): Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria and Togo.
Confirmed countries (H5N8): Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Niger, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
Animal/environmental findings: Please see reports from individual countries below.
Number of human cases: None reported to date.

Map 1. Officially reported HPAI outbreaks (H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes) in Sub-Saharan Africa, by onset date (1 October 2017 – 14 November 2018)

Officially reported HPAI outbreaks (H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes) in Sub-Saharan Africa, by onset date
Click to enlarge. Note:  Map A shows confirmed H5N8 HPAI events observed since 01 September 2018; Map B shows confirmed H5N1 and H5N8 HPAI events observed between 01 October 2017 and 30 September 2018.


 Situation update

South Africa H5N8 HPAI

  • Number of outbreaks* to date: 194
  • Regions affected: Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Kwazulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape, Western Cape.
  • Outbreaks reported since last update: 2
  • Most recent outbreaks: Observed on 15 September 2018 in Western Cape


Table 1. Summary of countries with no new H5N1 HPAI events reported


1° Administrative regions affected

Date of last observed outbreak

Date of last outbreak report

# reported outbreaks to date

Burkina Faso Bazéga, Boulkiemde, Houet, Kadiogo, Poni, Sanguié, Comoe, Kourweogo, Boulgou, Ioba, Nayala, Nahouri*, Yatenga 21/07/2015 02/10/2015 68*
Cameroon Adamaoua, Centre, South and West 31/03/2017 31/03/2017 22
Côte d’Ivoire Abidjan, Bassam, Belier, Bouaké, Comoe, Gontougo, Lagunes 27/08/2016 03/10/2016 67
Ghana Greater Accra, Ashanti, Central, Eastern, Volta, Western 26/10/2016 23/11/2016 63
Niger Maradi, Niamay 21/02/2016 02/07/2016 2
Nigeria Abia, Adamawa, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Lagos, Nassarawa, Ogun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto and Zamfara 29/05/2017 02/06/2017 800
Togo Maritime 27/03/2018 18/04/2018 4

*Please note that the administrative regions affected and the total number of confirmed H5N1 HPAI outbreaks in Burkina Faso has been revised based on information received from the country.


Table 2. Summary of countries with no new H5N8 HPAI events reported



1° Administrative regions affected

Date of last observed outbreak

Date of last outbreak report

# reported outbreaks to date

Cameroon Extreme North 02/01/2017 14/02/2017 1
Dem. Rep. Of the Congo Ituri 01/12/2017 03/03/2018 35
Niger Tillaberi 23/01/2017 13/04/2017 1
Nigeria Kano, Nasarawa, Ogun 25/01/2018 02/02/2018 4
Uganda Budaka, Kalangala, Masaka and Wakiso Districts 16/01/2017 06/02/2017 24
Zimbabwe Mashonaland 17/05/2017 01/06/2017 1


Figure 1. Case counts of reported H5N1 HPAI poultry outbreaks in Sub-Saharan African countries by MONTH based on onset date

Case counts of reported H5N1 HPAI poultry outbreaks in Sub-Saharan African countries by MONTH based on onset date
Click to enlarge - Note: Where onset date was not available, reporting date was used (source: EMPRES-i).


 FAO's support to countries

Global level

  • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting September [link] and February 2018 [link]
  • Focus On  “2016–2018 Spread of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiological and ecological observations” [link]
  • Focus On “Highly Pathogenic H5 Avian Influenza in 2016 and 2017 – Observations and future perspectives” [link]
  • Risk Assessment addressing H5N8 HPAI in Uganda and the risk of spread to neighbouring countries. [link]
  • Press release on H5N8 HPAI in Uganda on 1 February 2017, the first time that HPAI was confirmed in the East Africa region [link]
  • Qualitative Risk Assessment addressing H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza spread in the Central African region [link]
  • HQ (AGAH/EMPRES), ECTAD-Accra and RAF liaising with affected countries and those at risk;
  • USD 6.2 million mobilized from FAO internal resources (SFERA and TCP), AfDB, ROK and USAID (under GHSA funding and the EPT2 program) to support assessments and immediate response;

National level

  • FAO ECTAD Kenya supported the Government of Kenya to review and update their HPAI preparedness and response plan, which was developed in 2008 as HPAI contingency plan for the animal health sector. The review was conducted on 1-2 November 2018 employing a multi-sectoral approach in order to ensure inclusion of human health aspects and resulting in a multi-sectoral national HPAI preparedness and response plan.
  • Under the FAO EPT2/Stockpile project funded by USAID FAO provided the national veterinary services and laboratories of GHSA-1 project countries in Africa with PPEs and materials for avian influenza sample collection, transport, storage and analysis.
  • ECTAD Ethiopia supported the Ethiopian Government to establish a multi-stakeholder Emerging Pandemic Threat Technical Working Group to oversee the prevention and control of emerging zoonotic diseases, including HPAI. The group is composed of relevant authorities from line ministries, selected regional bureaus and other development partners.
  • ECTAD Ethiopia, in collaboration with partners, supported the development and validation of a multi-sectoral HPAI preparedness and response plan.


Peer-reviewed Publications

  • Park JE, Ryu Y. Transmissibility and severity of influenza virus by subtype. Infect Genet Evol. 2018 Nov;65:288-292. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2018.08.007. Epub 2018 Aug 10. [reference] This study reviews the transmissibility and severity of influenza viruses in humans and summarizes them by subtype (H1N1, H2N2, H3N3, H5N1, and H7N9). The indexes related to transmissibility (reproduction number, attack rate, serial interval, latent period, incubation period, infectious period) and severity (hospitalization rate, case fatality rate) differed by influenza subtype. Generally, H3N2 showed a higher attack rate in humans than H1N1 and H2N2. Additionally, H5N1 and H7N9 showed higher human mortality rates than the other subtypes, including H1N1, H2N2, H3N2.
  • Nooruzzaman M, Haque ME, Chowdhury EH, Islam MR. Pathology of clade avian influenza virus (H5N1) infection in quails and ducks in Bangladesh. avian Pathol. 2018 Oct 10:1-7. doi: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1535165.[reference] In this study the authors performed pathological and molecular virological investigation of three outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a quail farm and two duck farms in Bangladesh during 2011. HPAI viruses of subtype H5N1 were detected from all three outbreaks and phylogenetic analysis of HA gene sequence placed the viruses into clade The results discovered varying clinical and pathological manifestations of H5N1 HPAI in ducks and quails following natural infection, including sudden death with severe haemorrhages in various organs (quails), and pronounced nervous signs with non-purulent encephalitis (ducks).