FAO :: Locust Watch :: Archives :: Briefs :: 2020-2029 :: 2020
Desert Locust briefs 2020

14 October. Swarms increasing and moving in the Horn of Africa

The situation is expected to deteriorate as more swarms are forming and another generation of breeding commences from the Red Sea to Somalia, which could be supplemented by swarms coming from Yemen. This is likely to threaten Kenya where swarms could arrive in the north from mid-November onwards. Nevertheless, the situation is less dramatic than one year ago and countries are better prepared.

• ETHIOPIA. More immature swarms have formed in the Afar region in the northeast along the western side of the Rift Valley. While a few swarms have moved into adjacent areas of the Amhara and Tigray Highlands, many of the swarms have moved southeast across the Rift Valley to the Harar Highlands and down the eastern escarpment towards the Ogaden in the Somali region. Some swarms crossed into northwest Somalia. At least one swarm was seen copulating in the Dollo zone of eastern Somali region near the border of Somalia. More swarms are expected to move to the Somali region, including the Ogaden where they could mature and lay eggs in favourable areas or move further south. Ground and aerial control operations are in progress.

• SOMALIA. Immature swarms were seen in the northwest in early October and more can appear at any time. In the northeast, swarms have matured, and some have moved south towards Galkayo and Galgaduud to lay eggs. Hatching and band formation will occur while more swarms are likely to move south to central areas. Biocontrol operations are in progress.

• KENYA. A swarm was sprayed with biopesticides last week in the northern county of Laikipia. Subsequent reports suggest that it has split up into several smaller swarmlets. New swarms could start to arrive in November and December.

• ERITREA. Hopper groups and bands are present in some Red Sea coastal areas from Idd in the south to Mehimet in the north. Mature adult groups are laying near Mehimet. Ground control operations are in progress. More breeding is expected, causing hopper bands, immature adult groups, and perhaps a few swarms to form.

• SUDAN. More hopper bands are forming from hatching in the east between the Atbara River and the Red Sea Hills. Mature solitarious adults are present in the northeast and on the southern coast of the Red Sea between Tokar Delta and the Eritrea border where laying is imminent. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress.

• YEMEN. Breeding continues in the interior where hopper bands, groups of immature and mature adults, and immature swarms are present mainly near Al Hazm but most likely elsewhere, too. Immature swarms were seen near Sana’a while others are migrating south towards the southern coast where more swarms are likely to appear. Mid to late instar hopper bands are present on the northern coast of the Red Sea near Suq Abs that are fledging and forming immature groups. Field operations are in progress but continue to be hampered by insecurity.

• SAUDI ARABIA. Mainly late instar hopper bands are present on the southern coastal plains of the Red Sea north of Jizan. Fledging has commenced and immature adults are forming groups. Ground control operations are in progress.

The situation remains calm in West Africa and southwest Asia.

14 October. Swarms increasing and moving in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

5 October. Swarm breeding in northeast Africa and Yemen

Even though ground and aerial control operations continue against swarms in the Horn of Africa and Yemen, the situation remains worrisome and could potentially deteriorate during October because of recent breeding.

Substantial hatching and hopper band formation have caused numerous immature swarms to form in northeast Ethiopia. Hopper bands and swarms continue to form in Yemen where some swarms have started to move to the southern coast. An increasing number of swarms have been reported in northern Somalia, including cross-border movements between northwest Somalia and eastern Ethiopia. As prevailing winds coming from the north become established over the Horn of Africa, there will be an increased threat of swarm migration from Yemen, northeast Ethiopia and northern Somalia south to eastern Ethiopia and central Somalia in October that could extend to northern Kenya in November.

Other swarms are present in Eritrea, some of which moved to eastern Sudan where they laid eggs that have hatched and hopper bands are forming. Additional swarms could arrive in Eritrea from Ethiopia in the coming weeks.

Winter breeding by swarms started several months earlier than normal along the Red Sea coast, which could allow an extra generation of breeding this season and cause substantial increases in locusts. Hopper bands have formed on the coast in Saudi Arabia and Yemen, and groups in Eritrea.

In southwest Asia, the upsurge ended, and only small residual infestations remained in Pakistan.

In West Africa, small-scale breeding is underway in the northern Sahel, but locust numbers remain very low. Although locusts may concentrate and breed in northwest Mauritania in the coming months, no significant developments are expected.

5 October. Swarm breeding in northeast Africa and Yemen
Current situation.

29 September. Worrisome situation in parts of the Horn of Africa and Central Region

While the Desert Locust situation continues to improve in Southwest Asia, it is deteriorating in parts of the Central Region due to swarm breeding in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia.

In Eritrea, swarm breeding is underway, causing hopper groups and bands to form in the western lowlands bordering Sudan and on the Red Sea coastal plains between Assab and Karora. Breeding extends to eastern Sudan where an increasing number of swarms are laying eggs along the western side of the Red Sea Hills between Derudeb and Sinkat. Hatching and band formation have commenced, and more is expected during the next two weeks. Control operations are in progress.

The situation is very serious in Ethiopia where an increasing number of immature swarms are forming from breeding in the northeast region of Afar where late instar hopper bands are present and fledging. Late instar hopper bands are also present in the railway area between Dire Dawa and Aysha. In the past few days, some swarms have moved into the Amhara region, and cross-border movements by several swarms have been reported between Ethiopia and northwest Somalia. Immature swarms are increasing in northeast Somalia. Control operations are in progress.

In Yemen, hopper bands and swarms continue to form in the interior between Marib and Wadi Hadhramaut. Several immature swarms moved towards the Gulf of Aden coast near Lahij. On the Red Sea coast, hopper bands are forming in the north and extend northwards to coastal areas near Jizan, Saudi Arabia. A few maturing swarms have been seen in the adjacent Asir Mountains south of Al Baha and mature breeding groups are present further north along the coast near Lith. Control operations are in progress.

In northwest Kenya, a few residual immature swarms persist in Samburu county. One swarm was treated with biopesticide in Baringo and Laikipia counties.

As the northerly winds over the Horn of Africa become established in the coming weeks over northern Somalia and progressively move southwards during November, immature swarms in northeast Ethiopia, northern Somalia, and southern Yemen are expected to migrate southwards to the Ogaden in eastern Ethiopia and adjacent areas of central Somalia where they could eventually threaten and reach northern Kenya from November onwards.

In Southwest Asia, the situation continues to improve as the seasonal monsoon withdraws from the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border. Control operations continue in Pakistan against small infestations that persist in the Lasbela Valley west of Karachi.

The current situation remains calm in the summer breeding areas of the northern Sahel in West Africa and Sudan where locust numbers remain low and no significant developments are likely.

29 September. Worrisome situation in parts of the Horn of Africa and Central Region
Current situation.

18 September. The upsurge is easing in Southwest Asia but remains serious elsewhere

The Desert Locust situation continues to improve in Southwest Asia and there are initial signs of improvement in parts of East Africa. Nevertheless, it remains serious in Yemen and other areas of the Horn of Africa. The developing situation is being watched closely along both sides of the Red Sea where it could deteriorate as a result of swarm breeding.

In East Africa, only a few immature swarms remain in northwest Kenya where aerial control operations continue. A small third generation of breeding is likely to commence in October but may be limited by below-normal Short Rains that are predicted for this year. In northeast Ethiopia, numerous hopper bands are present mainly in the Afar region from substantial breeding. Although aerial control operations are in progress, new swarms are likely to form in the coming weeks. In Somalia, aerial control operations using biopesticides are making good progress against immature swarms on the northern plateau in Somaliland and Puntland. Further south, an increasing number of adult groups were reported in the central region of Galguduud in the past week.

In Yemen, hopper bands and swarms continue to be present in the interior and are spreading to coastal areas in the south and on the Red Sea. Limited control operations were undertaken in some areas.

There is concern that early swarm breeding is likely to commence on the Red Sea coastal plains of Yemen, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia, and perhaps Sudan where good rains fell in early August and again this month. Intensive monitoring and vigilance are required.

In Southwest Asia, the situation continues to improve. Small infestations persist in the Lasbela Valley west of Karachi in Pakistan. Regular and intensive surveys should be maintained along the Indo-Pakistan border to detect any signs of a small second generation of breeding.

The situation remains calm in the summer breeding areas of the northern Sahel from Mauritania to western Eritrea. Even though good rains have fallen with floods in some areas, locust numbers are expected to remain low and no significant developments are likely.

18 September. The upsurge is easing in Southwest Asia but remains serious elsewhere
Current situation.

11 September. Swarms appear along the Red Sea

The Desert Locust situation has improved in Southwest Asia but remains serious in Yemen and parts of East Africa. There is concern that the situation could deteriorate along both sides of the Red Sea.

In East Africa, aerial control operations continue against low numbers of immature swarms that persist in northwest Kenya and northeast Somalia. Breeding is underway in north and northeast Ethiopia where control teams are treating numerous hopper bands and groups that continue to form. The situation is expected to prevail during the remainder of September.

In Eritrea, control operations are in progress against mature swarms on the Red Sea coast where swarm movements continue to be reported. Mature swarms moved north along the Red Sea coast and the Asir Mountains in Saudi Arabia from Yemen to Mecca. In Yemen, mature swarms were seen in the highlands and on the northern Red Sea coast. Hopper bands were present in the interior from Al Jawf to Ataq and on the southern coast. Control operations are in progress in both countries. Widespread and potentially heavy breeding is expected in coastal areas of Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Eritrea where unusually good rains fell last month, including Sudan.

In Southwest Asia, the situation has improved dramatically as a result of intensive survey and control operations in India and Pakistan. Nevertheless, limited breeding continues in southeast Sindh and Lasbela west of Karachi in Pakistan.

Elsewhere, the situation remains calm. Only low numbers of solitarious adults are present in the northern Sahel of Mauritania, Chad and Sudan. Although breeding has not been detected so far, it is expected to be underway in areas of recent rainfall, perhaps further north than usual. Recent flooding in Sudan is hampering current survey operations. No significant developments are likely during September.

11 September. Swarms appear along the Red Sea
Current situation.

2 September. Summer breeding in Ethiopia and Indo-Pakistan

Ground and aerial control operations continue against spring-bred swarms that persist in the Horn of Africa. Summer breeding is underway in northern Ethiopia where an increasing number of hopper bands are forming in Afar and eastern Amhara and Tigray. Any swarms that are not detected or controlled in northwest Kenya are expected to remain and mature during September and lay eggs with the onset of the Short Rains.

Other swarms remain immature in eastern Ethiopia and northern Somalia that could spread south, if they do not mature, towards Kenya when the prevailing winds change in October. This could be supplemented by a few swarms from Yemen where control operations have been undertaken recently in the interior against numerous hopper bands and swarms.

Several mature swarms invaded Eritrea and spread throughout the highlands and the Red Sea coast where good rains fell in August. Swarms from Yemen invaded southwest Saudi Arabia, some of which reached the Red Sea coast near Jizan. On 31 August, a swarm moved from northwest Kenya to adjacent areas of Budi district in Eastern Equatoria, South Sudan. In southern Oman, adult groups and a swarm formed from local breeding on the coast.

Locust infestations are expected to increase substantially in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Yemen, and, to a lesser extent, on the Red Sea coast in Sudan and Saudi Arabia where numerous hopper bands could form during September.

In southwest Asia, extensive hatching and hopper band formation occurred in India and, on a smaller scale, in southeast Pakistan. Intensive control operations have significantly reduced infestations in both countries. Consequently, the second generation of breeding that commences in September is expected to be on a much smaller and more manageable scale.

The situation remains calm in the northern Sahel from Mauritania to western Eritrea where good rains fell much further north than usual last month but only small-scale breeding is expected because current locust numbers are very low.

2 September. Summer breeding in Ethiopia and Indo-Pakistan
Current situation.

24 August. Swarms maturing in the Horn of Africa

In the Horn of Africa, aerial control operations continue against several immature swarms prevailing in northwest Kenya. Some of the adults are starting to mature, suggesting the possibility of a generation of breeding once the short rains start in October. On 22 August, at least one swarm crossed into northeast Uganda and reportedly spread to Moroto, Amudati, Napak districts while another swarm arrived in southeast South Sudan to the south of Kapoeta in Eastern Equatoria. The swarms are mobile and not expected to mature or breed in either country. In northeastern Ethiopia, mature swarms from Afar concentrated along a 400 km stretch of the escarpment on the eastern edges of the Amhara and Tigray highlands where egg-laying will cause hopper bands to form. So far, at least one band has formed in Tigray south of Mekele. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress. Immature swarms persist in the Harar Highlands, in nearby eastern areas, and on the plateau in northwest Somalia where aerial control operations are in progress using biopesticides. These swarms could mature and eventually breed in areas of rainfall, including the northwest coast where adult groups are present. The risk of swarm migration to the Indo-Pakistan summer breeding area has nearly subsided.

On the Arabian Peninsula, hopper bands and swarms continue to form in the interior, southern coast, and central highlands of Yemen. Breeding is also likely on the Red Sea coast. Control operations were carried out against a mature swarm in the Asir Mountains of southwest Saudi Arabia near the Yemen border. In southern Oman, at least one immature swarm formed on the Salalah coast from local breeding.

In South-West Asia, good progress is being made against the first generation of hopper groups and bands that have formed mainly in Rajasthan, India, and to a lesser degree in Tharparkar district in southern Sindh, Pakistan. This is the result of more than 1,000 teams, 750 vehicles, and nearly 6,000 staff involved in the ground control campaign in Pakistan and hundreds of teams in India.

In West Africa, small-scale breeding by solitarious adults is underway in the northern Sahel of Mauritania, Mali, Niger, and Chad, which is normal for this time of year. Similar breeding is also in progress in Sudan. Although rains have fallen several hundred kilometers further north than usual this month, the situation is expected to remain calm in the summer breeding areas. Nevertheless, there is a need to maintain close and regular vigilance.

24 August. Swarms maturing in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

14 August. Swarms persist in the Horn of Africa

During the past week, control operations continue against persistent immature swarms in the Horn of Africa. There were several new sightings of immature swarms in Samburu county in northwest Kenya while other swarms prevailed near the border of Uganda in Turkana County. Cool temperatures and local winds have limited their ability to migrate northwards, which suggests that some swarms may remain during the summer awaiting the Short Rains in October. In Uganda, control was carried out against one swarm that arrived from Turkana county on 12 August.

In northern Somalia, immature swarms persist on the plateau in the northwest and northeast. A large swarm was seen over Hargeisa this afternoon (14 August). Other swarms are present in adjacent areas of eastern Ethiopia between Jijiga, Harar, Dire Dawa, and the Djibouti border, and numerous swarms are in the Afar region, partially as a result of several swarms migrating from Yemen. Good rains have caused large areas of green vegetation to develop that will allow breeding and a further increase in locust infestations during August and September.

Good rains continue to fall in the interior and coastal areas of Yemen where flooding has occurred in some places. Breeding is in progress in these areas, causing more hopper bands and swarms to form. Limited control operations were undertaken in a few places. In Oman, control teams treated hopper groups and bands on the southern coast near Salalah. If any swarms form, they are likely to move into eastern Yemen.

In Sudan, so far only low numbers of solitarious adults are present in the interior and there have been no reports of swarms arriving from Kenya. However, exceptionally good rains have fallen so far this month and much further north in the interior than usual. There was an unconfirmed report of a swarm on the Red Sea coast near the Sudan/Eritrea border that may have arrived from Yemen.

In Southwest Asia, summer breeding continues along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border. In Pakistan, hopper groups and bands continue to form in the Nagarparkar area of southeast Sindh where fledging has started, and adults are forming small groups of adults. In India, widespread breeding is underway throughout Rajasthan where hoppers are forming groups and bands. More hatching is expected this month. There remains a risk that a few swarms could still arrive from northern Somalia. Control operations continue in both countries. The situation has returned to calm in Iran.

In West Africa, low numbers of solitarious locusts are present in the summer breeding areas of the northern Sahel in Chad, Niger, and Mauritania where local breeding will occur in areas where rains fell recently much further north than normal.

14 August. Swarms persist in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

7 August. Swarm movements continue in the Horn of Africa

Desert Locust swarms continue to persist in several countries in the Horn of Africa as well as in Yemen. Summer breeding is in progress along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border.

In Ethiopia, immature swarms are present in the Somali region near Dire Dawa and Djibouti, in the western Ogaden, and within a large area of freshly green vegetation in northern Rift Valley of Afar region. On 7 August, an immature swarm from northwest Kenya appear in the southern Rift Valley of SNNPR. Ground and aerial control operations are in progress.

In Somalia, immature swarms persist in the northwest while additional immature swarms appeared in the northeast, and low numbers of adults are present in the central region of Galguduud. Ground and aerial control operations using biopesticides continue.

In Kenya, a few spring-bred swarms persist in parts of Turkana and Samburu counties in the north where aerial control operations continue.

In South Sudan, at least one immature swarm from northwest Kenya arrived in the southeast near Kapoeta on 2 August and was seen moving northwards during the next few days. Ground control operations were undertaken.

In Sudan, there have been no reports of swarms arriving from northwest Kenya. So far, only low numbers of scattered adults are present in the summer breeding areas where annual vegetation has become green and conditions are favourable for breeding both by local populations as well as by any swarms that might appear.

In Yemen, breeding continues in areas of recent rains in the interior and hopper bands are forming. Swarms are also present in the interior and, on 4 August, a swarm arrived on the northern Red Sea coast.

In Oman, late instar hopper group and bands are present on the southern coast near Salalah where immature adult groups are forming there as well as further north near Ras Al Hadd. Control operations are in progress.

In Pakistan, control operations continue against hopper groups and bands in southeast Sindh near Nagarparkar and the India border. Low numbers of adults are present in Cholistan and Lasbela where breeding will occur.

In India, only a few spring-breed adult groups and swarms remain in northern Rajasthan as most of the first-generation laying has finished. As a result, widespread hatching and the formation of hopper groups and bands is underway. Control operations continue.

In West Africa, scattered solitarious adults are present in the summer breeding areas in southern Mauritania, central and northern Niger, and in western and eastern Chad. Annual vegetation has become green in these areas and conditions are favourable for breeding that is likely to already be in progress.

7 August. Swarm movements continue in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

3 August. Swarm movements in the Horn of Africa as focus shifts to summer breeding areas

The locust situation remains a cause of extreme concern in the Horn of Africa and southwest Asia.

Second-generation spring swarms continue to decline in northwest Kenya due to control operations and migration northwards. A few swarms last crossed into northeast Uganda on 22 July. At least one swarm appeared on 1 August in the southeast of South Sudan near Kapoeta in East Equatoria, and control operations are underway. A few more swarms could appear in the coming days and transit South Sudan to reach the summer breeding areas in Sudan. Other immature swarms have migrated northwards to Ethiopia to join existing swarms, some of which moved into the northern Ethiopian highlands and northwest Somalia where control operations continue against hopper bands and swarms. Two swarms from Yemen invaded northeast Ethiopia at the end of July. In southern Oman, control operations are in progress against local breeding near Salalah.

Some of the swarms that continued east across northern Somalia may still reach India and Pakistan in early August. Thereafter, the threat should lessen especially as good rains are predicted to fall in northern Somalia in the coming weeks that would allow the swarms to mature and lay eggs.

A few swarms may appear in Sudan and Eritrea where conditions are now favourable for summer breeding. So far, only low numbers of mature adults are present in Sudan and no locusts have been reported in Eritrea. Breeding will occur within a large, widespread area of Sudan from Kassala to Darfur.

In Yemen, unusually heavy rains fell again in the interior where hopper bands and swarms continue to form, and breeding is likely to prevail during August and extend to the Red Sea coastal plains. Widespread breeding is also expected in northern and eastern Ethiopia. Consequently, Ethiopia and Yemen are likely to be the epicentre of summer infestations. Control operations are underway in both countries.

In southwest Asia, the situation has improved in Iran where few if any locust infestations remain. However, the current situation remains serious along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where monsoon breeding is underway by spring-bred swarms, including those returning from northern India, and substantial hatching and band formation are expected in August. A second generation of summer breeding will start in September. Extensive control operations are in progress in both countries.

Although the threat to West Africa has nearly subsided for now, local populations of scattered adults are present in the summer breeding area of southern Mauritania, northern Niger, and Chad. Small-scale breeding will cause locust numbers to increase between Mauritania and Chad during August and September.

3 August. Swarm movements in the Horn of Africa as focus shifts to summer breeding areas
Current situation.

29 July. Swarm laying along the Indo-Pakistan border

SOUTHWEST ASIA. Summer breeding is underway along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border. In India, numerous adult groups and swarms are laying eggs over a wide area of Rajasthan between Jodhpur and Churu while hatching and band formation from earlier laying have occurred further south from Phalodi to Gujarat. In Pakistan, hopper groups and bands are present in the Nagarparkar area in Tharparkar of southeast Sindh. Adult groups are scattered throughout Cholistan and other parts of Tharparkar that will lay eggs shortly. In Iran, locust numbers have declined, and the situation has improved. Survey and control operations are in progress in all countries.

EAST AFRICA. Spring-bred swarms are shifting north to the summer breeding areas. In Kenya, there has been a notable decline in immature swarms in the northwest due to control operations and migration to Ethiopia. Nevertheless, there are still some swarms present in parts of Samburu and in Turkana near the Uganda border. In Ethiopia, immature swarms are mainly present in the Somali region and, to a lesser degree, in parts of Afar, Amhara and Tigray regions. In Somalia, immature swarms are present on the northern plateau where some of them have started to become mature. Survey and control operations are in progress in the three countries. In Sudan, low numbers of solitarious mature adults are present between Eritrea and North Kordofan while mainly immature adults are present further north in the Nile Valley. Small-scale breeding will start shortly in areas of recent rainfall. So far, there are no reports of swarms arriving from NW Kenya. Intensive surveys are in progress.

ARABIAN PENINSULA. Yemen continues to be a cause of concern because of the continuation of good rains and breeding in interior areas where hopper bands and swarms are forming. Survey and control operations are in progress in some areas. In Oman, control operations are in progress against hopper groups and bands that formed on the southern coast near Salalah while solitarious adults are present in adjacent areas of the interior. In Saudi Arabia, local infestations of solitarious adults are present in the southwest near Najran.

WEST AFRICA. The situation remains calm. Solitarious adults are present in the summer breeding areas in southern Mauritania, central and northern Niger, and in western and eastern Chad where egg-laying will occur shortly in areas of recent rainfall. While the threat of a swarm invasion continues to decline, it is necessary to maintain strict vigilance, preparedness, and thorough monitoring.

29 July. Swarm laying along the Indo-Pakistan border
Current situation.

21 July. Risk of swarm migration from Horn of Africa prevails

In Kenya, locust swarms have declined in the northwest, mainly in Marsabit county, but continue to be present in Turkana where aerial and ground control operations are in progress. Most of these swarms are still expected to migrate northwards to Ethiopia and Sudan via South Sudan. There is a risk that a few swarms may cross the border into northeast Uganda. The scale of the migration of remaining swarms from Kenya is likely to be smaller than previously anticipated due to ongoing control operations.

In Ethiopia, ground and aerial control operations continue mainly against immature swarms in the northern Rift Valley and in the Harar Highlands in the east. There are reports of locusts in the south coming from Kenya, and locusts are present in the northern highlands of Amhara and Tigray. Timely reporting has been compromised due to Internet disruptions. More breeding is expected during the summer, which may be supplemented by a few swarms arriving from Yemen.

In Somalia, ground and aerial control operations are underway against immature swarms on the northern plateau between Hargeisa and Garowe. The swarms are moving eastwards across the north and they could continue to migrate across the Indian Ocean to reach the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border.

In Yemen, heavy rains fell in the interior and flooding occurred in Wadi Hadhramaut. Breeding continues throughout the interior as well as in some coastal areas that have given rise to numerous hopper bands and swarms. There is a risk that some of these swarms may appear on the Red Sea coast and breed in areas of recent rainfall. Survey and ground control operations are underway in a few places. No locusts were present in adjacent areas of southwest Saudi Arabia.

In Sudan, low numbers of mature solitarious adults are present in the Nile Valley, near Kassala and in White Nile and North Kordofan states. Control was carried out against local breeding near Atbara. No swarms have been detected from Kenya.

In Oman, control operations are in progress against hopper groups and bands along the southern coast near Salalah while low numbers of solitarious mature adults are present in the adjacent interior. There have been no reports of swarms appearing on the east coast from the Horn of Africa.

In Pakistan, control operations are in progress against hopper groups and bands in the Nagarparkar area of southeast Sindh near the Indian border. Groups of adults are maturing in Tharparkar and Cholistan deserts where laying is expected in areas that have already received monsoon rains. This will cause a further increase in locust numbers as hatching and hopper band formation occur in the coming weeks.

In India, adult groups and swarms are maturing throughout Rajasthan where laying is underway in many areas. So far, a few hopper groups and bands have formed but substantial hatching is expected in the coming weeks. Control operations are in progress. There have been no recent reports of additional locusts in the northern states as most of the adult groups and swarms have returned to Rajasthan as expected.

There remains a risk that a limited number of swarms could migrate from northeast Somalia to the Indo-Pakistan border area during the remainder of this month.

In Iran, a few small residual infestations remain in Khorasan province and control operations are in progress.

In West Africa, low numbers of solitarious adults are present in southeast Mauritania, northern Niger, and parts of western and eastern Chad. While the threat of invasion by swarms is declining, continued vigilance, preparedness, and increased surveillance remain paramount.

21 July. Risk of swarm migration from Horn of Africa prevails
Current situation.

13 July. Risk of swarm migration from Horn of Africa to Indo-Pakistan increases

New reports of Desert Locust swarms further east in northern Somalia suggest that migration from northeast Somalia across the Indian Ocean to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border could be imminent. More swarms are likely to form in northern Somalia in the coming weeks. India and Pakistan have been warned accordingly and they continue to take preparatory actions. During the migration, a few swarms could briefly appear in transit along the eastern coast of Oman.

SOUTHWEST ASIA. Summer breeding has commenced along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where numerous swarms are present mainly in Rajasthan, India. Hatching and band formation will increase during this month in Rajasthan and northern Gujarat, India as well as adjacent areas of Tharparkar, Nara and Cholistan deserts in Pakistan. A few swarms continue to be seen further east in Uttar Pradesh, India and at least one swarmlet reached the central plains of Nepal on 12 July where they are likely to disperse or return towards Rajasthan without causing significant damage or breeding. A few residual populations remain in the spring breeding areas of southeast Iran and southwest Pakistan.

EAST AFRICA. Immature swarms are present in northwest Kenya where aerial control operations continue. One swarm crossed into adjacent areas of northeast Uganda near Moroto where it was treated by air on 10 July. Some of the swarms in Kenya are expected to migrate northwards across South Sudan to the summer breeding areas in Sudan where good rains have fallen so far this month in Kordofan and Darfur that will give rise to favourable conditions for locust survival and breeding. Upon arrival, the swarms should quickly mature and lay eggs. Ground surveys are in progress in Sudan. Other swarms from northwest Kenya are likely to migrate north to Ethiopia where they will disperse in the north and east to mature and breed. This, together with current infestations, are likely to cause a further increase in locust populations in Ethiopia. Some swarms could appear in the western lowlands of Eritrea and breed.

ARABIAN PENINSULA. Breeding continues in the interior and on the eastern coast near Al Ghaydah that has caused more hopper bands and swarms to form. Swarms were seen in the highlands near Sada’a and Sana’a and in the south near Zinjibar. Breeding could also occur in areas of recent rainfall on the Red Sea coast. In Saudi Arabia, an immature swarm was seen in the Asir Mountains of the southwest. In southern Oman, breeding is in progress on the coast near Salalah and hopper groups are forming.

WEST AFRICA. The threat of an invasion by swarms that are expected to arrive in Sudan from northwest Kenya is declining because the swarms have not left Kenya yet and good rains have fallen in the summer breeding areas of Sudan. In this case, any swarms that do arrive in Sudan are more likely to stay rather than continuing further west to Chad and beyond. Ground teams are monitoring the situation closely in Chad. Continued vigilance, preparedness, and increased surveillance remain paramount.

13 July. Risk of swarm migration from Horn of Africa to Indo-Pakistan increases
Current situation.

3 July. Spring-bred swarms shifting to summer breeding areas

The unprecedented Desert Locust threat to food security and livelihoods persists in the Horn of Africa and is increasing in southwest Asia.

In the Horn of Africa, second-generation spring swarms are present in northwest Kenya, eastern Ethiopia, and parts of Somalia. Breeding continues in eastern and northern Ethiopia and in central and northern Somalia where hopper bands are present. Most of the swarms in northwest Kenya will migrate northwards and cross South Sudan to Sudan while other swarms will migrate to Ethiopia. A few swarms could transit northeast Uganda. Swarms that concentrate in northern Somalia are likely to move east to the Indo-Pakistan summer breeding areas.

Breeding may commence in areas of recent rains on the Red Sea coast in Yemen and Saudi Arabia while breeding will continue in the interior of Yemen. Some swarms could migrate from Yemen to northern Somalia and northeast Ethiopia in July.

While the northward swarm migration from Kenya is imminent, the later it starts, the more likely swarms will find good breeding conditions once they arrive in Sudan and this will reduce the risk of further migration to West Africa.

In southwest Asia, many of the spring-bred swarms migrated to the Indo-Pakistan border before the monsoon rains so some swarms continued east to northern states and a few groups reached Nepal. These swarms will return to Rajasthan with the start of the monsoon in the coming days to join other swarms still arriving from Iran and Pakistan, which is expected to be supplemented by swarms from the Horn of Africa in about mid-July. Early breeding has already occurred along the Indo-Pakistan border where substantial hatching and band formation will take place in July that will cause the first-generation summer swarms to form in mid-August.

Sudan, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Somalia, Pakistan, and India should remain on high alert during the next four weeks. West Africa should continue to take anticipatory measures and preparatory steps.

3 July. Spring-bred swarms shifting to summer breeding areas
Current situation.

27 June. More swarms form and appear in Ethiopia

During the past week, an increased number of immature swarms were reported in eastern Ethiopia between El Kere and Jijiga, most likely arising from local breeding as hopper bands persist in many areas. This may have also been supplemented by some swarms arriving from northern Kenya. Swarms are also present in the northern Rift Valley and an increasing number of hopper bands have been found in the highlands of Amhara and Tigray.

SOMALIA. Hopper bands and an increasing number of swarms are present in the northwest between Boroma and Hargeisa and in central areas near Galkayo.

KENYA. More swarms continued to form and were seen flying in the northwest.

Although control operations continue, a general northerly movement of swarms will occur in the three countries. Some of the swarms in northwest Kenya are expected to transit through South Sudan to reach the summer breeding areas of Sudan where some rains have already fallen. If these rains are not enough, there is a risk that swarms could continue to eastern Chad and spread westwards across the northern Sahel of West Africa. Swarms that accumulate in northern Somalia are likely to migrate across the Indian Ocean to the summer breeding areas along the Indo-Pakistan border.

YEMEN. More immature and mature swarms were reported during this past week in the interior between Marib and Hadhramaut. As control operations are not possible, farmers were resorting to digging trenches to bury locusts. Some swarms are likely to reinvade northern Somalia and northeast Ethiopia.

SAUDI ARABIA. A few immature swarms have been seen in the southwest and hopper bands are present near Najran. Control operations are underway.

In Southwest Asia, spring-bred swarms are present along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where they are awaiting the onset of the monsoon rains that will start in the coming days and allow the swarms to mature and lay eggs. Control operations continue.

PAKISTAN. Some swarms have already started laying eggs in Nagaparkar of southeast Sindh near the Indian border while swarms are present in the Indus Valley and are starting to form from hopper bands in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

INDIA. Swarms and adult groups are mainly present in Rajasthan west of Jaipur but some infestations continue to be reported in parts of Madhya Pradesh and southern Utter Pradesh. At least one small group of immature adults moved north in Utter Pradesh on the 27th during strong winds, reaching northern districts of Kushingar and Sidharth Nagar where they split up and a few crossed the border to the central lowlands of Nepal near Butwal. These are likely to disperse without causing much harm.

IRAN. Locust infestations declined further in the south. Only adult groups remain along the Pakistan border in the interior of Sistan-Baluchistan and hopper groups are present in South Khorasan. Control operations continue.

Sudan, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Somalia, Pakistan, and India should remain on high alert during the next four weeks. West Africa should continue to take anticipatory measures and preparatory steps.

See the updated country maps in the 2020 upsurge section for more details.

27 June. More swarms form and appear in Ethiopia
Current situation.

20 June. More swarms form in East Africa

An increasing number of second-generation immature swarms continue to form in northwest Kenya. The bulk of swarm formation is likely to occur during the next two weeks followed by a decline in July.

Before migration, swarms will remain for a short time during which there is a considerable threat to crops and pastures in Turkana and Marsabit counties. Thereafter, the swarms are expected to migrate northwards to the summer breeding areas in Sudan and Ethiopia where they will mature quickly and lay eggs. Some of the swarms will take about a week to cross South Sudan to reach South Kordofan and South Darfur while other swarms will move north to east and northern Ethiopia. Any swarms in northern Somalia can migrate across the Indian Ocean to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border.

In Sudan, some rains have fallen so far in South Darfur and South Kordofan, and no locusts are present except for isolated adults in the Nile Valley. If the rains are not sufficient, then the invading swarms are likely to continue to eastern Chad and migrate westwards across the Sahel of West Africa. This threat should decline progressively during the next four weeks.

In Ethiopia, control operations continue against hopper bands and new swarms that are forming in the east and northeast. Smaller operations are underway in central and northern Somalia.

In Saudi Arabia, control operations are in progress against hopper bands in the southwest near Najran and adult groups in the Asir Mountains.

In Yemen, hopper bands are present in the interior and highly mobile swarms are moving in highland and southern coastal areas. Some of these swarms are likely to migrate to northern Somalia and northeast Ethiopia.

In Oman, adult groups and a few swarms laid eggs in the Dhofar Hills of the south.

In Southwest Asia, breeding has ended in southern Iran and southwest Pakistan where locust infestations are rapidly declining as a result of control operations and migration to the summer breeding areas along the Indo-Pakistan border. Spring-bred adult groups and swarms continue to appear along the Indo-Pakistan border, many of which have continued further east into several states of northern India because the monsoon rains have not yet arrived in Rajasthan, India. These infestations are expected to return to Rajasthan with the onset of the rains to rapidly mature and lay eggs. Control operations continue in both countries.

Sudan, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Pakistan, and India should remain on high alert during the next four weeks. West Africa should continue to take anticipatory measures and preparatory steps.

20 June. More swarms form in East Africa
Current situation.

13 June. New swarms form in East Africa

A second-generation of immature swarms have now started to form in northwest Kenya as of 9–11 June. Swarm formation will continue for about four weeks while the bulk of the swarms will form during the second half of June.

Prior to migration, swarms will remain for a short time during which there is a considerable threat to crops and pastures in Turkana and Marsabit counties. From about 15 June, an increasing number of swarms are expected to migrate northwards with the prevailing winds to Ethiopia and Sudan. In Ethiopia, swarms are likely to first appear in the south and continue to Oromia, Somali, Amhara, Afar and Tigray regions.

It will take about one week for swarms to migrate from northwest Kenya to Sudan. During that time, they will traverse South Sudan (mainly east of Juba, Bor, and Malakal) and perhaps northeast Uganda, before reaching the extreme southern summer breeding areas of Sudan (South Kordofan, West Kordofan, East Darfur, South Darfur, White Nile, Blue Nile). From there, some swarms may continue to North Kordofan, North Darfur, and perhaps West Darfur. Other swarms may appear in states adjacent to Ethiopia (Sennar, Al Qadarif, Kassala).

If swarms reach Sudan and find dry conditions, then they are likely to migrate to eastern Chad and continue westwards across the Sahel of West Africa. This threat should decline progressively during the next four weeks as the summer rains commence in Sudan.

In Yemen, highly mobile swarms are moving in the interior, coastal and highland areas, including Sanaa. Some of these swarms could migrate to northern Somalia and northeast Ethiopia.

In Oman, at least one swarm continued to be reported in the Dhofar Hills of the south.

Sudan, Ethiopia, and South Sudan should remain on high alert during the next four weeks. West Africa should continue to take anticipatory measures.

13 June. New swarms form in East Africa
Current situation.

10 June. New swarms about to form in East Africa

The unprecedented Desert Locust threat to food security and livelihoods continues in the Horn of Africa, is increasing in southwest Asia, and could spread to West Africa.

In East Africa, swarms are about to form in northern Kenya and shortly thereafter, they will migrate northwards to Ethiopia and transit South Sudan to Sudan. In South-West Asia, spring-bred swarms are migrating to summer breeding areas along the Indo-Pakistan border. Swarms were recently reported in Oman, Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The threat to West Africa is under close watch.

KENYA. Late instar hopper bands are present throughout the northwest in Turkana and Marsabit counties. Second-generation immature swarms will start to form in the coming days and continue for the remainder of June. Many of the swarms will move northwards on the prevailing winds. Control operations continue. Sightings reported further south are Tree Locust rather than Desert Locust.

ETHIOPIA. Hopper groups and bands are present in the Ogaden and northern Rift Valley where a few immature groups and swarms have started to form and more are expected in the coming weeks that are likely to migrate to the Indo-Pakistan border. No locusts were reported in the south. Control operations continue.

SOMALIA. Light showers fell sporadically on the northern plateau. Control operations are in progress against hopper groups and bands on the northern plateau and in central areas. Mature swarms were seen near Boroma and Garowe.

SUDAN. Scattered solitarious adults persist in the Nile Valley. Light showers fell recently in southern portions of the summer breeding area in South Kordofan just north of the South Sudan border. Survey teams are being sent to Darfur for the first time since 2003.

YEMEN. Heavy rains fell on 1–3 June in the interior and on the southern coast where late instar hopper bands, immature and mature swarms are present. Some of the swarms could move to northeast Ethiopia, northern Somalia, and the Indo-Pakistan border. Heavy rains fell on 4 June on the Red Sea coast, extending to adjacent areas of Saudi Arabia.

OMAN. A few immature swarms from previous breeding along the UAE/Oman border have been seen in the past few days on the east coast. One swarm this morning flew out to sea where it could cross and reach India on about 17 June if it does not perish in the Arabian Sea. Limited control operations were undertaken.

SAUDI ARABIA. On 5–8 June, a few immature swarms were seen in the extreme north between Al Jawf and the Iraq border while immature adult groups were present further south near Hail where breeding previously occurred. These may continue to summer breeding areas of Sudan where they could start to arrive during the last two weeks of June. Adult groups are laying near Wadi Dawasir, hopper bands are present near Najran and the Yemen border, and a mature swarm was seen in the Asir Mountains near Abha on 7 June that probably arrived from Yemen. Control operations are in progress.

JORDAN. Immature groups from previous breeding in Iraq arrived in the east on 9 June. A few more groups may appear in the coming days.

IRAN. Spring breeding is coming to an end in the south. Late instar hopper groups and bands are present in South Khorasan and Sistan-Baluchistan, respectively. Immature swarms are forming in breeding areas of the south, which will move to the Indo-Pakistan border. Substantial control operations continue.

PAKISTAN. Spring breeding has nearly ended in Baluchistan and adults are forming groups and swarms. Hopper bands are present on the Punjab Plains that will cause swarms to form. Swarms from Baluchistan and Punjab will move to summer breeding areas along the Indo-Pakistan border in Cholistan, Nara, and Tharparkar deserts. Control operations continue in all areas.

INDIA. Control operations continue against adult groups and immature and maturing swarms in Rajasthan and, up to 5 June, in Madhya Pradesh. Pre-monsoon rains fell on the 5th in Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Cholistan, Pakistan.

10 June. New swarms about to form in East Africa
Current situation.

4 June. Spring-bred swarms will spread to summer breeding areas

The unprecedented Desert Locust threat to food security and livelihoods continues in the Horn of Africa and is likely to spread to southwest Asia and perhaps West Africa.

EAST AFRICA & YEMEN
In East Africa, second-generation breeding is underway in northwest Kenya and numerous hopper bands have formed that will give rise to immature swarms from the second week of June until at least mid-July. A similar situation is underway in Somalia and Ethiopia. Control operations continue in all affected areas. Most of the new swarms will migrate northwards from Kenya to Ethiopia and traverse South Sudan to Sudan after mid-June while other swarms will move to northern Ethiopia. Swarms that reach northeast Somalia are likely to migrate across the northern Indian Ocean to the Indo-Pakistan border area. In Yemen, breeding is in progress along the southern coast and in the interior where swarms are likely to form, some of which could migrate to northern Somalia and northeast Ethiopia.

SOUTH-WEST ASIA
Control operations continue in spring breeding areas of Iran and Pakistan. Early migration of spring-bred swarms from southwest Pakistan to Rajasthan, India occurred in May before the monsoon and some swarms continued to northern states for the first time since 1962. The swarms will oscillate east and westwards before returning to lay eggs with the onset of the monsoon in Rajasthan where successive waves of swarms will arrive from southern Iran in June and the Horn of Africa in July. Control operations are underway.

WEST AFRICA
In Sudan, the seasonal rains commenced recently in the extreme south of the summer breeding area just north of South Sudan. If rains continue in the coming weeks, then conditions are likely to be favourable for any swarms that arrive from Ethiopia and Kenya and they would be more likely to settle, mature and lay eggs. If, on the other hand, rains are limited and conditions remain dry during June in Sudan, then swarms would continue to eastern Chad in the last week of June and migrate further west in the Sahel of West Africa ahead of the summer rains, reaching eastern Niger during the first week of July, eastern Mali in mid-July, southeast Mauritania in late July.

4 June. Spring-bred swarms will spread to summer breeding areas
Current situation.

27 May. Swarms move into northern India

In the past few days, there have been movements of adult groups and swarms in India, Oman, UAE, and Uganda.

SOUTH-WEST ASIA
Swarms are forming in the spring breeding areas and migrating east to the Indo-Pakistan border ahead of the monsoon rains.
• India. Spring-bred immature adult groups and swarms that arrived in Rajasthan from the west continued to move east in the eastern portion of the state and to the central states of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. As of 26 May, at least one swarm had reached to the northeast of Bhopal. Much of these movements were associated with strong westerly winds from Cyclone Amphan in the Bay of Bengal. Control operations are underway. Several successive waves of invasions can be expected until July in Rajasthan with eastward surges across northern India as far as Bihar and Orissa followed by westward movements and a return to Rajasthan on the changing winds associated with the monsoon. These movements will cease as swarms begin to breed and become less mobile. Swarms are less likely to reach south India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.
• Pakistan. Adults are forming groups and small swarms in spring breeding areas in the southwest (Baluchistan) and the Indus Valley (Punjab). These infestations will move to the summer breeding areas along the Indo-Pakistan from Cholistan to Tharparkar. Control operations are underway in all areas.
• Iran. Adults are forming groups and small swarms in spring breeding areas along the southern coast and parts of Sistan-Baluchistan as vegetation is drying out. These infestations will move east to the Indo-Pakistan summer breeding areas. Control operations are underway.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
Important breeding continues in Yemen in the absence of survey and control operations.
• Yemen. Breeding is continuing in areas of recent rains in the interior where hopper bands and mature swarms have formed.
• Oman. Several immature adult groups moved from the northern interior near the UAE border to the north coast where they are expected to move along the coast to Ras Al Hadd before crossing to southeast Pakistan. Other groups moved from the interior breeding areas to Dubai. Control operations are underway.
• Saudi Arabia. Control operations were carried out against immature adult groups in the northern interior near Hail and Gassim, and against mature adult groups further south near Wadi Dawasir and Najran.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation remains extremely alarming in East Africa where Kenya, Ethiopia, and Somalia continue to face an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods. New swarms from current breeding will form from mid-June onwards, coinciding with the start of the harvest. Thereafter, there is a risk that swarms will migrate to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as well as to Sudan and perhaps West Africa.
• Kenya. Ground and aerial control operations continue against hopper bands in the northwest (Turkana, Marsabit). A few late-maturing swarms were seen south of Lodwar and new infestations were found along the Tana River where hopper bands are present.
• Ethiopia. A few immature and mature swarms remain in the south. Breeding has increased in the Ogaden and hopper bands are present. Breeding continues near Dire Dawa where hopper bands persist, and adults have formed groups and swarms. Breeding also occurred in Afar and on the eastern edge of the highlands, causing hopper bands to form. Ground and aerial control operations continue.
• Somalia. Breeding is underway in central areas (Galkayo and Galmudug) where scattered adults and hopper groups are present. Breeding is also underway in the northwest where hopper bands and groups of immature and mature adults are present on the plateau (east of Burao to the west of Boroma) and the coast near Bulhar. Hopper groups are also present in the northeast near Garowe. Control operations are underway.
• Uganda. On the 26 May, at least one swarm was seen in the northeast district of Kaaborg that was probably moving towards South Sudan.
• Sudan. Scattered gregarious adults are present near the South Sudan border at a few places in Blue Nile, While Nile, and South Kordofan states. A few adults persist in the Nile Valley north of Kordofan.

WEST AFRICA
The situation is currently calm. There is no indication so far of spring-bred swarms forming or leaving Arabia. Swarms will not form in East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia) until about mid-June. Thereafter, they will move north to Sudan and if they arrive before the summer rains, then they are likely to continue west to eastern Chad and beyond. While the current threat remains low, it can change significantly in the coming weeks based on rainfall, winds, and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

27 May. Swarms move into northern India
Current situation.

21 May. Desert Locust upsurge remains critical in East Africa, Yemen and Southwest Asia

The current situation remains extremely alarming in East Africa where Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia continue to face an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods. New swarms from current breeding will form from mid-June onwards, coinciding with the start of the harvest. Thereafter, there is a risk that swarms will migrate to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as well as to Sudan and perhaps West Africa.

EAST AFRICA
In Kenya, more hopper bands have been detected in the northwest where control operations are ongoing. Mature swarms are still present in some places and a few of these swarms moved into southeast South Sudan (Kopeata East district) on 14 May and northeast Uganda (Moroto district) on the 20th. In South Sudan, earlier breeding is in progress near Torit. In Sudan, mature gregarious adults reached the White Nile region on the border with South Sudan on the 15th. In Ethiopia, control operations continue against breeding in the south as well as hopper bands and several mature swarms further north in the Somali region near northwest Somalia. In Somalia, new hatching started in the past few days in central (Galmudug), northeast (Galkayo), and northwest (Somaliland) areas. In Sudan, rains are forecasted in the southern portion of the summer breeding areas (South Kordofan, White Nile) during the last week of May and again in the second and third weeks of June. If this occurs, then breeding conditions should be improving when swarms are likely to arrive from Kenya and Ethiopia after mid-June.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
In Yemen, widespread breeding is underway in the interior and hopper bands are forming. Survey and control operations have yet to be undertaken. A substantial increase in locust populations is expected in June that could eventually threaten the Horn of Africa. In Saudi Arabia, control operations are in progress against immature adults groups that formed in the Nafud Desert in the north and mature adult groups in the south near Yemen. Similarly, control operations continue against immature adult groups in northern Oman near UAE.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Spring breeding continues in southern Iran and southwest Pakistan where control operations are in progress against hopper groups and bands as well as an increasing number of adult groups. As vegetation dries out, more groups and swarms will form and move from these areas to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as several waves from now until at least early July. Good rains are predicted during the first half of June along the Indo-Pakistan border that would allow egg-laying to occur. This should reduce the further eastward movement of swarms that have already arrived in Rajasthan, India.

WEST AFRICA
The situation is currently calm. There is a risk that a few swarms from spring breeding areas in Arabia and East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia) could reach the eastern part of the Sahel in eastern Chad starting from early June if they migrate before the summer rains commence. While the current threat remains low, it can change significantly in the coming weeks based on rainfall, winds, and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

21 May. Desert Locust upsurge remains critical in East Africa, Yemen and Southwest Asia
Current situation.

13 May. Several swarms arrive in India from spring breeding areas

The current situation remains extremely alarming in East Africa where it is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods since it coincides with the current growing season. New swarms from current breeding will form from mid-June onwards, coinciding with the start of the harvest. At this time, there is a risk that swarms will migrate to the summer breeding areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border as well as to Sudan and perhaps West Africa.

During the past week, mature swarms in Kenya moved further north in the northwestern counties of Marsabit and Turkana to lay eggs. So far, only some of the hatching and a few hopper bands have been detected. In Ethiopia, swarms declined in the south due to control and breeding while mature swarms moved into the northeast (Afar) and eastern (Somali) regions. Hopper bands continued to mature near Dire Dawa as well as in adjacent areas of northwest Somalia. In central Somalia, mature adults are present near the Ethiopia border in Galguduud region. Control operations continue in all three countries. In South Sudan, limited breeding is underway in the southeast near Torit where a few hopper bands have formed.

The situation remains worrisome in Yemen where good rains have fallen in the interior. Egg-laying by adult groups and swarms, hatching and band formation are underway in the interior and along the southern coast. In Saudi Arabia, immature adult groups formed near the Persian Gulf, and hopper groups persist in Nafud Desert in the north. In Oman, immature groups and a few hopper groups are present in the northern interior near UAE and the northeast. Control operations continue in Saudi Arabia and Oman.

The situation is also threatening in Iran where hopper bands are maturing along the southwestern coastal plains, and another generation of breeding is underway in the southeast where hatching is taking place on the coast near Jask and in the interior of Sistan-Baluchistan. In Pakistan, adult groups are migrating to the India border from breeding areas in Baluchistan and the Indus Valley where hopper groups are present as well as in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. In India, more adult groups and small swarms arrived from Pakistan in the past few days and moved east into Rajasthan, reaching Jodhpur. Some swarms could continue further east. Control operations are underway in all three countries.

The situation remains calm in West Africa. There is a risk that a few swarms from spring breeding areas in Arabia and East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia) could reach the eastern part of the Sahel in eastern Chad starting in about a month if they migrate before the summer rains commence. While the current threat is assessed as low, it can change significantly in the coming weeks based on rainfall, winds, and the locust situation in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

13 May. Several swarms arrive in India from spring breeding areas
Current situation.

8 May. Locust threat extends to new areas

The current situation continues to represent an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in East Africa. In addition, the Indo-Pakistan border area, Sudan, and perhaps the Sahel of West Africa face an impending invasion from spring breeding areas.
EAST AFRICA
In northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia, immature and mature swarms are still present where they are maturing and laying eggs. In Kenya, a few more hopper bands have been reported in the northern county of Marsabit but the majority of hatching has yet to occur or be detected. In Ethiopia, some swarms have spread out to other areas of the country, mainly in the east, including the Somali region and the Ogaden where breeding is underway and hopper bands have formed. In Somalia, breeding is in progress in the northwest and, in the past few days, in the northeast that could eventually cause groups and swarms to form. While control operations continue, more surveys are required in all three countries.
ARABIA
In Saudi Arabia, hopper bands along the Persian Gulf have fledged and formed groups of immature adults. This will also occur shortly in the Nafud Desert in the north and probably in the Al Aflag area south of Riyadh. In Oman, adult groups are maturing in the north, and breeding continues along the UAE border and in the northeast where hopper groups are present. Ground control operations continue in both countries. In Yemen, swarms are laying eggs in areas of recent rainfall along the southern coast, and in the interior on the edge of Ramlat Sabatyn and on the plateau north of Wadi Hadhramaut. Survey and control operations are required.
SOUTHWEST ASIA
In Iran, hopper bands persist on the southwest coast and near the Strait of Hormuz. Adult groups laid eggs in Sistan-Baluchistan where surveys should be intensified to detect hatching and band formation. In Pakistan, hopper and adult groups persist in Baluchistan, adult groups have formed in the Indus Valley, and hopper groups and bands are present in Punjab. Hopper groups, bands, and adult groups are present on the Indo-Pakistan border in Punjab of both countries. Migration from the spring breeding areas in Baluchistan has commenced, and several immature adult groups and swarms have appeared since 2 May in Rajasthan, India. Control operations continue in all three countries. Increased monitoring and reporting are required in desert areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border.
WEST AFRICA
There is a risk that a few swarms could reach the eastern part of the Sahel in eastern Chad from spring breeding areas in Arabia and East Africa (Kenya and Ethiopia). The swarms would first appear in Sudan where it is currently dry and the situation is calm. If they arrive in Sudan before the summer rains, then the swarms are likely to continue westwards across the Sahel from Chad to Mauritania. The first appearance in eastern Chad could be as early as the second week of June from Arabia and the last week of June from East Africa. While the current threat is assessed as low, it can change significantly during this month due to rainfall, winds, and spring breeding in Arabia and East Africa. Therefore, investments in preparedness and anticipatory actions should be immediately and quickly scaled up to face this potential threat.

8 May. Locust threat extends to new areas
Current situation.

4 May. Locusts will increase further and extend to other areas

The current situation and forecast are alarming as locust infestations are expected to extend to other areas in the Horn of Africa and southwest Asia.

Widespread rains fell in East Africa for the second consecutive month in April. Although control operations are reducing locust populations, another generation of breeding will cause locust numbers to increase further as new hopper bands and swarms form in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia during May and June. Swarms are expected to move further north in Ethiopia and Somalia with a risk that a few swarms may reach Eritrea and Sudan in mid-June.

The situation is very worrisome in Yemen because several swarms laid eggs in the interior where widespread, heavy rains fell, which will allow hatching and hopper bands and swarms to form.

In the Arabian Peninsula, control operations continue against hopper bands in parts of Saudi Arabia, Iraq and UAE, and hopper and adult groups in northern Oman. Any swarms that form in about mid-May can move to the summer breeding areas in Yemen, Sudan and along the Indo-Pakistan border. Some swarms could perhaps continue to Chad and Niger in June if they arrive in Sudan prior to the start of the summer rains.

In southwest Asia, hopper groups and bands are present in southern Iran and in Pakistan where substantive control operations continue. Adult groups and small swarms from breeding in Baluchistan, the Indus Valley, and Punjab in Pakistan will move to desert areas along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border from now onwards. This is expected to be supplemented by several waves of swarms coming from the spring breeding areas during June.

4 May. Locusts will increase further and extend to other areas
Current situation.

28 April. A second generation of breeding about to start in Kenya

Spring breeding will cause a further increase in locust infestations in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as more swarms form and mature in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the early beginning of the long rains and the current growing season. A new generation of breeding is underway in Kenya where more eggs will hatch and form hopper bands during May, followed by new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. More swarms mature in central and northern areas with a few laying eggs and hatching starts. Control continues.
● ETHIOPIA. Immature swarms in the south (SNNPR, Oromia), mature swarms in N Oromia and N Somali regions; mid-instar hopper bands in east (Dire Dawa - Ayasha). Control continues.
● SOMALIA. Early instar hopper bands on the Ethiopian border in the northwest (Somaliland); scattered adults along the Ethiopian border in central areas (Galguduud).

NE AFRICA & ARABIAN PENINSULA
Breeding continues in several countries where hopper bands are forming that could lead to new swarms.
● YEMEN. Increasing reports of mature swarms copulating in the interior where floods occurred this week.
● SAUDI ARABIA. Control continues against mid-instar hopper bands near the Persian Gulf (Nairyah to Al Hofuf) and in the interior (Hail).
● IRAQ. Limited control continues against early mid-instar hopper groups in southern provinces (Kerbala and Thikar in addition to Al Muthanna, Al Diwaniya, Al Najaf).
● UAE. Limited control against hopper bands on Oman border south of Al Ayn.
● SUDAN. Calm situation, only a few scattered adults on coast and interior.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Breeding continues in the spring breeding areas where situation remains worrying in Iran.
● IRAN. More hopper groups and bands continue along the southern coast; mature adult groups moved north in Sistan & Baluchistan to South Khorasan and lay eggs. Control continues.
● PAKISTAN. Hopper and adult groups in Baluchistan; hopper groups and bands in Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; hoppers near the Indian border. Control continues.

28 April. A second generation of breeding about to start in Kenya
Current situation.

21 April. Swarms continue to mature in East Africa

Spring breeding will cause a further increase in locust infestations in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as more swarms form and mature in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia and probably in Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly stay in place, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. More swarms mature in central and northern areas with egg-laying imminent. Control continues.
● ETHIOPIA. Swarms mature in the south (SNNPR, Oromia) and disperse northwards in Oromia and Somali region; hopper bands in the east near Dire Dawa. Control continues.
● UGANDA. A maturing swarm was reported on 17 April in Katakwi district of the northeast.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
Breeding continues in several countries, causing hopper bands to form that could lead to swarms.
● YEMEN. Heavy rains and floods fell in the interior (Marib, Bayhan) this past week, including Aden today; swarm in Wadi Hadhramaut.
● SAUDI ARABIA. Control continues against mid-instar hopper bands near the Persian Gulf and new hopper bands in the interior (Hail and Al-Badie Al-Shamali).
● IRAQ. Limited control in progress against early instar hopper groups in the southern provinces of Al Muthanna, Al Diwaniya, Al Najaf.
● OMAN. Late instar hopper groups, bands and a few small swarms seen laying eggs near UAE. Swarm on the Yemen border today. Control continues.
● UAE. Limited control against hopper bands and adult groups near Al Ayn and Oman.


SOUTHWEST ASIA
Breeding continues in the spring breeding areas where the situation is worrisome in Iran.
● IRAN. More hopper bands form along the southwest coast; swarm laying near Jask and adult groups lay in Sistan & Baluchistan. Control continues.
● PAKISTAN. Hopper and adult groups in Baluchistan; hopper groups and bands in the Indus Valley and Punjab; limited breeding near the Indian border. Control continues.

21 April. Swarms continue to mature in East Africa
Current situation.

14 April. Swarms mature in East Africa

Widespread rains that fell in late March are expected to cause a dramatic increase in locust numbers in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as more swarms form and mature in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia and probably in Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly stay in place, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. More swarms are maturing and increasing in size in central and northern areas with some moving westwards; egg-laying is imminent.
● ETHIOPIA. Hopper bands and an increasing number of swarms are maturing in the south (SNNPR, Oromia); new swarms appeared in northern and southern Somali region.
● SOUTH SUDAN. A maturing swarm arrived in Magwi County on 8 April from Uganda.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
The situation in Yemen continues is likely to be deteriorating but no new information has been received.
● SAUDI ARABIA. Control continues against early and mid-instar bands near the Persian Gulf.
● OMAN. Late instar hopper groups, bands and a few small swarms seen laying eggs near UAE; control underway.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Spring breeding is underway. The situation in Iran continues to be serious and worrisome.
● IRAN. An increasing number of hopper bands continue to form along the southern coast; a few swarms near Jask.
● PAKISTAN. Control continues against hopper groups in Baluchistan, Punjab, and near the Indian border; more adult groups forming in Baluchistan.

(see updated country maps in 2020 Upsurge section)

14 April. Swarms mature in East Africa
Current situation.

8 April. Swarm increase expected in East Africa

Widespread rains that fell in late March could allow a dramatic increase in locust numbers in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran in the coming months.

EAST AFRICA
The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as hopper bands and an increasing number of new swarms form in northern and central Kenya, southern Ethiopia and Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly remain, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.
● KENYA. Swarms appear to be increasing in size in some central and northern areas with some moving westwards.
● ETHIOPIA. A large swarm was reported in the south (SNNPR) today.
● UGANDA. Several immature and maturing swarms appeared in the northeast (Katakwi, Amuria, Agago districts) on 5-7 April. The military carried out control operations. Additional swarms may appear in these areas from Kenya and move towards the northwest.

ARABIAN PENINSULA
Spring breeding is underway. The situation in Yemen continues to deteriorate.
● YEMEN. An immature swarm was seen on the coast at the Oman border and another one north of Aden, and adults are laying on the eastern plateau.
● SAUDI ARABIA. More hatching and early instar bands form near the Persian Gulf where control operations continue.
● OMAN. Control underway against hopper and adult groups in the north. A few immature adult groups seen in the south.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
Spring breeding is underway. The situation in Iran is becoming increasingly worrisome.
● IRAN. An increasing number of hopper bands are forming along the southern coast from earlier swarm laying.
● PAKISTAN. Control underway against hopper groups in Baluchistan, Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

8 April. Swarm increase expected in East Africa
Current situation.

4 April. Widespread rains to cause a further deterioration in the situation

Widespread rains that fell in late March could allow a dramatic increase in locust numbers in East Africa, eastern Yemen and southern Iran during the coming months.

The current situation in East Africa remains extremely alarming as hopper bands and an increasing number of new swarms are forming in Kenya, southern Ethiopia and Somalia. This represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods because it coincides with the beginning of the long rains and the planting season. Although ground and aerial control operations are in progress, widespread rains that fell in late March will allow the new swarms to mostly remain, mature and lay eggs while a few swarms could move from Kenya to Uganda, South Sudan and Ethiopia. During May, the eggs will hatch into hopper bands that will form new swarms in late June and July, which coincides with the start of the harvest.

Several swarms appeared in the past few days in Amudat district of northeast Uganda.

The situation in Iran and Yemen is becoming increasingly worrisome. Swarms laid eggs along 900 km of coast in southwest Iran that are hatching and hopper bands are forming. The widespread heavy rains that fell in late March will allow another generation of breeding and a further increase in locusts during May, which will extend to Baluchistan, Pakistan.

Several swarms were reported in the past few days, including today, along both sides of the Oman/Yemen border in the interior and on the coast. The March rains will allow swarm breeding in eastern Yemen that will cause hopper bands to form and a further increase in locust numbers.

4 April. Widespread rains to cause a further deterioration in the situation
Current situation.

31 March. More swarms continue to form in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. More first-generation immature swarms form throughout northern and central counties and are maturing. Some will be ready to lay eggs from next week and continue to May. Further concentration expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. Hopper bands in Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley, and increasing number of new generation of immature swarms that are maturing. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

SOMALIA. Breeding continues in central areas.

SOUTH SUDAN. A few mature swarms from the south appeared in the southeast near Torit.

DJIBOUTI. Hopper bands and immature swarms on the coast between Tadjourah and Obock.

YEMEN. More hopper bands and immature adult groups on southern coast near Aden.

IRAN. Hopper groups forming on southern coast. More hatching expected in southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars. Immature adult groups and small swarms will start forming shortly but should stay in place to mature and breed again in May. Ground control operations continue.

The situation is under control in the following countries:

ERITREA. Control operations against hopper and adult groups on central coast.

OMAN. Control operations against hopper groups on north coast and interior with new hatching on coast.

IRAQ. Control operations continue against mature swarms in the southeast.

PAKISTAN. More hopper groups form from Baluchistan breeding and immature adults start to form groups. Group of adults laying in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hopper groups in Dera Bugti district (north of Sukkur). Control operations underway

31 March. More swarms continue to form in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

24 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. Hopper bands continue to develop and form an increasing number of first-generation immature swarms in northern and central counties. The swarms are maturing and will be ready to lay eggs from the first week of April onwards. Further concentration expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. Hopper bands are present in Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. A new generation of immature swarms are forming and maturing. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

SOUTH SUDAN. Several mature swarms from the south appeared in the southeast near Torit on 18-19 March; at least one moved to Juba on the 21st, continuing to Bor on the 23rd and flew towards southwest Ethiopia.

YEMEN. Hopper bands continue forming on southern coast near Aden and immature adults starting to form groups. Heavy rains and flooding in Wadi Hadhramaut. Scattered adults on northern Red Sea coast.

IRAN. Hatching started on western Hormozgan coast in past few days. More hatching expected in southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars. Late instar hopper bands forming near Jask.

The situation is under control in the following countries:

SUDAN. Vegetation drying out on the Red Sea coast and locusts declining with only scattered adults present on south coast.

ERITREA. Control operations continue against groups of late instar hoppers and immature adults on the Buri Peninsula and on southern coast near Tio. Vegetation drying out on central and northern coast.

SAUDI ARABIA. Very limited control operations in the north against a few mature adult groups.

OMAN. Control operations against hopper groups in northern interior and new groups on north coast that just hatched.

IRAQ. There were reports of control operations in the southeast. More details are awaited.

PAKISTAN. More hopper groups form from Baluchistan breeding and immature adults start to form groups. Group of adults laying in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Hopper groups in Dera Bugti district (north of Sukkur). Control operations underway.

INDIA. Calm situation, no locusts reported.

24 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

17 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. Hopper bands continue to develop and form an increasing number of first-generation immature swarms in northern and central counties. Further concentration expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. No new information received. Hopper bands continue to form within a widespread area of Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. A new generation of immature swarms are likely to have started forming in some areas. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

YEMEN. Hopper bands forming on the southern coast near Aden where control was carried out. The situation is not well known in other areas where breeding is likely underway.

IRAN. Swarms and adult groups continue laying eggs in the southwest (southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars, western Hormozgan provinces). Hatching and band formation imminent. Local breeding continues in the southeast where hoppers are forming groups and bands in eastern Hormozgan. Control operations are in progress.

The situation is under control in the following countries:

SUDAN. Two immature swarms appeared on southern coast of Red Sea on the 14th. Scattered adults along parts of the coast.

ERITREA. Conditions drying out on the central and northern coast. Control operations continue against groups of late instar hoppers and immature adults on the Buri Peninsula and in the Dahlak Islands.

EGYPT. Late instar hopper groups treated at one place on the Red Sea coast in the southeast.

SAUDI ARABIA. Control operations against one mature swarm and groups of laying adult near the Persian Gulf between Al Hofuf and Kuwait and a few mature groups in the northern interior south of Al Jawf.

OMAN. Hatching on the north coast and control operations against early instar hopper groups, and continue against late instar hopper groups on east coast.

17 March. New swarms continue forming in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

10 March. New swarms forming in Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

KENYA. Widespread swarm breeding continues in northern and central counties where an increasing number of hopper bands and first-generation immature swarms are forming. This may be supplemented by new-generation immature swarms arriving from Somalia. Further concentration is expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

ETHIOPIA. Breeding continues within a widespread area of Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley, where early instar hopper bands are forming in some places. Immature swarms are present in the south where cross-border movements are likely from adjacent areas of Somalia and Kenya. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

SOMALIA. Late instar hopper bands, maturing adult groups and at least one mature swarm on the northwest coast where egg-laying continues. Ground control operations underway with biopesticides.

SUDAN. Late instar hopper band, fledglings and immature adult group and swarm on the southern coast of the Red Sea near the Eritrea border. Scattered adults in Tokar Delta, the northeast and in the Nile Valley.

ERITREA. Immature adult groups on the northern coast of the Red Sea near the Sudan border. Hopper groups on the Buri Peninsula.

SAUDI ARABIA. Mature swarm and laying adult groups near the Persian Gulf between Dammam and Qaryat Al Ulya. Scattered adults on the central Red Sea coast.

KUWAIT. Immature swarms in the north and near Kuwait City.

UAE. Immature swarm on the western coast near Qatar.

IRAN. Swarms laying eggs in the southwest (southern Khuzestan, Busherh, southern Fars, western Hormozgan provinces) that will start to hatch later this week and form hopper bands. Local breeding continues in the southeast where hoppers are forming groups and bands in eastern Hormozgan. Control operations are in progress.

PAKISTAN. Mature adult groups laying eggs in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Dera Ismail Khan, Lucky Marwat) and Baluchistan (Dalbandin, Kharan, Khuzdar, Washtuk, Turbat) that will hatch during the second half of March and form hopper groups and small bands. New generation immature groups and small swarms are likely to start forming in Baluchistan by the end of March.



10 March. New swarms forming in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

5 March. New swarms forming in Somalia and starting in Kenya

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are starting to form, representing an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods at the beginning of the upcoming cropping season.

EASTERN AFRICA

Kenya. Widespread swarm breeding continues in northern and central counties where an increasing number of hopper bands are forming and, in the past few days, the new generation of immature swarms have started to form. This may be supplemented by new-generation immature swarms arriving from Somalia. Further concentration is expected in Marsabit and Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

Ethiopia. Swarms continue to mature and breed over a widespread area of Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Cross-border movements continued to be reported from adjacent areas of Somalia and Kenya.

Somalia. In the northwest, late instar hopper bands and immature adult groups are forming between Berbera and Burao. In the northeast, new immature swarms are forming near Garowe. Some swarms may be moving south towards NE Kenya.

South Sudan. The mature swarm seen on 23 February near Laboni and the Uganda border dispersed into many small swarmlets.

Uganda. No new reports of swarms since 24 February.

DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo). No new reports of Desert Locust in the northeast near the Uganda border.

OTHER HOT SPOTS

Sudan. Scattered adults are maturing on the central coast of the Red Sea. No locusts reported elsewhere.

Eritrea. Breeding continued on the central and northern Red Sea coast where groups of hoppers and immature adults formed. A mature swarm appeared on the coast near Massawa and laid eggs. Ground control operations treated 2 712 ha (24–26 Feb).

Saudi Arabia. Ground control operations against hopper bands on the Red Sea coast near Qunfidah finished on 26 February but continued against immature groups in the interior between Wadi Dawasir and the Persian Gulf. Ground teams treated 3 640 ha (19-27 Feb).

Yemen. Another generation of breeding is in progress on the Red Sea coast where hatching and early instar hopper bands continue to form. An immature swarm was seen in Sana'a on 29 February. New breeding was seen on the southern coast near Aden where early and late instar hopper bands were present, the latter forming immature adult groups. Control could not be carried out.

Oman. Breeding continues on the north and east coasts where hopper groups and bands have formed. Swarms were reported recently on the north coast.

Iraq. Swarms were reportedly flying in the southeast between Basrah and Nasiriyah.

Iran. 22 immature swarms spread out along the southwest coast between Bushehr and Bander-e-Lengheh in Fars, Khozestan, Bushehr and Hormozgan provinces where they quickly matured within four days to lay eggs. Local breeding continued in the southeast. Control operations are in progress.

Pakistan. Mature adult groups and swarmlets were seen copulating in Okara district of Punjab and Dera Ismail Khan and Lucky Marwat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Spring breeding is in progress in the interior of Baluchistan between Khuzdar and Dalbandin, and on the southwest coast near Turbat where adult groups are laying eggs and early instar hopper groups are already forming. Ground teams treated 4 490 ha (18-29 Feb). New generation immature groups and swarms could start forming in Baluchistan by the end of March.

Afghanistan. Three swarms reportedly arrived in Khost province from adjacent areas of NW Pakistan on about 21 February.

5 March. New swarms forming in Somalia and starting in Kenya
Current situation.

24 February. Swarms invade the Persian Gulf and continue to breed in the Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in the Horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread breeding is in progress and new swarms are expected to form in the coming weeks. In the past few days, there has been a significant movement of swarms over the Arabian Peninsula, unrelated to the Horn of Africa, that reached both sides of the Persian Gulf.

Kenya. Swarms continue to be reported in northern and central areas where they are mostly mature and have laid eggs. Hatching is causing an increasing number of hopper bands to form with new swarm formation expected in the coming weeks. Mature swarms are also present along the shores of Lake Turkana. Aerial and ground control operations continue.

Ethiopia. The situation is similar to Kenya with widespread swarms, breeding and hatching in Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Movements further north can be expected as well as from adjacent areas of Somalia and Kenya.

Somalia. Breeding continues in the northeast where new immature swarms are expected to form in about one week or so.

Uganda. A mature swarm arrived in the northeast from adjacent areas of western Kenya on 24 February.

South Sudan. Only remnants of an earlier mature swarm have been seen in the southeastern county of Magwi. A second mature swarm was seen near the border on 23 February.

Tanzania. No new reports of swarms.

DRC (Democratic Republic of the Congo). A small group of mature Desert Locust arrived on the western shore of Lake Albert near Bunia on 21 February after crossing northern Uganda on strong northeasterly winds. The country last received Desert Locust in 1944.

Saudi Arabia. Ground control operations increased against hopper bands on the Red Sea coast and immature groups and swarms in the interior.

Yemen. Another generation of breeding is in progress on the Red Sea coast where hatching and early instar hopper bands are forming. Immature and mature swarms were reported in the interior during this past week. Surveys remain limited and control could not be carried out.

Persian Gulf. During several days of strong winds, dense immature swarms arrived in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and along the southwest coast of Iran between Bushehr and Kish Island on 20-21 February. More swarms are likely during periods of southerly winds. Control operations were immediately mounted in Iran.

24 February. Swarms invade the Persian Gulf and continue to breed in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

21 February. Swarms from Arabia arrive in Persian Gulf

On 20 February, immature swarms from the Arabian Peninsula reached the shores of the Persian Gulf in Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and the southwest coast of Iran. More swarms are likely during periods of southerly winds.

The situation remains extremely alarming in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread Desert Locust infestations and a new generation of breeding threatens food security and livelihoods in the region. The situation is less worrisome in Uganda and Tanzania.

Kenya. Swarms continue to mature and lay eggs in northern and central counties where hatching and band formation are increasing. At least one swarm arrived in a tea plantation in the southwest county of Kericho while other swarms have been seen further north in Turkana county. There have been no new reports of swarms near Mt. Kilimanjaro. Aerial and ground control operations continue in most areas.

Uganda. Several mature swarms moved northwards within 12 northeastern districts from 9–13 February. Although a few swarms were desperately laying eggs on the surface of the ground, there is a possibility of successful laying in a few limited areas. Control operations were undertaken by the military in one area.

Tanzania. There have been no new reports of swarms after those that entered from the north on 9 February and moved towards Arusha and Moshi.

South Sudan. On 17 February, a mature swarm entered Magwi county in the southeast from Lamwo district in northern Uganda and was moving towards Torit west.

Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue against mature swarms in the Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Cross-border swarm movements with Kenya continue to be reported. Breeding is underway but more details are awaited concerning its scale and geographical spread.

Somalia. Breeding is in progress in central areas near the Ethiopian border between Beled Weyn and Gaalkacyo where groups of hoppers and adults are present. Breeding is also underway in the northeast where late instar hopper bands were seen earlier in the month near Garowe.

Red Sea area. Breeding is in progress along both sides of the Red Sea in Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and Eritrea where hopper groups, bands, immature adults groups have formed that is likely to cause swarms to form shortly. Several immature swarms have moved from the coastal plains to the interior in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Control operations are in progress in all countries but remains limited in Yemen.

Southwest Asia. Breeding continues on the southeast coast in Iran. The situation is calm along the India border in Pakistan while a few small swarms appeared in cropping areas in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan. In India, control operations are underway against a few residual summer-bred swarms that persist in parts of Rajasthan.

21 February. Swarms from Arabia arrive in Persian Gulf
Current situation.

17 February. Widespread breeding in progress in the Horn of Africa

The situation remains extremely alarming in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia where widespread Desert Locust infestations and a new generation of breeding threatens food security and livelihoods in the region. The situation is less worrisome in Uganda and Tanzania.

Kenya. Swarms continue to mature and lay eggs in northern and central counties where hatching and band formation are increasing. At least one swarm arrived in a tea plantation in the southwest county of Kericho while other swarms have been seen further north in Turkana county. There have been no new reports of swarms near Mt. Kilimanjaro. Aerial and ground control operations continue in most areas.

Uganda. Several mature swarms moved northwards within 12 northeastern districts from 9–13 February. Although a few swarms were desperately laying eggs on the surface of the ground, there is a possibility of successful laying in a few limited areas. Control operations were undertaken by the military in one area.

Tanzania. There have been no new reports of swarms after those that entered from the north on 9 February and moved towards Arusha and Moshi.

South Sudan. On 17 February, a mature swarm entered Magwi county in the southeast from Lamwo district in northern Uganda and was moving towards Torit west.

Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue against mature swarms in the Somali, Oromiya and SNNPR regions, including the Rift Valley. Cross-border swarm movements with Kenya continue to be reported. Breeding is underway but more details are awaited concerning its scale and geographical spread.

Somalia. Breeding is in progress in central areas near the Ethiopian border between Beled Weyn and Gaalkacyo where groups of hoppers and adults are present. Breeding is also underway in the northeast where late instar hopper bands were seen earlier in the month near Garowe.

Red Sea area. Breeding is in progress along both sides of the Red Sea in Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and Eritrea where hopper groups, bands, immature adults groups have formed that is likely to cause swarms to form shortly. Several immature swarms have moved from the coastal plains to the interior in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Control operations are in progress in all countries but remains limited in Yemen.

Southwest Asia. Breeding continues on the southeast coast in Iran. The situation is calm along the India border in Pakistan while a few small swarms appeared in cropping areas in Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan. In India, control operations are underway against a few residual summer-bred swarms that persist in parts of Rajasthan.

17 February. Widespread breeding in progress in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

10 February. Desert Locust spread to Uganda and Tanzania

Breeding continues in the Horn of Africa, which will cause locusts to increase further in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya with new swarms forming in March and April. Consequently, there is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in the region.

In Kenya, numerous immature and mature swarms continue to move throughout northern and central areas. Mature swarms reached within 50 km of the Uganda border on 6 February and other mature swarms nearly reached the Tanzania border on the 7th. Widespread egg laying and hatching have started, and so far numerous dense early instar hopper bands are present in some central areas. Aerial and ground control operations are continuing.

On 9 February, there were reports that Desert Locust arrived in northeast Uganda near Amudat (0157N/3456E). Other reports indicated that Desert Locust had crossed the border into northern Tanzania close to Mt. Kilimanjaro, reaching Arusha and Mushi.

In Somalia, second to fourth instar hopper bands are present in the northeast near Garowe. Other infestations are likely to be present in the northwest, central and southern areas where breeding is expected to be in progress.

In Ethiopia, maturing swarms were present in eastern and southern areas and additional swarms moved into the Rift Valley from the south and the north. Egg-laying and hatching are likely to be underway but so far it has not been detected. Aerial and ground control operations continue in most areas.

Widespread hatching and band formation will occur in the coming weeks in Kenya, Ethiopia and Somalia. There remains a risk of a few small swarms appearing in northeast Uganda, southeast South Sudan and perhaps northern Tanzania in the coming days.

Elsewhere, above-normal breeding continues along both sides of the Red Sea coast where hopper groups, bands, adult groups and a few swarms are forming on the coastal plains. Swarms continue to appear in the highlands and interior of Yemen. Control operations are in progress in Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and, to a limited extent, in Yemen.

In South-West Asia, a few residual summer-bred swarms appeared in northwest Pakistan and there were reports in locusts in the interior of Baluchistan near Kharan. Swarm breeding is on progress along parts of the southern coast of Iran.

10 February. Desert Locust spread to Uganda and Tanzania
Current situation.

3 February. Three hot-spots of threatening locust activity

The current situation remains extremely alarming in three main areas.

(1) In the Horn of Africa, the worst affected area, there is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods as swarms increase in Ethiopia and Somalia and continue to move south to Kenya where they have spread to 14 northern, central and southwest counties, reaching within 200 km of northeast Uganda and southeast South Sudan. Some swarms have already laid eggs and hatching is almost certainly underway. Swarms have also entered the Rift Valley in Ethiopia. Aerial and ground operations are in progress but remain insufficient. Breeding during February will cause a further increase with numerous hopper bands in all three countries. Some swarms may still reach Uganda and South Sudan in the coming days.

(2) Locust infestations continue to grow along both sides of the Red Sea where numerous hopper groups, bands and adult groups are forming. A swarm formed on the coast near the Sudan/Egypt border, swarms have laid near the Sudan/Eritrea border, and formed on the coast of Yemen, some of which have moved into the central highlands and to adjacent areas in southwest Saudi Arabia. At least one swarm appeared on the southern coast of Eritrea. Several swarms, presumably from the Indo-Pakistan border area, recently arrived on the eastern coast of Oman and moved south to Yemen.

(3) In southwest Asia, heavy rains on the southern coast of Iran where swarms were laying eggs, which should allow favourable conditions for two generations of breeding that could cause a considerable increase in locust numbers. Residual adult groups and swarms are still present along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border while some swarms have moved into adjacent areas to the north.

3 February. Three hot-spots of threatening locust activity
Current situation.

28 January. Locusts will increase further as a new generation of breeding starts in the Horn of Africa

The current Desert Locust situation remains extremely alarming and represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in the Horn of Africa. This will be further exacerbated by new breeding that has commenced, which will cause more locust infestations.

Kenya. Immature swarms continue to arrive in the northeast and move throughout northern and central areas, having invaded 13 counties to date. Some swarms have started to lay eggs that will hatch in early February and new swarms could start to form by early April in northern counties. Although a few swarms have reached the Rift Valley, they are likely to remain in northern areas. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress but need upscaling. Further movements are expected in Turkana and central counties.

Ethiopia. Swarms continue to be present throughout eastern areas, including the Ogaden, while some continue to move to the south and into the Rift Valley. Another generation of breeding will increase locust numbers further. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress but need upscaling.

Somalia. In the northeast, hopper bands are present and swarms are laying eggs where hatching and further hopper band formation are imminent. Other swarms have been reported in the south near the Kenya border.

South Sudan and Uganda. As the nearest swarms are about 200 km away in Kenya, a few of these could appear at any time in the coming days in the extreme southeast of South Sudan and, to a lesser extent, in northeast Uganda.

In addition to the Horn of Africa, there are several other hot spots where important Desert Locust infestations are developing.

Djibouti. A few swarms were reported near Ali Sabieh and the Ethiopian border. More details are awaited.

Eritrea. Ground control operations are underway against hopper groups that are fledging and forming adult groups on the northern and central coast. At least one swarm arrived on the southern coast near Assab on the 20th either from Yemen or Ethiopia.

Sudan. Locust infestations are increasing on the Red Sea coast where hopper bands have formed and mature swarms are laying eggs. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress.

Oman. Ground control operations continue against hopper bands and several swarms in the northeast. A few small swarms migrated southwards along the eastern coast, reaching Salalah.

Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Hopper bands have formed along Red Sea coastal plains from Jeddah to Hodeidah, many of which have fledged and formed immature groups of adults that are maturing. Immature swarms formed in Yemen on the coast and some moved into the highlands. Another generation of breeding will cause locust numbers to increase further. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress in Saudi Arabia while limited ground control has been carried out in Yemen.

Iran. Swarm breeding is thought to be underway along parts of the southern coast.

India/Pakistan. Control operations continue against residual summer-bred swarms along both sides of the border.

28 January. Locusts will increase further as a new generation of breeding starts in the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

20 January. Large and numerous swarms continue to threaten the Horn of Africa

The current Desert Locust situation is extremely alarming and represents an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in the Horn of Africa. In addition, important locust situations continue to develop along both sides of the Red Sea, in Oman and in southern Iran.

Kenya. Immature and maturing swarms continue to arrive in the northeast from Ethiopia and Somalia and are moving throughout northern areas in Mandera, Wajir and Marsabit counties and have reached central areas of Isiolo, Meru North and northern Laikipia. Some swarms in the north have moved back into southern Ethiopia while others are now mature and laying eggs that will hatch after about two weeks, giving rise to hopper bands in February and March. Today, a swarm reached the southern Rift Valley near Kapedo on the border of Baringo and Turkana counties. Aerial and ground control operations are in progress in some areas. Further movements are expected, especially in Turkana and Marsabit counties.

Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue against immature swarms in Somali and South Oromiya regions. Some swarms are maturing while others are moving south and west into the southern parts of the country with at least one swarm reaching the edge of the Rift Valley in Southern Nations Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR). Some 6 000 ha were treated by air so far this month.

Somalia. Control operations are in progress in the northeast (Puntland) while maturing swarms continued to move southwards in central and southern areas. Some swarms were seen laying eggs in the south adjacent to northeast Kenya. Survey and control operations are limited by insecurity.

South Sudan. There remains a high risk of a few swarms appearing at any time in the southeast (Kapoeta East and Ilemi Triangle) coming from adjacent areas of NW Kenya, flying north through the Rift Valley or northwest from Marsabit county. They may transit through the area to the Rift Valley in southwest Ethiopia.

Uganda. There remains a moderate risk of a few swarms appearing at any time in the northeast from adjacent areas of NW Kenya until about the end of January.

Red Sea. Breeding is in progress and hopper groups and bands are present on the northern coast in Sudan, southern coast in Saudi Arabia, and on the coast of Eritrea and Yemen. Mature swarms are laying eggs on the Sudan/Eritrea border while adult groups have formed in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, some of which are laying eggs. So far this month, ground and aerial control operations treated nearly 23 000 ha in Saudi Arabia and almost 7 000 ha in Sudan.

Oman. Breeding is in progress on the northeast coast where hopper bands have formed. Ground teams treated more than 1 300 ha so far this month. Several immature and maturing swarms are moving south along the coast and reached Salalah. These may continue to Yemen and perhaps reach the Horn of Africa.

Southwest Asia. A few residual immature swarms persist along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where control operations are in progress. Adults and swarms were reported to be breeding along parts of the southern coast where heavy rains and flooding occurred earlier this month.

20 January. Large and numerous swarms continue to threaten the Horn of Africa
Current situation.

13 January. Numerous and very large swarms pose an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in Horn of Africa

In the Horn of Africa, there has been a significant and extremely dangerous increase in swarm activity during the past week in Kenya where numerous, large immature swarms are spreading from the initial invasion areas of the northeast (Mandera county) south to Wajir and Garissa, west along the Ethiopian border (Moyale and Marsabit counties) and southwest into central areas north of Mt Kenya (Isiolo, Samburu, Meru and most recently Laikipia counties). One immature swarm was 60 km long by 40 km wide in the northeast. More swarms are expected to occur in these areas, some of which are already moving north of Mt. Kenya westwards to the Rift Valley (Baringo county) where they could continue northwest to Turkana county, while others will move west along the Ethiopian border, and some swarms could move further south to Tana River county. Some swarms may reach northeast Uganda and southeast South Sudan. In all areas, there is an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods. In the northeast, some swarms have started to mature, which means that egg-laying could be imminent in open areas of sandy moist soil where eggs would hatch after about two weeks and give rise to numerous hopper bands in February.

In Ethiopia, immature swarms continue to form and move in the eastern regions of Harar (East Harerghe) and Somali (Jijjiga and Warder, Kebridehar, Gode in the Ogaden). Immature swarms are also present further south in Oromiya (Bale) and in the past days on the edge of the Rift Valley (Borena) near Teltele and Yabello. Some swarms have started to mature in the Gode area. More swarms are expected to appear in the southern parts of Oromiya and Somali regions and in the southwest region of SNNPR (South Omo) where they are likely to mature and lay eggs.

In Somalia, mature swarms are present in the Garbahare area near Mandera, Kenya.

Limited ground and aerial control operations are in progress in Ethiopia where 3 700 ha have been treated so far in January, and in parts of Kenya by DLCO-EA, national and county agencies and the private sector. So far, survey and control operations have not been mounted in central and southern Somalia due to insecurity. Aerial control efforts need to be urgently and very quickly upscaled in all countries.

In southwest Asia, swarms continue to be present on both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border but numbers are declining due to control operations and migration to the southern Iran where swarms that already reached the southeast have matured and laid eggs. In the past few days, unusually heavy rains fell in southeast Iran, causing flooding and loss of life. On the southeast coast near Chabahar, more rain fell in a day and half than what normally falls during the entire year. Once floodwaters recede, ecological conditions will be favourable for several months of breeding that is expected to cause a significant increase in locusts by spring.

Important breeding continues in the winter breeding areas along the coastal plains of the Red Sea where control operations are in progress against hopper groups, bands and adult groups in Saudi Arabia (8 000 ha), Eritrea (3 500 ha), Sudan (1 800 ha) and Yemen (1 080 ha).

13 January. Numerous and very large swarms pose an unprecedented threat to food security and livelihoods in Horn of Africa
Current situation.

6 January. Dangerous situation in Horn of Africa and threatening along both sides of the Red Sea

The Desert Locust situation remains extremely serious in the Horn of Africa where it threatens pastures and crops in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. Numerous swarms have formed in eastern Ethiopia and adjacent areas of northern Somalia. A number of large immature swarms moved south in the Ogaden of eastern Ethiopia and adjacent areas of central Somalia and reached southern Somalia, southeast Ethiopia and, on 28 December, northeast Kenya. There is a risk that some swarms could appear in northeast Uganda, southeast South Sudan and southwest Ethiopia. Ground and aerial control operations continue in Ethiopia and aerial operations started in Kenya on 6 January. Insecurity and a lack of national capacity have so far not allowed control operations in Somalia. During January, swarms will mature and lay eggs in the Ogaden and north central Somalia that will hatch and cause numerous hopper bands to form. There is a low risk of breeding in Kenya.

A potentially threatening situation is developing along both sides of the Red Sea where ongoing breeding is causing locust numbers to increase on the coasts of Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Widespread laying and hatching occurred in Saudi Arabia and gave rise to numerous hopper groups and bands, and a few immature swarms moved into the interior in late December. Hopper bands and swarms are also forming on the Red Sea coast in Yemen. More swarms are likely to form in both countries later this month. In Sudan, hopper bands are forming on the northern coast near Egypt and new swarms could form later in January. Breeding in adjacent areas of southeast Egypt is likely to cause groups to form. A second generation of breeding is in progress and will continue on the central and northern coast of Eritrea where hoppers are forming groups, which could lead to hopper bands. Control operations are in progress in all affected countries.

In northeast Oman, ground control operations are in progress against hopper bands that formed near the coast.

In South-West Asia, intensive control operations continue along both sides of the Indo-Pakistan border where numerous swarms formed. As summer breeding has ended and conditions are drying out, any remaining swarms that are not detected or treated will move west to southern Iran in the coming days and weeks. If temperatures remain warm in southern Iran, egg-laying could occur in areas that received unusually heavy rains last month that will cause hopper bands to form.

The situation remains calm in West and Northwest Africa.

6 January. Dangerous situation in Horn of Africa and threatening along both sides of the Red Sea
Current situation.