FAO :: Locust Watch :: Archives :: Briefs :: 2020-2029 :: 2020
Desert Locust briefs 2020

27 May. Swarms move into northern India

In the past few days, there have been movements of adult groups and swarms in India, Oman, UAE, and Uganda.

SOUTH-WEST ASIA
Swarms are forming in the spring breeding areas and migrating east to the Indo-Pakistan border ahead of the monsoon rains.
• India. Spring-bred immature adult groups and swarms that arrived in Rajasthan from the west continued to move east in the eastern portion of the state and to the central states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. As of 26 May, at least one swarm had reached to the northeast of Bhopal. Much of these movements were associated with strong westerly winds from Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal. Control operations are underway. Several successive waves of invasions can be expected until July in Rajasthan with eastward surges across northern India as far as Bihar and Orissa followed by westward movements and a return to Rajasthan on the changing winds associated with the monsoon. These movements will cease as swarms begin to breed and become less mobile. Swarms are less likely to reach south India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.
• Pakistan. Adults are forming groups and small swarms in spring breeding areas in the southwest (Baluchistan) and the Indus Valley (Punjab). These infestations will move to the summer breeding areas along the Indo-Pakistan from Cholistan to Tharparkar. Control operations are underway in all areas.
• Iran. Adults are forming groups and small swarms in spring breeding areas along the southern coast and parts of Sistan-Baluchistan as vegetation is drying out. These infestations will move east to the Indo-Pakistan summer breeding areas. Control operations are underway.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
Important breeding continues in Yemen in the absence of survey and control operations.
• Yemen. Breeding is continuing in areas of recent rains in the interior where hopper bands and mature swarms have formed.
• Oman. Several immature adult groups moved from the northern interior near the UAE border to the north coast where they are expected to move along the coast to Ras Al Hadd before crossing to southeast Pakistan. Other groups moved from the interior breeding areas to Dubai. Control operations are underway.
• Saudi Arabia. Control operations were carried out against immature adult groups in the northern interior near Hail and Gassim, and against mature adult groups further south near Wadi Dawasir and Najran.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation remains extremely alarming in East Africa where Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia continue to face an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods. New swarms from current breeding will form from mid-June onwards, coinciding with the start of the harvest. Thereafter, there is a risk that swarms will migrate to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as well as to Sudan and perhaps West Africa.
• Kenya. Ground and aerial control operations continue against hopper bands in the northwest (Turkana, Marsabit). A few late-maturing swarms were seen south of Lodwar and new infestations were found along the Tana River where hopper bands are present.
• Ethiopia. A few immature and mature swarms remain in the south. Breeding has increased in the Ogaden and hopper bands are present. Breeding continues near Dire Dawa where hopper bands persist, and adults have formed groups and swarms. Breeding also occurred in Afar and on the eastern edge of the highlands, causing hopper bands to form. Ground and aerial control operations continue.
• Somalia. Breeding is underway in central areas (Galkayo and Galmudug) where scattered adults and hopper groups are present. Breeding is also underway in the northwest where hopper bands and groups of immature and mature adults are present on the plateau (east of Burao to the west of Boroma) and the coast near Bulhar. Hopper groups are also present in the northeast near Garowe. Control operations are underway.
• Uganda. On the 26 May, at least one swarm was seen in the northeast district of Kaaborg that was probably moving towards South Sudan.
• Sudan. Scattered gregarious adults are present near the South Sudan border at a few places in Blue Nile, While Nile, and South Kordofan states. A few adults persist in the Nile Valley north of Kordofan.

WEST AFRICA
The situation is currently calm. There is no indication so far of spring-bred swarms forming or leaving Arabia. Swarms will not form in East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia) until about mid-June. Thereafter, they will move north to Sudan and if they arrive before the summer rains, then they are likely to continue west to eastern Chad and beyond. While the current threat remains low, it can change significantly in the coming weeks based on rainfall, winds, and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

27 May. Swarms move into northern India
Current situation.

21 May. Desert Locust upsurge remains critical in East Africa, Yemen and Southwest Asia

The current situation remains extremely alarming in East Africa where Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia continue to face an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods. New swarms from current breeding will form from mid-June onwards, coinciding with the start of the harvest. Thereafter, there is a risk that swarms will migrate to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as well as to Sudan and perhaps West Africa.

EAST AFRICA
In Kenya, more hopper bands have been detected in the northwest where control operations are ongoing. Mature swarms are still present in some places and a few of these swarms moved into southeast South Sudan (Kopeata East district) on 14 May and northeast Uganda (Moroto district) on the 20th. In South Sudan, earlier breeding is in progress near Torit. In Sudan, mature gregarious adults reached the White Nile region on the border with South Sudan on the 15th. In Ethiopia, control operations continue against breeding in the south as well as hopper bands and several mature swarms further north in the Somali region near northwest Somalia. In Somalia, new hatching started in the past few days in central (Galmudug), northeast (Galkayo), and northwest (Somaliland) areas. In Sudan, rains are forecasted in the southern portion of the summer breeding areas (South Kordofan, White Nile) during the last week of May and again in the second and third weeks of June. If this occurs, then breeding conditions should be improving when swarms are likely to arrive from Kenya and Ethiopia after mid-June.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
In Yemen, widespread breeding is underway in the interior and hopper bands are forming. Survey and control operations have yet to be undertaken. A substantial increase in locust populations is expected in June that could eventually threaten the Horn of Africa. In Saudi Arabia, control operations are in progress against immature adults groups that formed in the Nafud Desert in the north and mature adult groups in the south near Yemen. Similarly, control operations continue against immature adult groups in northern Oman near UAE.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Spring breeding continues in southern Iran and southwest Pakistan where control operations are in progress against hopper groups and bands as well as an increasing number of adult groups. As vegetation dries out, more groups and swarms will form and move from these areas to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as several waves from now until at least early July. Good rains are predicted during the first half of June along the Indo-Pakistan border that would allow egg-laying to occur. This should reduce the further eastward movement of swarms that have already arrived in Rajasthan, India.

WEST AFRICA
The situation is currently calm. There is a risk that a few swarms from spring breeding areas in Arabia and East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia) could reach the eastern part of the Sahel in eastern Chad starting from early June if they migrate before the summer rains commence. While the current threat remains low, it can change significantly in the coming weeks based on rainfall, winds, and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

21 May. Desert Locust upsurge remains critical in East Africa, Yemen and Southwest Asia
Current situation.

13 May. Several swarms arrive in India from spring breeding areas

The current situation remains extremely alarming in East Africa where it is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods since it coincides with the current growing season. New swarms from current breeding will form from mid-June onwards, coinciding with the start of the harvest. At this time, there is a risk that swarms will migrate to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as well as to Sudan and perhaps West Africa.

During the past week, mature swarms in Kenya moved further north in the northwestern counties of Marsabit and Turkana to lay eggs. So far, only some of the hatching and a few hopper bands have been detected. In Ethiopia, swarms declined in the south due to control and breeding while mature swarms moved into the northeast (Afar) and eastern (Somali) regions. Hopper bands continued to mature near Dire Dawa as well as in adjacent areas of northwest Somalia. In central Somalia, mature adults are present near the Ethiopia border in Galguduud region. Control operations continue in all three countries. In South Sudan, limited breeding is underway in the southeast near Torit where a few hopper bands have formed.

The situation remains worrisome in Yemen where good rains have fallen in the interior. Egg-laying by adult groups and swarms, hatching and band formation are underway in the interior and along the southern coast. In Saudi Arabia, immature adult groups formed near the Persian Gulf, and hopper groups persist in Nafud Desert in the north. In Oman, immature groups and a few hopper groups are present in the northern interior near UAE and the northeast. Control operations continue in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

The situation is also threatening in Iran where hopper bands are maturing along the southwestern coastal plains, and another generation of breeding is underway in the southeast where hatching is taking place on the coast near Jask and in the interior of Sistan-Baluchistan. In Pakistan, adult groups are migrating to the India border from breeding areas in Baluchistan and the Indus Valley where hopper groups are present as well as in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In India, more adult groups and small swarms arrived from Pakistan in the past few days and moved east into Rajasthan, reaching Jodhpur. Some swarms could continue further east. Control operations are underway in all three countries.

The situation remains calm in West Africa. There is a risk that a few swarms from spring breeding areas in Arabia and East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia) could reach the eastern part of the Sahel in eastern Chad starting in about a month if they migrate before the summer rains commence. While the current threat is assessed as low, it can change significantly in the coming weeks based on rainfall, winds, and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

13 May. Several swarms arrive in India from spring breeding areas
Current situation.

8 May. Locust threat extends to new areas

The current situation continues to represent an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in East Africa. In addition, the Indo-Pakistan border area, Sudan, and perhaps the Sahel of West Africa face an impending invasion from spring breeding areas.
EAST AFRICA
In northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia, immature and mature swarms are still present where they are maturing and laying eggs. In Kenya, a few more hopper bands have been reported in the northern county of Marsabit but the majority of hatching has yet to occur or be detected. In Ethiopia, some swarms have spread out to other areas of the country, mainly in the east, including the Somali region and the Ogaden where breeding is underway and hopper bands have formed. In Somalia, breeding is in progress in the northwest and, in the past few days, in the northeast that could eventually cause groups and swarms to form. While control operations continue, more surveys are required in all three countries.
ARABIA
In Saudi Arabia, hopper bands along the Persian Gulf have fledged and formed groups of immature adults. This will also occur shortly in the Nafud Desert in the north and probably in the Al Aflag area south of Riyadh. In Oman, adult groups are maturing in the north, and breeding continues along the UAE border and in the northeast where hopper groups are present. Ground control operations continue in both countries. In Yemen, swarms are laying eggs in areas of recent rainfall along the southern coast, and in the interior on the edge of Ramlat Sabatyn and on the plateau north of Wadi Hadhramaut. Survey and control operations are required.
SOUTHWEST ASIA
In Iran, hopper bands persist on the southwest coast and near the Strait of Hormuz. Adult groups laid eggs in Sistan-Baluchistan where surveys should be intensified to detect hatching and band formation. In Pakistan, hopper and adult groups persist in Baluchistan, adult groups have formed in the Indus Valley, and hopper groups and bands are present in Punjab. Hopper groups, bands, and adult groups are present on the Indo-Pakistan border in Punjab of both countries. Migration from the spring breeding areas in Baluchistan has commenced, and several immature adult groups and swarms have appeared since 2 May in Rajasthan, India. Control operations continue in all three countries. Increased monitoring and reporting are required in desert areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border.
WEST AFRICA
There is a risk that a few swarms could reach the eastern part of the Sahel in eastern Chad from spring breeding areas in Arabia and East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia). The swarms would first appear in Sudan where it is currently dry and the situation is calm. If they arrive in Sudan before the summer rains, then the swarms are likely to continue westwards across the Sahel from Chad to Mauritania. The first appearance in eastern Chad could be as early as the second week of June from Arabia and the last week of June from East Africa. While the current threat is assessed as low, it can change significantly during this month due to rainfall, winds, and spring breeding in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

8 May. Locust threat extends to new areas
Current situation.

4 May. Locusts will increase further and extend to other areas

The current situation and forecast are alarming as locust infestations are expected to extend to other areas in the Horn of Africa and southwest Asia.

Widespread rains fell in East Africa for the second consecutive month in April. Although control operations are reducing locust populations, another generation of breeding will cause locust numbers to increase further as new hopper bands and swarms form in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia during May and June. Swarms are expected to move further north in Ethiopia and Somalia with a risk that a few swarms may reach Eritrea and Sudan in mid-June.

The situation is very worrisome in Yemen because several swarms laid eggs in the interior where widespread, heavy rains fell, which will allow hatching and hopper bands and swarms to form.

In the Arabian Peninsula, control operations continue against hopper bands in parts of Saudi Arabia, Iraq and UAE, and hopper and adult groups in northern Oman. Any swarms that form in about mid-May can move to the summer breeding areas in Yemen, Sudan and along the Indo-Pakistan border. Some swarms could perhaps continue to Chad and Niger in June if they arrive in Sudan prior to the start of the summer rains.

In southwest Asia, hopper groups and bands are present in southern Iran and in Pakistan where substantive control operations continue. Adult groups and small swarms from breeding in Baluchistan, the Indus Valley, and Punjab in Pakistan will move to desert areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border from now onwards. This is expected to be supplemented by several waves of swarms coming from the spring breeding areas during June.

4 May. Locusts will increase further and extend to other areas
Current situation.

28 April. A second generation of breeding about to start in Kenya

Spring breeding will cause a further increase in locust infestations in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as more swarms form and mature in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the early beginning of the long rains and the current growing season. A new generation of breeding is underway in Kenya where more eggs will hatch and form hopper bands during May, followed by new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. More swarms mature in central and northern areas with a few laying eggs and hatching starts. Control continues.
● ETHIOPIA. Immature swarms in the south (SNNPR, Oromia), mature swarms in N Oromia and N Somali regions; mid-instar hopper bands in east (Dire Dawa - Ayasha). Control continues.
● SOMALIA. Early instar hopper bands on the Ethiopian border in the northwest (Somaliland); scattered adults along the Ethiopian border in central areas (Galguduud).

NE AFRICA & ARABIAN PENINSULA
Breeding continues in several countries where hopper bands are forming that could lead to new swarms.
● YEMEN. Increasing reports of mature swarms copulating in the interior where floods occurred this week.
● SAUDI ARABIA. Control continues against mid-instar hopper bands near the Persian Gulf (Nairyah to Al Hofuf) and in the interior (Hail).
● IRAQ. Limited control continues against early mid-instar hopper groups in southern provinces (Kerbala and Thikar in addition to Al Muthanna, Al Diwaniya, Al Najaf).
● UAE. Limited control against hopper bands on Oman border south of Al Ayn.
● SUDAN. Calm situation, only a few scattered adults on coast and interior.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Breeding continues in the spring breeding areas where situation remains worrying in Iran.
● IRAN. More hopper groups and bands continue along the southern coast; mature adult groups moved north in Sistan & Baluchistan to South Khorasan and lay eggs. Control continues.
● PAKISTAN. Hopper and adult groups in Baluchistan; hopper groups and bands in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; hoppers near the Indian border. Control continues.

28 April. A second generation of breeding about to start in Kenya
Current situation.

21 April. Swarms continue to mature in East Africa

Spring breeding will cause a further increase in locust infestations in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as more swarms form and mature in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia and probably in Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly stay in place, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. More swarms mature in central and northern areas with egg-laying imminent. Control continues.
● ETHIOPIA. Swarms mature in the south (SNNPR, Oromia) and disperse northwards in Oromia and Somali region; hopper bands in the east near Dire Dawa. Control continues.
● UGANDA. A maturing swarm was reported on 17 April in Katakwi district of the northeast.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
Breeding continues in several countries, causing hopper bands to form that could lead to swarms.
● YEMEN. Heavy rains and floods fell in the interior (Marib, Bayhan) this past week, including Aden today; swarm in Wadi Hadhramaut.
● SAUDI ARABIA. Control continues against mid-instar hopper bands near the Persian Gulf and new hopper bands in the interior (Hail and Al-Badie Al-Shamali).
● IRAQ. Limited control in progress against early instar hopper groups in the southern provinces of Al Muthanna, Al Diwaniya, Al Najaf.
● OMAN. Late instar hopper groups, bands and a few small swarms seen laying eggs near UAE. Swarm on the Yemen border today. Control continues.
● UAE. Limited control against hopper bands and adult groups near Al Ayn and Oman.


SOUTHWEST ASIA
Breeding continues in the spring breeding areas where the situation is worrisome in Iran.
● IRAN. More hopper bands form along the southwest coast; swarm laying near Jask and adult groups lay in Sistan & Baluchistan. Control continues.
● PAKISTAN. Hopper and adult groups in Baluchistan; hopper groups and bands in the Indus Valley and Punjab; limited breeding near the Indian border. Control continues.

21 April. Swarms continue to mature in East Africa
Current situation.

14 April. Swarms mature in East Africa

Widespread rains that fell in late March are expected to cause a dramatic increase in locust numbers in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as more swarms form and mature in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia and probably in Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly stay in place, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. More swarms are maturing and increasing in size in central and northern areas with some moving westwards; egg-laying is imminent.
● ETHIOPIA. Hopper bands and an increasing number of swarms are maturing in the south (SNNPR, Oromia); new swarms appeared in northern and southern Somali region.
● SOUTH SUDAN. A maturing swarm arrived in Magwi County on 8 April from Uganda.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
The situation in Yemen continues is likely to be deteriorating but no new information has been received.
● SAUDI ARABIA. Control continues against early and mid-instar bands near the Persian Gulf.
● OMAN. Late instar hopper groups, bands and a few small swarms seen laying eggs near UAE; control underway.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Spring breeding is underway. The situation in Iran continues to be serious and worrisome.
● IRAN. An increasing number of hopper bands continue to form along the southern coast; a few swarms near Jask.
● PAKISTAN. Control continues against hopper groups in Baluchistan, Punjab, and near the Indian border; more adult groups forming in Baluchistan.

(see updated country maps in 2020 Upsurge section)

14 April. Swarms mature in East Africa
Current situation.

8 April. Swarm increase expected in East Africa

Widespread rains that fell in late March could allow a dramatic increase in locust numbers in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as hopper bands and an increasing number of new swarms form in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia and Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly remain, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. Swarms appear to be increasing in size in some central and northern areas with some moving westwards.
● ETHIOPIA. A large swarm was reported in the south (SNNPR) today.
● UGANDA. Several immature and maturing swarms appeared in the northeast (Katakwi, Amuria, Agago districts) on 5-7 April. The military carried out control operations. Additional swarms may appear in these areas from Kenya and move towards the northwest.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
Spring breeding is underway. The situation in Yemen continues to deteriorate.
● YEMEN. An immature swarm was seen on the coast at the Oman border and another one north of Aden, and adults are laying on the eastern plateau.
● SAUDI ARABIA. More hatching and early instar bands form near the Persian Gulf where control operations continue.
● OMAN. Control underway against hopper and adult groups in the north. A few immature adult groups seen in the south.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Spring breeding is underway. The situation in Iran is becoming increasingly worrisome.
● IRAN. An increasing number of hopper bands are forming along the southern coast from earlier swarm laying.
● PAKISTAN. Control underway against hopper groups in Baluchistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

8 April. Swarm increase expected in East Africa
Current situation.

4 April. Widespread rains to cause a further deterioration in the situation

Widespread rains that fell in late March could allow a dramatic increase in locust numbers in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran during the coming months.

The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as hopper bands and an increasing number of new swarms are forming in Kenya, southern Ethiopia and Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly remain, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.

Several swarms appeared in the past few days in Amudat district of northeast Uganda.

The situation in Iran and Yemen is becoming increasingly worrisome. Swarms laid eggs along 900 km of coast in southwest Iran that are hatching and hopper bands are forming. The widespread heavy rains that fell in late March will allow another generation of breeding and a further increase in locusts during May, which will extend to Baluchistan, Pakistan.

Several swarms were reported in the past few days, including today, along both sides of the Oman/Yemen border in the interior and on the coast. The March rains will allow swarm breeding in eastern Yemen that will cause hopper bands to form and a further increase in locust numbers.

4 April. Widespread rains to cause a further deterioration in the situation
Current situation.

31 March. More swarms continue to form in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. More first-generation immature swarms form throughout northern and central counties and are maturing. Some will be ready to lay eggs from next week and continue to May. Further concentration expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. Hopper bands in Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley, and increasing number of new generation of immature swarms that are maturing. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

SOMALIA. Breeding continues in central areas.

SOUTH SUDAN. A few mature swarms from the south appeared in the southeast near Torit.

DJIBOUTI. Hopper bands and immature swarms on the coast between Tadjourah and Obock.

YEMEN. More hopper bands and immature adult groups on southern coast near Aden.

IRAN. Hopper groups forming on southern coast. More hatching expected in southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars. Immature adult groups and small swarms will start forming shortly but should stay in place to mature and breed again in May. Ground control operations continue.

The situation is under control in the following countries:

ERITREA. Control operations against hopper and adult groups on central coast.

OMAN. Control operations against hopper groups on north coast and interior with new hatching on coast.

IRAQ. Control operations continue against mature swarms in the southeast.

PAKISTAN. More hopper groups form from Baluchistan breeding and immature adults start to form groups. Group of adults laying in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hopper groups in Dera Bugti district (north of Sukkur). Control operations underway

31 March. More swarms continue to form in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

24 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. Hopper bands continue to develop and form an increasing number of first-generation immature swarms in northern and central counties. The swarms are maturing and will be ready to lay eggs from the first week of April onwards. Further concentration expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. Hopper bands are present in Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. A new generation of immature swarms are forming and maturing. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

SOUTH SUDAN. Several mature swarms from the south appeared in the southeast near Torit on 18-19 March; at least one moved to Juba on the 21st, continuing to Bor on the 23rd and flew towards southwest Ethiopia.

YEMEN. Hopper bands continue forming on southern coast near Aden and immature adults starting to form groups. Heavy rains and flooding in Wadi Hadhramaut. Scattered adults on northern Red Sea coast.

IRAN. Hatching started on western Hormozgan coast in past few days. More hatching expected in southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars. Late instar hopper bands forming near Jask.

The situation is under control in the following countries:

SUDAN. Vegetation drying out on the Red Sea coast and locusts declining with only scattered adults present on south coast.

ERITREA. Control operations continue against groups of late instar hoppers and immature adults on the Buri Peninsula and on southern coast near Tio. Vegetation drying out on central and northern coast.

SAUDI ARABIA. Very limited control operations in the north against a few mature adult groups.

OMAN. Control operations against hopper groups in northern interior and new groups on north coast that just hatched.

IRAQ. There were reports of control operations in the southeast. More details are awaited.

PAKISTAN. More hopper groups form from Baluchistan breeding and immature adults start to form groups. Group of adults laying in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hopper groups in Dera Bugti district (north of Sukkur). Control operations underway.

INDIA. Calm situation, no locusts reported.

24 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

17 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. Hopper bands continue to develop and form an increasing number of first-generation immature swarms in northern and central counties. Further concentration expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. No new information received. Hopper bands continue to form within a widespread area of Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. A new generation of immature swarms are likely to have started forming in some areas. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

YEMEN. Hopper bands forming on the southern coast near Aden where control was carried out. The situation is not well known in other areas where breeding is likely underway.

IRAN. Swarms and adult groups continue laying eggs in the southwest (southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars, western Hormozgan provinces). Hatching and band formation imminent. Local breeding continues in the southeast where hoppers are forming groups and bands in eastern Hormozgan. Control operations are in progress.

The situation is under control in the following countries:

SUDAN. Two immature swarms appeared on southern coast of Red Sea on the 14th. Scattered adults along parts of the coast.

ERITREA. Conditions drying out on the central and northern coast. Control operations continue against groups of late instar hoppers and immature adults on the Buri Peninsula and in the Dahlak Islands.

EGYPT. Late instar hopper groups treated at one place on the Red Sea coast in the southeast.

SAUDI ARABIA. Control operations against one mature swarm and groups of laying adult near the Persian Gulf between Al Hofuf and Kuwait and a few mature groups in the northern interior south of Al Jawf.

OMAN. Hatching on the north coast and control operations against early instar hopper groups, and continue against late instar hopper groups on east coast.

17 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

10 March. New swarms forming in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. Widespread swarm breeding continues in northern and central counties where an increasing number of hopper bands and first-generation immature swarms are forming. This may be supplemented by new-generation immature swarms arriving from Somalia. Further concentration is expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. Breeding continues within a widespread area of Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley, where early instar hopper bands are forming in some places. Immature swarms are present in the south where cross-border movements are likely from adjacent areas of Somalia and Kenya. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

SOMALIA. Late instar hopper bands, maturing adult groups and at least one mature swarm on the northwest coast where egg-laying continues. Ground control operations underway with biopesticides.

SUDAN. Late instar hopper band, fledglings and immature adult group and swarm on the southern coast of the Red Sea near the Eritrea border. Scattered adults in Tokar Delta, the northeast and in the Nile Valley.

ERITREA. Immature adult groups on the northern coast of the Red Sea near the Sudan border. Hopper groups on the Buri Peninsula.

SAUDI ARABIA. Mature swarm and laying adult groups near the Persian Gulf between Dammam and Qaryat Al Ulya. Scattered adults on the central Red Sea coast.

KUWAIT. Immature swarms in the north and near Kuwait City.

UAE. Immature swarm on the western coast near Qatar.

IRAN. Swarms laying eggs in the southwest (southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars, western Hormozgan provinces) that will start to hatch later this week and form hopper bands. Local breeding continues in the southeast where hoppers are forming groups and bands in eastern Hormozgan. Control operations are in progress.

PAKISTAN. Mature adult groups laying eggs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Dera Ismail Khan, Lucky Marwat) and Baluchistan (Dalbandin, Kharan, Khuzdar, Washtuk, Turbat) that will hatch during the second half of March and form hopper groups and small bands. New generation immature groups and small swarms are likely to start forming in Baluchistan by the end of March.



10 March. New swarms forming in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

5 March. New swarms forming in Somalia and starting in Kenya

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

EASTERN AFRICA

Kenya. Widespread swarm breeding continues in northern and central counties where an increasing number of hopper bands are forming and, in the past few days, the new generation of immature swarms have started to form. This may be supplemented by new-generation immature swarms arriving from Somalia. Further concentration is expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

Ethiopia. Swarms continue to mature and breed over a widespread area of Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Cross-border movements continued to be reported from adjacent areas of Somalia and Kenya.

Somalia. In the northwest, late instar hopper bands and immature adult groups are forming between Berbera and Burao. In the northeast, new immature swarms are forming near Garowe. Some swarms may be moving south towards NE Kenya.

South Sudan. The mature swarm seen on 23 February near Laboni and the Uganda border dispersed into many small swarmlets.

Uganda. No new reports of swarms since 24 February.

DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo). No new reports of Desert Locust in the northeast near the Uganda border.

OTHER HOT SPOTS

Sudan. Scattered adults are maturing on the central coast of the Red Sea. No locusts reported elsewhere.

Eritrea. Breeding continued on the central and northern Red Sea coast where groups of hoppers and immature adults formed. A mature swarm appeared on the coast near Massawa and laid eggs. Ground control operations treated 2 712 ha (24–26 Feb).

Saudi Arabia. Ground control operations against hopper bands on the Red Sea coast near Qunfidah finished on 26 February but continued against immature groups in the interior between Wadi Dawasir and the Persian Gulf. Ground teams treated 3 640 ha (19-27 Feb).

Yemen. Another generation of breeding is in progress on the Red Sea coast where hatching and early instar hopper bands continue to form. An immature swarm was seen in Sana'a on 29 February. New breeding was seen on the southern coast near Aden where early and late instar hopper bands were present, the latter forming immature adult groups. Control could not be carried out.

Oman. Breeding continues on the north and east coasts where hopper groups and bands have formed. Swarms were reported recently on the north coast.

Iraq. Swarms were reportedly flying in the southeast between Basrah and Nasiriyah.

Iran. 22 immature swarms spread out along the southwest coast between Bushehr and Bander-e-Lengheh in Fars, Khozestan, Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces where they quickly matured within four days to lay eggs. Local breeding continued in the southeast. Control operations are in progress.

Pakistan. Mature adult groups and swarmlets were seen copulating in Okara district of Punjab and Dera Ismail Khan and Lucky Marwat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Spring breeding is in progress in the interior of Baluchistan between Khuzdar and Dalbandin, and on the southwest coast near Turbat where adult groups are laying eggs and early instar hopper groups are already forming. Ground teams treated 4 490 ha (18-29 Feb). New generation immature groups and swarms could start forming in Baluchistan by the end of March.

Afghanistan. Three swarms reportedly arrived in Khost province from adjacent areas of NW Pakistan on about 21 February.

5 March. New swarms forming in Somalia and starting in Kenya
Current situation.

24 February. Swarms invade the Persian Gulf and continue to breed in the Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are expected to form in the coming weeks. In the past few days, there has been a significant movement of swarms over the Arabian Peninsula, unrelated to the Horn of Africa, that reached both sides of the Persian Gulf.

Kenya. Swarms continue to be reported in northern and central areas where they are mostly mature and have laid eggs. Hatching is causing an increasing number of hopper bands to form with new swarm formation expected in the coming weeks. Mature swarms are also present along the shores of Lake Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

Ethiopia. The situation is similar to Kenya with widespread swarms, breeding and hatching in Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Movements further north can be expected as well as from adjacent areas of Somalia and Kenya.

Somalia. Breeding continues in the northeast where new immature swarms are expected to form in about one week or so.

Uganda. A mature swarm arrived in the northeast from adjacent areas of western Kenya on 24 February.

South Sudan. Only remnants of an earlier mature swarm have been seen in the southeastern county of Magwi. A second mature swarm was seen near the border on 23 February.

Tanzania. No new reports of swarms.

DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo). A small group of mature Desert Locust arrived on the western shore of Lake Albert near Bunia on 21 February after crossing northern Uganda on strong northeasterly winds. The country last received Desert Locust in 1944.

Saudi Arabia. Ground control operations increased against hopper bands on the Red Sea coast and immature groups and swarms in the interior.

Yemen. Another generation of breeding is in progress on the Red Sea coast where hatching and early instar hopper bands are forming. Immature and mature swarms were reported in the interior during this past week. Surveys remain limited and control could not be carried out.

Persian Gulf. During several days of strong winds, dense immature swarms arrived in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and along the southwest coast of Iran between Bushehr and Kish Island on 20-21 February. More swarms are likely during periods of southerly winds. Control operations were immediately mounted in Iran.

24 February. Swarms invade the Persian Gulf and continue to breed in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

21 February. Swarms from Arabia arrive in Persian Gulf

On 20 February, immature swarms from the Arabian Peninsula reached the shores of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and the southwest coast of Iran. More swarms are likely during periods of southerly winds.

The situation remains extremely alarming in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread Desert Locust infestations and a new generation of breeding threatens food security and livelihoods in the region. The situation is less worrisome in Uganda and Tanzania.

Kenya. Swarms continue to mature and lay eggs in northern and central counties where hatching and band formation are increasing. At least one swarm arrived in a tea plantation in the southwest county of Kericho while other swarms have been seen further north in Turkana county. There have been no new reports of swarms near Mt. Kilimanjaro. Aerial and ground control operations continue in most areas.

Uganda. Several mature swarms moved northwards within 12 northeastern districts from 9–13 February. Although a few swarms were desperately laying eggs on the surface of the ground, there is a possibility of successful laying in a few limited areas. Control operations were undertaken by the military in one area.

Tanzania. There have been no new reports of swarms after those that entered from the north on 9 February and moved towards Arusha and Moshi.

South Sudan. On 17 February, a mature swarm entered Magwi county in the southeast from Lamwo district in northern Uganda and was moving towards Torit west.

Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue against mature swarms in the Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Cross-border swarm movements with Kenya continue to be reported. Breeding is underway but more details are awaited concerning its scale and geographical spread.

Somalia. Breeding is in progress in central areas near the Ethiopian border between Beled Weyn and Gaalkacyo where groups of hoppers and adults are present. Breeding is also underway in the northeast where late instar hopper bands were seen earlier in the month near Garowe.

Red Sea area. Breeding is in progress along both sides of the Red Sea in Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and Eritrea where hopper groups, bands, immature adults groups have formed that is likely to cause swarms to form shortly. Several immature swarms have moved from the coastal plains to the interior in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Control operations are in progress in all countries but remains limited in Yemen.

Southwest Asia. Breeding continues on the southeast coast in Iran. The situation is calm along the India border in Pakistan while a few small swarms appeared in cropping areas in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan. In India, control operations are underway against a few residual summer-bred swarms that persist in parts of Rajasthan.

21 February. Swarms from Arabia arrive in Persian Gulf
Current situation.

17 February. Widespread breeding in progress in the Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread Desert Locust infestations and a new generation of breeding threatens food security and livelihoods in the region. The situation is less worrisome in Uganda and Tanzania.

Kenya. Swarms continue to mature and lay eggs in northern and central counties where hatching and band formation are increasing. At least one swarm arrived in a tea plantation in the southwest county of Kericho while other swarms have been seen further north in Turkana county. There have been no new reports of swarms near Mt. Kilimanjaro. Aerial and ground control operations continue in most areas.

Uganda. Several mature swarms moved northwards within 12 northeastern districts from 9–13 February. Although a few swarms were desperately laying eggs on the surface of the ground, there is a possibility of successful laying in a few limited areas. Control operations were undertaken by the military in one area.

Tanzania. There have been no new reports of swarms after those that entered from the north on 9 February and moved towards Arusha and Moshi.

South Sudan. On 17 February, a mature swarm entered Magwi county in the southeast from Lamwo district in northern Uganda and was moving towards Torit west.

Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue against mature swarms in the Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Cross-border swarm movements with Kenya continue to be reported. Breeding is underway but more details are awaited concerning its scale and geographical spread.

Somalia. Breeding is in progress in central areas near the Ethiopian border between Beled Weyn and Gaalkacyo where groups of hoppers and adults are present. Breeding is also underway in the northeast where late instar hopper bands were seen earlier in the month near Garowe.

Red Sea area. Breeding is in progress along both sides of the Red Sea in Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and Eritrea where hopper groups, bands, immature adults groups have formed that is likely to cause swarms to form shortly. Several immature swarms have moved from the coastal plains to the interior in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Control operations are in progress in all countries but remains limited in Yemen.

Southwest Asia. Breeding continues on the southeast coast in Iran. The situation is calm along the India border in Pakistan while a few small swarms appeared in cropping areas in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan. In India, control operations are underway against a few residual summer-bred swarms that persist in parts of Rajasthan.

17 February. Widespread breeding in progress in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

10 February. Desert Locust spread to Uganda and Tanzania

Breeding continues in the Horn of Africa, which will cause locusts to increase further in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya with new swarms forming in March and April. Consequently, there is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in the region.

In Kenya, numerous immature and mature swarms continue to move throughout northern and central areas. Mature swarms reached within 50 km of the Uganda border on 6 February and other mature swarms nearly reached the Tanzania border on the 7th. Widespread egg laying and hatching have started, and so far numerous dense early instar hopper bands are present in some central areas. Aerial and ground control operations are continuing.

On 9 February, there were reports that Desert Locust arrived in northeast Uganda near Amudat (0157N/3456E). Other reports indicated that Desert Locust had crossed the border into northern Tanzania close to Mt. Kilimanjaro, reaching Arusha and Mushi.

In Somalia, second to fourth instar hopper bands are present in the northeast near Garowe. Other infestations are likely to be present in the northwest, central and southern areas where breeding is expected to be in progress.

In Ethiopia, maturing swarms were present in eastern and southern areas and additional swarms moved into the Rift Valley from the south and the north. Egg-laying and hatching are likely to be underway but so far it has not been detected. Aerial and ground control operations continue in most areas.

Widespread hatching and band formation will occur in the coming weeks in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. There remains a risk of a few small swarms appearing in northeast Uganda, southeast South Sudan and perhaps northern Tanzania in the coming days.

Elsewhere, above-normal breeding continues along both sides of the Red Sea coast where hopper groups, bands, adult groups and a few swarms are forming on the coastal plains. Swarms continue to appear in the highlands and interior of Yemen. Control operations are in progress in Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and, to a limited extent, in Yemen.

In South-West Asia, a few residual summer-bred swarms appeared in northwest Pakistan and there were reports in locusts in the interior of Baluchistan near Kharan. Swarm breeding is on progress along parts of the southern coast of Iran.

10 February. Desert Locust spread to Uganda and Tanzania
Current situation.

3 February. Three hot-spots of threatening locust activity

The current situation remains extremely alarming in three main areas.

(1) In the Horn of Africa, the worst affected area, there is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods as swarms increase in Ethiopia and Somalia and continue to move south to Kenya where they have spread to 14 northern, central and southwest counties, reaching within 200 km of northeast Uganda and southeast South Sudan. Some swarms have already laid eggs and hatching is almost certainly underway. Swarms have also entered the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. Aerial and ground operations are in progress but remain insufficient. Breeding during February will cause a further increase with numerous hopper bands in all three countries. Some swarms may still reach Uganda and South Sudan in the coming days.

(2) Locust infestations continue to grow along both sides of the Red Sea where numerous hopper groups, bands and adult groups are forming. A swarm formed on the coast near the Sudan/Egypt border, swarms have laid near the Sudan/Eritrea border, and formed on the coast of Yemen, some of which have moved into the central highlands and to adjacent areas in southwest Saudi Arabia. At least one swarm appeared on the southern coast of Eritrea. Several swarms, presumably from the Indo-Pakistan border area, recently arrived on the eastern coast of Oman and moved south to Yemen.

(3) In southwest Asia, heavy rains on the southern coast of Iran where swarms were laying eggs, which should allow favourable conditions for two generations of breeding that could cause a considerable increase in locust numbers. Residual adult groups and swarms are still present along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border while some swarms have moved into adjacent areas to the north.

3 February. Three hot-spots of threatening locust activity
Current situation.

28 January. Locusts will increase further as a new generation of breeding starts in the Horn of Africa

The current Desert Locust situation remains extremely alarming and represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in the Horn of Africa. This will be further exacerbated by new breeding that has commenced, which will cause more locust infestations.

Kenya. Immature swarms continue to arrive in the northeast and move throughout northern and central areas, having invaded 13 counties to date. Some swarms have started to lay eggs that will hatch in early February and new swarms could start to form by early April in northern counties. Although a few swarms have reached the Rift Valley, they are likely to remain in northern areas. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress but need upscaling. Further movements are expected in Turkana and central counties.

Ethiopia. Swarms continue to be present throughout eastern areas, including the Ogaden, while some continue to move to the south and into the Rift Valley. Another generation of breeding will increase locust numbers further. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress but need upscaling.

Somalia. In the northeast, hopper bands are present and swarms are laying eggs where hatching and further hopper band formation are imminent. Other swarms have been reported in the south near the Kenya border.

South Sudan and Uganda. As the nearest swarms are about 200 km away in Kenya, a few of these could appear at any time in the coming days in the extreme southeast of South Sudan and, to a lesser extent, in northeast Uganda.

In addition to the Horn of Africa, there are several other hot spots where important Desert Locust infestations are developing.

Djibouti. A few swarms were reported near Ali Sabieh and the Ethiopian border. More details are awaited.

Eritrea. Ground control operations are underway against hopper groups that are fledging and forming adult groups on the northern and central coast. At least one swarm arrived on the southern coast near Assab on the 20th either from Yemen or Ethiopia.

Sudan. Locust infestations are increasing on the Red Sea coast where hopper bands have formed and mature swarms are laying eggs. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress.

Oman. Ground control operations continue against hopper bands and several swarms in the northeast. A few small swarms migrated southwards along the eastern coast, reaching Salalah.

Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Hopper bands have formed along Red Sea coastal plains from Jeddah to Hodeidah, many of which have fledged and formed immature groups of adults that are maturing. Immature swarms formed in Yemen on the coast and some moved into the highlands. Another generation of breeding will cause locust numbers to increase further. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress in Saudi Arabia while limited ground control has been carried out in Yemen.

Iran. Swarm breeding is thought to be underway along parts of the southern coast.

India/Pakistan. Control operations continue against residual summer-bred swarms along both sides of the border.

28 January. Locusts will increase further as a new generation of breeding starts in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

20 January. Large and numerous swarms continue to threaten the Horn of Africa

The current Desert Locust situation is extremely alarming and represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in the Horn of Africa. In addition, important locust situations continue to develop along both sides of the Red Sea, in Oman and in southern Iran.

Kenya. Immature and maturing swarms continue to arrive in the northeast from Ethiopia and Somalia and are moving throughout northern areas in Mandera, Wajir and Marsabit counties and have reached central areas of Isiolo, Meru North and northern Laikipia. Some swarms in the north have moved back into southern Ethiopia while others are now mature and laying eggs that will hatch after about two weeks, giving rise to hopper bands in February and March. Today, a swarm reached the southern Rift Valley near Kapedo on the border of Baringo and Turkana counties. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress in some areas. Further movements are expected, especially in Turkana and Marsabit counties.

Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue against immature swarms in Somali and South Oromiya regions. Some swarms are maturing while others are moving south and west into the southern parts of the country with at least one swarm reaching the edge of the Rift Valley in Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR). Some 6 000 ha were treated by air so far this month.

Somalia. Control operations are in progress in the northeast (Puntland) while maturing swarms continued to move southwards in central and southern areas. Some swarms were seen laying eggs in the south adjacent to northeast Kenya. Survey and control operations are limited by insecurity.

South Sudan. There remains a high risk of a few swarms appearing at any time in the southeast (Kapoeta East and Ilemi Triangle) coming from adjacent areas of NW Kenya, flying north through the Rift Valley or northwest from Marsabit county. They may transit through the area to the Rift Valley in southwest Ethiopia.

Uganda. There remains a moderate risk of a few swarms appearing at any time in the northeast from adjacent areas of NW Kenya until about the end of January.

Red Sea. Breeding is in progress and hopper groups and bands are present on the northern coast in Sudan, southern coast in Saudi Arabia, and on the coast of Eritrea and Yemen. Mature swarms are laying eggs on the Sudan/Eritrea border while adult groups have formed in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, some of which are laying eggs. So far this month, ground and aerial control operations treated nearly 23 000 ha in Saudi Arabia and almost 7 000 ha in Sudan.

Oman. Breeding is in progress on the northeast coast where hopper bands have formed. Ground teams treated more than 1 300 ha so far this month. Several immature and maturing swarms are moving south along the coast and reached Salalah. These may continue to Yemen and perhaps reach the Horn of Africa.

Southwest Asia. A few residual immature swarms persist along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where control operations are in progress. Adults and swarms were reported to be breeding along parts of the southern coast where heavy rains and flooding occurred earlier this month.

20 January. Large and numerous swarms continue to threaten the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

13 January. Numerous and very large swarms pose an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in Horn of Africa

In the Horn of Africa, there has been a significant and extremely dangerous increase in swarm activity during the past week in Kenya where numerous, large immature swarms are spreading from the initial invasion areas of the northeast (Mandera county) south to Wajir and Garissa, west along the Ethiopian border (Moyale and Marsabit counties) and southwest into central areas north of Mt Kenya (Isiolo, Samburu, Meru and most recently Laikipia counties). One immature swarm was 60 km long by 40 km wide in the northeast. More swarms are expected to occur in these areas, some of which are already moving north of Mt. Kenya westwards to the Rift Valley (Baringo county) where they could continue northwest to Turkana county, while others will move west along the Ethiopian border, and some swarms could move further south to Tana River county. Some swarms may reach northeast Uganda and southeast South Sudan. In all areas, there is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods. In the northeast, some swarms have started to mature, which means that egg-laying could be imminent in open areas of sandy moist soil where eggs would hatch after about two weeks and give rise to numerous hopper bands in February.

In Ethiopia, immature swarms continue to form and move in the eastern regions of Harar (East Harerghe) and Somali (Jijjiga and Warder, Kebridehar, Gode in the Ogaden). Immature swarms are also present further south in Oromiya (Bale) and in the past days on the edge of the Rift Valley (Borena) near Teltele and Yabello. Some swarms have started to mature in the Gode area. More swarms are expected to appear in the southern parts of Oromiya and Somali regions and in the southwest region of SNNPR (South Omo) where they are likely to mature and lay eggs.

In Somalia, mature swarms are present in the Garbahare area near Mandera, Kenya.

Limited ground and aerial control operations are in progress in Ethiopia where 3 700 ha have been treated so far in January, and in parts of Kenya by DLCO-EA, national and county agencies and the private sector. So far, survey and control operations have not been mounted in central and southern Somalia due to insecurity. Aerial control efforts need to be urgently and very quickly upscaled in all countries.

In southwest Asia, swarms continue to be present on both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border but numbers are declining due to control operations and migration to the southern Iran where swarms that already reached the southeast have matured and laid eggs. In the past few days, unusually heavy rains fell in southeast Iran, causing flooding and loss of life. On the southeast coast near Chabahar, more rain fell in a day and half than what normally falls during the entire year. Once floodwaters recede, ecological conditions will be favourable for several months of breeding that is expected to cause a significant increase in locusts by spring.

Important breeding continues in the winter breeding areas along the coastal plains of the Red Sea where control operations are in progress against hopper groups, bands and adult groups in Saudi Arabia (8 000 ha), Eritrea (3 500 ha), Sudan (1 800 ha) and Yemen (1 080 ha).

13 January. Numerous and very large swarms pose an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

6 January. Dangerous situation in Horn of Africa and threatening along both sides of the Red Sea

The Desert Locust situation remains extremely serious in the Horn of Africa where it threatens pastures and crops in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. Numerous swarms have formed in eastern Ethiopia and adjacent areas of northern Somalia. A number of large immature swarms moved south in the Ogaden of eastern Ethiopia and adjacent areas of central Somalia and reached southern Somalia, southeast Ethiopia and, on 28 December, northeast Kenya. There is a risk that some swarms could appear in northeast Uganda, southeast South Sudan and southwest Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue in Ethiopia and aerial operations started in Kenya on 6 January. Insecurity and a lack of national capacity have so far not allowed control operations in Somalia. During January, swarms will mature and lay eggs in the Ogaden and north central Somalia that will hatch and cause numerous hopper bands to form. There is a low risk of breeding in Kenya.

A potentially threatening situation is developing along both sides of the Red Sea where ongoing breeding is causing locust numbers to increase on the coasts of Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Widespread laying and hatching occurred in Saudi Arabia and gave rise to numerous hopper groups and bands, and a few immature swarms moved into the interior in late December. Hopper bands and swarms are also forming on the Red Sea coast in Yemen. More swarms are likely to form in both countries later this month. In Sudan, hopper bands are forming on the northern coast near Egypt and new swarms could form later in January. Breeding in adjacent areas of southeast Egypt is likely to cause groups to form. A second generation of breeding is in progress and will continue on the central and northern coast of Eritrea where hoppers are forming groups, which could lead to hopper bands. Control operations are in progress in all affected countries.

In northeast Oman, ground control operations are in progress against hopper bands that formed near the coast.

In South-West Asia, intensive control operations continue along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where numerous swarms formed. As summer breeding has ended and conditions are drying out, any remaining swarms that are not detected or treated will move west to southern Iran in the coming days and weeks. If temperatures remain warm in southern Iran, egg-laying could occur in areas that received unusually heavy rains last month that will cause hopper bands to form.

The situation remains calm in West and Northwest Africa.

6 January. Dangerous situation in Horn of Africa and threatening along both sides of the Red Sea
Current situation.