It is imperative that we consider nutritional well-being of all populations as a matter of everyday concern and practice. Hunger and malnutrition in the world have a heavy impact on the populations of all nations and on their ability for social and economic development. Except in extreme circumstances, malnutrition affects specific groups of people rather than whole populations. Efforts therefore need to be specifically directed to these groups, and one very useful methodological tool that will allow us to reach the most at-risk population groups is targeting. Effective targeting of nutrition improvement programmes is a way of optimising the use of scarce human and financial resources. The process of targeting can range from simple geographic targeting to complex approaches that will ensure that programmes reach only the needy and at-risk groups. Decisions on the level of complexity that should be used is not always easy, and the guidance provided by this link indicates the main technical, social, economic and politcal issues involved in various targeting schemes.