AGP - Weeds D - G
 

DIGITARIA SANGUINALIS (L.) Scop.

Family: Poaceae


Common names
: Crabgrass, Don Juan de Castilla, Pata de gallina.

Annual; culms usually much-branched at the base, sometimes as much as 1 m long.

Leaves thin, acuminate, 5-10 x 0.5-1 cm. Spikes ascending or spreading, 4-15 cm long in 1 or 2 whorls; spikelets about 3 mm long.

It reproduces by seeds and flowers all the year in hot climatic areas.

It is a plastic plant able to grow in cool and hot climatic conditions. It is widely distributed in the temperate zone and in all warm countries. D. sanguinalis grows better in irrigated areas, waste places and cultivated grounds.

Countries: Brazil, Bangladesh, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Iran, Korea (South), Lebanon, Philippines


ECLIPTA PROSTRATA (L.) 

Family: Asteraceae

Synonyms: Eclipta alba (L.) Hassk., Eclipta erecta L., Verbesina alba L.

Common names: False daisy, botón de oro, botoncillo, Herbé à l'encre

A decumbent or erect annual herb, 30-50 cm high covered with short hairs and small white flower heads. The stem is reddish and fleshy, leaves opposite, acute up to 10 cm. Inflorescence flower heads of 1 cm diameter. The fruit is an achene light brown covere with small warts.

The plant is one of the most common weeds in lowland rice, irrigated areas, drainage canals and poorly drained soils of tropical and sub-tropical countries. E. prostrata propagates via seeds. The weed is normally controlled by conventional procedures, such as rotation with crops tolerant to semidry conditions; stale seedbed preparation and use of herbicides.

Phenoxyacetic herbicides are effectively used in rice for the control of E. prostrata.

Countries: China, Congo (Democratic), Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam


FIMBRISTYLIS LITTORALIS Gaudet

Family: Cyperaceae

Synonyms: Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl.

An erect, annual tufted sedge that grows 20-60 cm high. The stem is flattened at the base, strongly 4-5 angled at the top, flowering stem 0.6-1.5 mm thick bearing 2-4 unequal bracts shorter than the inflorescence. Basal leaves have broadly overlapping leaf sheaths up to 35 mm long, 1-2.5 mm wide; stem leaves have very short blades. The inflorescence is a rather diffuse umbel, 6-10 cm long, 2.5-8 cm wide, spikelets numerous, solitary brown or straw-coloured, 2-2.5 mm in diameter. The fruit is a pale ivory to brown achene, 3-angled, 0.5-1 mm long, 0.75 mm wide, three heavy ridges on each side.

This weed is propagated by seed. F. littoralis is well adapted to moist soils and areas of occasional flooding. It does not establish in submerged soils. It is a very common weed in rice fields all over the world in hot climatic rice-producing countries.

This weed is very competitive with rice once established. Therefore its control should be based in eliminating it in its early growth stages. A possibility is the post-emergence use of 2,4 D.

Countries: Guyana, Nepal, Pakistan


FUMARIA OFFICINALIS (L.)

Family: Fumariaceae

Common names: Fumitory beggary

An erect, slender and branching herbaceous, stem smooth and green up to 50-70 cm tall. Leaves dissected and divided into linear and alternate leaflets up to 8 cm long.

Inflorescence multiflowered racemes with pink flowers. The fruit is a capsule bearing a single seed brown colour. It is a self-fertile plant. F. officinalis reproduces via seeds.

It is a typical plant of temperate climate, it grows well in light textured soils. F. officinalis resists also well low temperatures for a while. It is a common weed in cereals, sugar beet, flax, vegetables, vineyards, and widely spread in Europe, North America, China, Southern Africa, South America and Australia.

Countries: Cyprus, Morocco


GALINSOGA PARVIFLORA Cav.

Family: Asteraceae

Synonym: Galinsoga ciliata (Raf.)Blake

A branched, small annual plant up to 35-40 cm high. Leaves opposite, lanceolate, up to about 2.5 cm long, to about 1 cm wide, softly haired. Heads small 5- 7 mm long, solitary terminal and on axillary peduncles with usually two opposite bracts on each peduncle. Ray florets white 2-3 lobed, small and disc florets tubular yellow. Achenes pubescent, black. It reproduces via seeds.

G. parviflora is common cereals and several other annual crops. A common plant in Eurasia and other areas with soft climatic conditions. It may be found in highland 1000 m above the sea level.

The weed is controlled by post-emergence applications of phenoxy-hormone herbicides in cereals.

Countries: Brazil, Eritrea, Nepal, Uganda

 

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