AGP - Gestión de plagas y de plaguicidas
 

 

Strengthening the capacity of countries along the Belt and Road Initiative on pesticide risk management

From 26-28 February 2019, China hosted an international workshop on pesticide risk management with an agroecological based Integrated Pest Management approach. The workshop took place in Shanghai and was jointly organized by FAO and China through the global capacity development project under the FAO-China South-South Cooperation (SSC) Programme, More than 30 participants from 11 countries including: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Colombia, Egypt, Kyrgyzstan, Myanmar, Nigeria, Thailand, Uganda, Ukraine and China attended the meeting.

The workshop gave a platform for fruitful exchange of information among the countries on subjects such as regulations, new technologies and experience on pesticide risk management and integrated pest management. Countries actively engaged in discussions to identify gaps, challenges and further steps in pesticide risk management and the reduction of pesticide residue in the food supply chain. The workshop helped countries to enhance discussions on closer collaboration and identification of further steps to address pesticide risk reduction. Officials from the FAO-China SSC Programme, FAO’s Plant production and Protection Division and Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (MARA) were actively involved in the discussions on the pesticide risk management policies and technologies.

One of the main outcomes of the meeting is finalization of a Concept Note for a regional project in Asia aimed to strengthen the capacity of pesticide lifecycle management in the countries under FAO-China SSC Programme.  The project will assist participating countries to increase their capacity in the area of lifecycle management of pesticides and helping to improve implementation of the FAO/WHO International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management. During the workshop, it was highlighted that pesticides is still a key element in plant production in many countries, and thus pesticide management is highly important to ensure a sustainable higher productivity  to promote sustainable agricultural development towards eliminating hunger. The work on pesticide management is high priority for FAO in order to achieve strategic objectives on making agriculture more sustainable and productive and enable more inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems.  

 

FAO/China cooperation

China has been one of the most active participants, major promoters and generous contributors of FAO’s SSC. Since 2009, China has contributed USD 80 million to FAO and established the FAO-China SSC Trust Fund, which was a milestone in the FAO-China partnership development and promoted the cooperation to a new level. Up to 2019, China has exchanged over 1 000 experts and technicians to 37 countries in the world since the establishment of the FAO-China SSC Programme.

 

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FAO, WHO and UN Environment experts meet in Rome to discuss international issues regarding pesticide management

JMPM, Oct 2018

The 11th FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Management (JMPM) was held in Rome, Italy, at the FAO Headquarters on 9-12 October 2018, gathering international pesticide experts from FAO, the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment (UN Environment), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and observers from the civil society and pesticide industry. All JMPM participants also joined a UN Environment consultative meeting on the preparation of a report on the environmental and health impacts of pesticides and fertilizers and ways of minimizing them, together with additional experts on pesticides and fertilizers invited by UN Environment.

A number of new technical guidelines complementing the FAO/WHO International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management (the Code) were reviewed by the JMPM, in particular on the topics of: personal protection when handling and applying pesticides; household pesticides; inspection of pesticide importers, producers, distributors and retailers; and licensing of pesticide distributors and retailers. The need for revising existing guidelines was also discussed in the meeting, in particular the guidelines on monitoring and observance of the Code, guidelines on data requirements for the registration of pesticides, guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides, and guidelines on good practice for aerial application of pesticides.  The meeting agreed to consider cross-cutting issues when developing or revising guidelines, such as climate change, gender, risk communication, awareness (“right to comprehend”), low risk management options (IVM, IPM, agroecology, etc.), illegal and counterfeit pesticides, nanomaterials/nano pesticides, etc.

The meeting was informed of activities on biological pesticides by governments, industry and NGOs, in particular in light of the recently published FAO/WHO guidelines and of the development of guidelines for fast track registration of biopesticides for fall army worm. Experts exchanged views on new and emerging issues of interest for international pesticide management such as antimicrobial resistance, consideration of chronic toxicity (e.g. reproductive toxicity) into labelling, proposal for a new programme on pesticide compliance and enforcement, and addressing risks during pesticide phase-out.  The JMPM recommended starting the process for revising the Code to take into account recent developments and making sure this voluntary framework is still up to date and reflects current international policies.

The meeting recommended that UN Environment be invited to join the JMPM as a full member for pesticide management activities. This is very important in order to fully consider the environmental aspects in pesticide management that would complement the perspective provided by FAO on agricultural policies and WHO on public health pesticide management.

The JMPM serves an advisory body to FAO and WHO and the JMPM panel members and observers play a key role in supporting the implementation of the Code of Conduct thus contributing to more sustainable practices in agriculture and in public health.

 

 

   

Joint FAO/WHO meeting on Pesticide Residues

The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) is currently underway at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Berlin, Germany. Dr Roland Solecki, Head of the Department of Pesticides Safety of the Federal Institute hosting the event, highlighted the importance of JMPR’s work in supporting the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) with scientific advice. He also noted its valuable contribution to enhancing collaboration between national and international organizations to assess the risk of pesticide residues in foods.

This is the first time the JMPR meeting has been hosted by a national government authority. This arrangement aims to further strengthen the relationship between the international scientific advisory body and the competent authorities of Codex Member Countries, whose experts are critical to the work of JMPR.

This year’s meeting, which runs from 18 to 27 September, brings together about 50 experts from around the world to evaluate the safety of more than 30 compounds and recommend maximum residue levels for consideration by the 51st session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) in 2019. The conclusions drawn during this meeting will be published on the FAO and WHO websites.

JMPR is an international expert scientific group administered jointly by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO). It is one of the oldest scientific bodies supporting Codex in establishing maximum residue levels for pesticides in food and feed. To date, CCPR has developed over 5200 Codex MRLs based on JMPR evaluations

Read more on the FAO website and the WHO website.

Consult the JMPR database online

FAO aims to strengthen pesticide regulation in Europe and Central Asia

The intensification of agricultural production and the effects of climate change have increased the pressure on crops from pests and diseases.

According to recent estimates, annual losses caused by insects, weeds, and diseases are around 20–40 percent, a range similar to levels registered 50 years ago. 
Although pesticides play an important role in reducing crop losses, if misused they may have serious negative effects on human health and the environment.
The proper management of pesticides is the focus of a two-day FAO regional training event that started today in Chisinau.
The workshop has gathered more than 20 specialists from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Republic of Moldova, Tajikistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan to discuss and analyse the benefits of FAO’s pesticide registration toolkit in order to complement and strengthen the existing national pesticide registration procedures.... [more]

   

FAO paves the way towards mainstreaming ecosystems services and biodiversity into agriculture

25-26 May 2016, NairobiBiodiversity and ecosystem services are at the heart of many solutions to sustainable increase in agricultural productivity.  They not only deliver better outcomes for food and nutrition security but also reduce negative environmental externalities of production.

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) and the Nature Conservancy (TNC) organized a regional policy dialogue on the role of ecosystem services and biodiversity in agricultural production.  This came close to the heels of this year’s International Day for Biological Diversity (22 May) and within the context of the United Nation’s Environment Assembly in Nairobi (23-27 May) whose overarching theme was  Delivering on the environmental dimension of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

The event – organized under the EU-funded project “Capacity Building related to Multilateral Environmental Agreements in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) Countries Phase 2 (ACP/MEAs 2)” and the FAO Programme on “Incentives for Ecosystem Services in agriculture (IES) ” - brought together some sixty key national and regional stakeholders, including representatives from the Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, the Pest Control Products Board, Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization, non-governmental organizations and research institutions. 

The meeting was officially opened by Robert Allport, FAO Kenya’s acting Representative. He emphasized the relevance of the meeting towards achieving a sustainable approach to agriculture, “ that recognizes and rewards the vital role that other elements of the ecosystem – from broad water catchments to pollinators and earth worms – provide to both local agricultural systems and to other sectors of society, through reduced soil erosion, clean water, biodiversity protection and carbon sequestration.”

Ecosystem based solutions that benefit production and beyond

Approaches that can address both the negative externalities of conventional production systems and assist resource-poor farmers in overcoming sustainability challenges have a central common thread: they recognize that agriculture and food systems are biological and social systems. They can be designed to build upon and harness the forces of biodiversity and ecosystem services to underpin sustainable agricultural production - soil fertility, natural pest and weed control, pollination, water retention – so that these are optimized and encouraged.

The Executive Secretary of the Convention on Biological Diversity Dr. Braulio Dias pointed out the need to build agricultural landscapes and food systems able to face, and to be more resilient to increasingly frequent extreme weather events.  He highlighted that a key strategy that should be promoted to achieve this goal is sustainable ecological intensification of agriculture, which includes reduced reliance on agrochemicals for increasing and improving yields, and instead, reliance on ecosystem services and biodiversity.

Supporting the integration of agricultural issues in the National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)

The two-day workshop revolved around a newly released technical guidance document by FAO and the CBD which aims to mainstream biodiversity and ecosystem services into country National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs), towards achieving the Aichi Biodiversity Targets. The document has been prepared as part of FAO’s Major Area of Work on Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity (MAW-ESB), whose goal is to demonstrate the importance of Integrated Landscape Management in the protection and enhancement of ecosystem and biodiversity for Sustainable Food and Agriculture.

The guidance document provides insights on the Aichi Biodiversity Targets, and their relevance to agriculture. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets  are form the core of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 as an overarching framework on biodiversity for the entire United Nations system and all other partners engaged in biodiversity management and policy development. The guidance document comprises seven technical papers from leading experts on managing ecosystem services and biodiversity to reduce the use of agrochemicals, focusing on natural pest control; water; soil; pollination; indigenous knowledge; crop-livestock integration and weed management. The document also includes a section on policy measures, from Kenya and other regions of the world, that offer examples of entry points for harnessing synergies between sound chemical management and biodiversity conservation.

The identification of key contributions of ecosystem services and biodiversity to Kenya’s agricultural sector was instrumental in the deliberations held.  Kenya’s NBSAP revision is scheduled to start later in 2016.  Recommendations towards mainstreaming an ecosystem-based approach to the country’s agriculture were gathered during the meeting.  Other examples of initiatives that assist farmers in overcoming adoption barriers to best practices, by linking them with public and private initiatives were also shared. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda showed examples of collaboration between research, environment, agriculture development and private sector companies. These examples of Incentives for Ecosystem Services (IES) from agriculture reveal that there are abundant resources available to offer farmers an integrated support package, capable of supporting a lasting transition to sustainable agriculture.

In a bid to improve coherence in these investments, an ecosystem services and biodiversity mainstreaming task-force was assembled from the Kenyan participating institutions. FAO Kenya will reconvene the task-force in the coming weeks to further define the work plan and joint fund-raising priorities that will enable them to better bridge the gaps between environment, food security and better rural livelihoods.

Related Links:

FAO Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity portal: www.fao.org/ecosystem-services-biodiversity

Contacts:
Livia Loy Donà, Operations and Communications Consultant (AGPM)
Email: Livia.LoyDona@fao.org

Ruth Njeng’ere – Communications Officer
Email: ruth.lehmann@fao.org

Road mapping pesticide risk reduction for the Pacific region

12 August 2014, Rarotonga, Cook Islands - Mrs Topou Heather, family farmer, produces various vegetables and fruits for market.

In the Pacific Island countries and territories, the consequences of the rising use of chemical pesticides, including but not limited to misuse, are a threat to the health of both humans and ecosystems. Adverse impacts range from contamination of the natural resources to increased incidence of pesticide poisoning cases. Of particular concern is the use of Highly Hazardous Pesticides (HHPs), and the overall poor management of pesticide products from their point of entry into the country, through to their use, and until their end of life

For reducing such risks, key stakeholders from 12 Pacific Island countries and territories (Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Marshall Islands, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Kiribati and Papua New Guinea) gathered in Suva, Fiji from the 10 to 12 September 2014 for an inception workshop.

The objective of the workshop was to foster the integration between the agriculture and biodiversity sectors to strengthen capacity for the sustainable intensification of crop production.

The workshop led to the development of an action plan to address the following regional priorities: 

  • The harmonization of national pesticides legislation and registration systems
  • The piloting of a pesticides container management scheme;
  • The development of trainings and training materials on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), organic agriculture and ecosystem and biodiversity management;
  • The integration of agriculture into National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs) and addressing Aichi Targets 7, 13 and 14
  • The awareness raising and public education on pesticide risk reduction
  • The ratification and implementation of the Rotterdam Convention

To facilitate communication and information sharing among pesticides regulators the workshop participants agreed to the set up of a Pacific Pesticide Management Committee.

Additionally, one workshop day was dedicated to the Rotterdam Convention. It provided an opportunity for all participants (countries that have ratified the Convention as well as those that have not) to share their experiences for complying, ratifying and implementing the Convention whilst setting the stage for further collaboration.

The Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), which hosted the event, and the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment (SPREP), expressed their commitment in the work ahead to assist the Pacific Community in improving human and environmental health. 

The FAO-led workshop was supported by the EU funded programme “Capacity building related to Multilateral Environmental Agreements in ACP Countries - Phase II" (MEAs Phase II),  the objective of which is to support and strengthen institutional and national capacity-building for the synergistic implementation of the target MEA clusters.

MEAs are the international treaties and conventions on the environment. They address environmental issues of global concern in such areas as climate change, biological diversity, sound management of harmful chemicals and hazardous wastes, and coastal and marine environment among others. They include binding instruments as the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions and the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as voluntary instruments as the FAO/WHO International Code of Conduct on Pesticide Management and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) among others, providing a sound framework for pesticides and biodiversity management.

10 September 2014, Suva, Fiji – Workshop participants at the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC)

 

 

La FAO ayuda a la reducción de los riesgos producidos por los pesticidas en el Caribe

17 de junio, Bridgetown - Del 10 al 14 de junio, los delegados nacionales de 15 países del Caribe asistieron a la 18 ª Reunión del Grupo de Coordinación de las Juntas de Control de Plaguicidas del Caribe (CCGP) en Trinidad y Tobago, para decidir sobre las medidas para reducir los riesgos de los pesticidas.

En la ceremonia de apertura, el Jefe de la División de Control de Insectos Vectores del Ministerio de Salud de Trinidad y Tobago, el Dr. Clyde Teeluckdharry, dijo: "Tenemos que equilibrar los riesgos para los seres humanos, las plantas, los animales y el medio ambiente derivados de la presencia de pesticidas y productos químicos tóxicos con los beneficios para la sociedad, y esto sólo puede lograrse principalmente a través del desarrollo de un marco legislativo sólido y de la educación pública ".

La reunión del CCGP aprobó un plan de trabajo de 4 años que los expertos de la FAO ayudarán a facilitar. El plan cubre el establecimiento de sistemas regionales para evaluar y registrar los pesticidas y compartir información entre los países, la asistencia a los agricultores para encontrar los métodos más seguros para el control de plagas y enfermedades en los cultivos, ayudar a los países a hacer frente a los envases vacíos de plaguicidas, y la capacitación de los profesionales médicos para reconocer y tratar los casos de intoxicación por plaguicidas.

Con el apoyo financiero de la Unión Europea (UE), la FAO ha estado ayudando a los países del Caribe a hacer frente a las prioridades de gestión de plagas y plaguicidas, que incluya la eliminación segura de las existencias de plaguicidas obsoletos que han persistido en la región durante 30 años, la búsqueda de los métodos más seguros para el control de plagas en la agricultura y los hogares, la reducción de los riesgos de los pesticidas en el medio ambiente y la salud de las poblaciones locales y turistas, y la comunicación con los agricultores, los políticos y el público en general sobre los peligros de los plaguicidas y las acciones positivas que se pueden tomar.

Hasta el momento, con el apoyo de la FAO, los países del Caribe han localizado cerca de 300 toneladas de plaguicidas obsoletos que incluyen algunos de los productos químicos más peligrosos que han sido prohibidos internacionalmente, como la dieldrina y heptacloro. Esta información se utiliza para planificar una tabla rasa de la región con el fin de eliminar de forma segura todos los plaguicidas obsoletos existentes a un costo estimado de 2 millones USD.

En general, la FAO tiene la esperanza de movilizar aproximadamente 8 millones USD para apoyar este trabajo en el transcurso del programa, que se inició en 2009 y que continuará hasta 2017.

Para más información:

Vyjayanthi Lopez: Producción y protección vegetal de la Oficina Subregional de la FAO para el Caribe, Barbados Vyjayanthi.Lopez@fao.org

Mark Davis: Oficial Superior, Grupo de manejo de los Plaguicidas, sede de la FAO, Roma, Italia Mark.davis@fao.org

 

 

Reunión conjunta FAO/WHO en 2012 sobre Residuos de Pesticidas (JMPR)

La Reunión Conjunta Anual del Panel de Expertos de la FAO sobre Residuos de Plaguicidas en Alimentos y en el Ambiente y el Grupo Principal WHO de Evaluación de Residuos de Plaguicidas, se llevó a cabo en Roma, Italia, del 11 al 20 de septiembre de 2012. El Panel de Expertos de la FAO mantuvo sus Sesiones Preparatorias del 6 al 10 de septiembre.

La Reunión evaluó 31 plaguicidas, de los cuales siete eran compuestos nuevos y siete fueron reevaluados dentro del programa periódico de revisión del Comité del Codex sobre Residuos de Plaguicidas (CCPR). La Reunión estableció la ingestión diaria aceptable (ADI) y las dosis agudas de referencia (ARfD).

La Reunión estimó los niveles máximos de residuos, los cuales son recomendados para ser usados como límites máximos de residuos (LMR) por el CCPR. También estimó los residuos medios en los  ensayos supervisados (STMR) y los niveles más altos de residuos (HR) como base para la estimación del ingreso diario de residuos de los plaguicidas considerados en la dieta. La aplicación de los niveles más altos (HR) se explica en el Capítulo 7 (7.3.) del Manual de la FAO sobre la presentación y evaluación de datos de residuos de plaguicidas de NMR en alimentos y raciones (2009). El Informe JMPR de 2011 es disponible en el sitio web de la FAO: vea la página web del JMPR para descargar el Informe JMPR de 2012.

 

 

Globally, fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) are one of the most agriculturally important families of insects. About 70 species of fruit flies are considered important agricultural pests, causing very high losses every year. Fruit flies attack fruits of many important crops, including for example citrus, mango, apples, peaches, apricots as well as some vegetables (especially Cucurbitaceae), seed crops and also many wild plants. The major fruit fly genera present in Near East countries are Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Dacus and Rhagoletis....[more]

Manual de capacitación de la FAO sobre datos de residuos de pesticidas para la estimación de NMR en alimentos y raciones

Se ha preparado la edición de prueba del Manual de capacitación de la FAO sobre datos de residuos de plaguicidas para la estimación de NMR en alimentos y raciones y está disponible en el sitio web de la FAO.

El contenido de este Manual comprende las secciones de una evaluación típica de residuos, procesamiento de alimentos y exposición de los consumidores a los residuos.

Los capítulos del Manual de Capacitación incluyen específicamente el objetivo de cada etapa particular del proceso de evaluación, hacen referencia a los capítulos y secciones relevantes del manual de la FAO, explican el proceso con ejemplos prácticos ilustrando los procedimientos corrientes y dan ejemplos para casos difíciles que requieren consideraciones especiales. Los estudios de caso para los participantes se diseñaron como ejercicios a ser llevados a cabo bajo la orientación de los capacitadores.

Presione aquí para acceder a la página web para descargar el Manual de capacitación.

 

Regional Training workshops on pesticide residue risk assessment and Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) setting in Brazil and Ghana

In collaboration with the Foreign Agricultural Service, United States Department of Agriculture, AGPMC held two regional training workshops on pesticide residue risk assessment and standard setting in Brazil and Ghana. 

The workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean was held in San Paulo, Brazil, from 16 to 20 May 2011. Twenty-one participants from twelve countries attended this training workshop. Participants came from Argentina, Belize, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Panama, Peru and Uruguay.

The training for the Africa region was held in Accra, Ghana, from 6 to 10 June 2011, and twenty-two participants attended it. Participants came from Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda and Zambia. [more]

 

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Core Themes