|Question 1 [ICAM]:
Is an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) a suitable strategy
for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastline?
If time permits, we welcome your views.
In answer to your question, in theory, I feel -yes absolutely ICAM
would be the ideal way to address rehabilitation in tsunami affected
areas. But in practice, this may not be so easy and this stems from
my experiences in Sri Lanka. Though some have expressed community
involvement and so forth which I certainly do feel in very important,
my view is that the integration and linkages at the institutional
level and the governing bodies should be strengthened. A commitment
should be obtained at this level that they will work together to provide
an integrated framework as so many bodies are involved in this area
that we are talking about. Once this commitment is obtained then certainly
there is a need to get the community involved, otherwise the chances
of disillusioning the people at the community level is very great.
You have asked a very difficult question to answer. We spent three
years of research in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh looking at the
linkages between coastal development at the policy level and its impacts
on the livelihoods of the poor. I can say from that research that
ICZM has the potential to be a very powerful coastal development tool
but it is rarely applied in a way which addresses the needs of poor
people. It is better to appproach it from a sustainable coastal livelihoods
of integrated coastal development perspective. I would recommed you
read our working paper at http://www.ex.ac.uk/imm/WP2-Policy%2016-7-03.pdf
from the Sustainable Coastal Livelihoods project (see:
http://www.ex.ac.uk/imm/SCL.htm) where we have a range of working
papers and CLIPS on coastal development issues. Likewise we have worked
in post-disaster situations and the report "lessons from the Cyclone"
gives good directions on how to address a post-disaster situation
in the coast (see: http://www.ex.ac.uk/imm/Orissa%20Cyclone%20Report.pdf).
Which ever route you take it should be very participatory and poverty
focused as the poor are the people who are often left out of such
Chu Thai Hoanh:
1. Based on the definition of ICAM on the http://ioc.unesco.org/icam/default.htm,
"Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) is an interdisciplinary
activity where natural and social scientists, coastal managers and
policy makers, in the long-term focus on how to manage the diverse
problems of coastal areas." Therefore I am not sure that it is correct
when we say it is a "strategy"?
2. For rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastline,
ICAM is suitable, but may not be enough. Rehabilitation and reconstruction
in these areas requires a lot of investment at different levels from
different sources, from national to local budgets, but in particular
the private sector and donors. Therefore by the above definition,
only natural and social scientists, coastal managers and policy makers
are not enough. However, it may be important to keep the concept of
ICAM throughout the process, from planning to implementing and management
The project vision: "Co-management is a two-track approach that adopts
a strategy of formulating actions simultaneously at the community,
local and national scales. This strategy typically begins a national
coastal management initiative with demonstration projects at selected
sites that define and analyse the issues that must be addressed and
formulate new approaches to resolving them at small scale. The assumption
is that success will be replicated and eventually produce a coherent
and effective coastal management plan and decision-making procedures
that encompasses the nation as a whole".
What is lacking in our case is certainly a clear political will at
national level. What we are trying to do is, at the local level, to
lay down the basis for building up such a political will in the future.
This is a major condition for the support of numerous ICZM-like demonstration
activities developing right now at the local level but often isolated
from each other for they are lacking a clear political support and
framing that would enhance the dialogue between them and make them
elements of a whole national ICZM strategy.
I believe that an integrated approach is a suitable strategy for the
rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastlines.
However, a system must be in place through community participatory
approach to ensure prioritised areas can be focused. This is to ensure
issues can be addressed over a range of time scale within the constraints
of limited resources available.
In Bangladesh, ICZM/ICAM is conceived to address not only vulnerabilities
like tsunamis, climate change or cyclones but also to conserve fragile
ecosystem and above all to address new and/or alternative economic
opportunities. The key elements of the ICZM approach are: participation;
partnership; targeting; piloting and assessment. Through this we are
attempting participation of wide and varied stakeholders from community
to government in a partnership through a targeted approach encompassing
piloting and assessments. The Govt. of Bangladesh has adopted the
Coastal Zone Policy 2005. A coastal development strategy is at the
final stage of preparation. All these and other documents are on the
public domain and can be accessed through the website www.iczmpbangladesh.org.
We welcome both formal and informal networks. It is a good idea. Apart
from Bac Lieu group network, there exists another informal network
through get-togethers at 'Coastal Zone Asia-Pacific Conferences' held
every two years. The First conference was held in Bangkok in 2002,
the second one in Brisbane, Australia in 2004 and the third one is
scheduled in Indonesia in 2006. The SAARC Coastal Zone Management
Centre has just been inaugurated in June 2005.
Coastal Zone Management with all its components could be a suitable
approach concerning implementation of sustainable rehabilitation and
reconstruction measures. To achieve this, there is now a chance to
coordinate various programmes and combine efforts and funds.
Absolutely ICAM provides a community-based multi-disciplinary framework
for rehabilitating and reconstructing tsunami-affected areas that
- provide strategies that guide present and future resource use
- protect valuable natural and socio-cultural resources,
- resolve conflicts over resource use,
- protect public safety,
- enhance public access to the coast, and
- stimulate sustainable economic development and investment
Expertise: Integrated coastal zone management involving community as key stakeholders. Worked particularly on mangrove forest management along East coast of India and developing guidelines for mangrove rehabilitation after Tsunami in Andaman and Nicobar islands and right now in Maldives working on forestry assessment work.
Paul van Zwieten:
I have not much to say as I don't feel qualified to answer it. Perhaps
it is interesting that we are presently preparing a research proposal
[RESCOPAR] to be funded through Wageningen University INREF program
that has some bearing on what is being discussed. [to read more on
the RESCOPAR programme (Rebuilding resilience
of coastal populations and aquatic resources: habitats,
biodiversity and sustainable use options) please click