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The FORUM:

Question 1 [ICAM]:
Is an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) a suitable strategy for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastline? If time permits, we welcome your views.


Sithara Atapattu:
In answer to your question, in theory, I feel -yes absolutely ICAM would be the ideal way to address rehabilitation in tsunami affected areas. But in practice, this may not be so easy and this stems from my experiences in Sri Lanka. Though some have expressed community involvement and so forth which I certainly do feel in very important, my view is that the integration and linkages at the institutional level and the governing bodies should be strengthened. A commitment should be obtained at this level that they will work together to provide an integrated framework as so many bodies are involved in this area that we are talking about. Once this commitment is obtained then certainly there is a need to get the community involved, otherwise the chances of disillusioning the people at the community level is very great.


Jock Campbell:
You have asked a very difficult question to answer. We spent three years of research in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh looking at the linkages between coastal development at the policy level and its impacts on the livelihoods of the poor. I can say from that research that ICZM has the potential to be a very powerful coastal development tool but it is rarely applied in a way which addresses the needs of poor people. It is better to appproach it from a sustainable coastal livelihoods of integrated coastal development perspective. I would recommed you read our working paper at http://www.ex.ac.uk/imm/WP2-Policy%2016-7-03.pdf from the Sustainable Coastal Livelihoods project (see: http://www.ex.ac.uk/imm/SCL.htm) where we have a range of working papers and CLIPS on coastal development issues. Likewise we have worked in post-disaster situations and the report "lessons from the Cyclone" gives good directions on how to address a post-disaster situation in the coast (see: http://www.ex.ac.uk/imm/Orissa%20Cyclone%20Report.pdf). Which ever route you take it should be very participatory and poverty focused as the poor are the people who are often left out of such processes.


Chu Thai Hoanh:
1. Based on the definition of ICAM on the http://ioc.unesco.org/icam/default.htm, "Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) is an interdisciplinary activity where natural and social scientists, coastal managers and policy makers, in the long-term focus on how to manage the diverse problems of coastal areas." Therefore I am not sure that it is correct when we say it is a "strategy"?

2. For rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastline, ICAM is suitable, but may not be enough. Rehabilitation and reconstruction in these areas requires a lot of investment at different levels from different sources, from national to local budgets, but in particular the private sector and donors. Therefore by the above definition, only natural and social scientists, coastal managers and policy makers are not enough. However, it may be important to keep the concept of ICAM throughout the process, from planning to implementing and management phases.


Yves Henocque:
The project vision: "Co-management is a two-track approach that adopts a strategy of formulating actions simultaneously at the community, local and national scales. This strategy typically begins a national coastal management initiative with demonstration projects at selected sites that define and analyse the issues that must be addressed and formulate new approaches to resolving them at small scale. The assumption is that success will be replicated and eventually produce a coherent and effective coastal management plan and decision-making procedures that encompasses the nation as a whole".
What is lacking in our case is certainly a clear political will at national level. What we are trying to do is, at the local level, to lay down the basis for building up such a political will in the future. This is a major condition for the support of numerous ICZM-like demonstration activities developing right now at the local level but often isolated from each other for they are lacking a clear political support and framing that would enhance the dialogue between them and make them elements of a whole national ICZM strategy.


Minh Long Nguyen:
I believe that an integrated approach is a suitable strategy for the rehabilitation and reconstruction of tsunami-affected coastlines. However, a system must be in place through community participatory approach to ensure prioritised areas can be focused. This is to ensure issues can be addressed over a range of time scale within the constraints of limited resources available.


M. Rafiqul Islam:
In Bangladesh, ICZM/ICAM is conceived to address not only vulnerabilities like tsunamis, climate change or cyclones but also to conserve fragile ecosystem and above all to address new and/or alternative economic opportunities. The key elements of the ICZM approach are: participation; partnership; targeting; piloting and assessment. Through this we are attempting participation of wide and varied stakeholders from community to government in a partnership through a targeted approach encompassing piloting and assessments. The Govt. of Bangladesh has adopted the Coastal Zone Policy 2005. A coastal development strategy is at the final stage of preparation. All these and other documents are on the public domain and can be accessed through the website www.iczmpbangladesh.org. We welcome both formal and informal networks. It is a good idea. Apart from Bac Lieu group network, there exists another informal network through get-togethers at 'Coastal Zone Asia-Pacific Conferences' held every two years. The First conference was held in Bangkok in 2002, the second one in Brisbane, Australia in 2004 and the third one is scheduled in Indonesia in 2006. The SAARC Coastal Zone Management Centre has just been inaugurated in June 2005.


Uwe Scholz:
Coastal Zone Management with all its components could be a suitable approach concerning implementation of sustainable rehabilitation and reconstruction measures. To achieve this, there is now a chance to coordinate various programmes and combine efforts and funds.


Brian Szuster:
Absolutely ICAM provides a community-based multi-disciplinary framework for rehabilitating and reconstructing tsunami-affected areas that can:
- provide strategies that guide present and future resource use
- protect valuable natural and socio-cultural resources,
- resolve conflicts over resource use,
- protect public safety,
- enhance public access to the coast, and
- stimulate sustainable economic development and investment


Ravishankar Thupalli:
Expertise: Integrated coastal zone management involving community as key stakeholders. Worked particularly on mangrove forest management along East coast of India and developing guidelines for mangrove rehabilitation after Tsunami in Andaman and Nicobar islands and right now in Maldives working on forestry assessment work.


Paul van Zwieten:
I have not much to say as I don't feel qualified to answer it. Perhaps it is interesting that we are presently preparing a research proposal [RESCOPAR] to be funded through Wageningen University INREF program that has some bearing on what is being discussed. [to read more on the RESCOPAR programme (Rebuilding resilience of coastal populations and aquatic resources: habitats, biodiversity and sustainable use options) please click here].

 contact: tsunami@fao.org © FAO, 2005