Desert Locust (DL) campaign 2003-2005
Quality control of the remaining stocks of pesticides formulations In Desert Locust affected countries
During the DL campaign, 2004-2005, the FAO Emergency Centre for Locust Operations (ECLO) worked in close cooperation with National Desert Locust Units and FAO Representations in Desert Locust affected countries, to coordinate planning, purchase and delivery of pesticides. The key aims of the collaboration were to ensure adequate and timely supply of pesticides while avoiding oversupply that would lead to the creation of large standing stocks after the campaign. despite these efforts, the quantity of remaining pesticide stocks, after DL campaign 2003-2005, was estimated at 8,000,000 litres in 13 countries including 6,000,000 litres in North Africa countries, and ca. 2,000,000 litres in Sahel and western African countries. These stocks are temporarily stored under good conditions in each country.
Determining the quality of the formulations in stock is a crucial first step in identifying which products can continue to be used and which need to be taken out of use. In this regard, FAO selected an accredited laboratory, Walloon Agricultural research Centre (CRA-W), Pesticides Research Department, to undertake pesticide quality control in 13 African countries. FAO, in collaboration with CropLife International, organized a training session on sampling of different pesticides formulations and developed a regional strategy.
Since April 2007, CRA-W, Pesticides Research Department has analysed 258 samples of pesticide formulations including 83 samples from Mauritania (66 chlorpyrifos UL, 2 chlorpyrifos EC, 1 malathion UL, 2 malathion EC, 1 fenitrothion EC, 1 diflubenzuron OF), 89 samples from Mali (22 chlorpyrifos UL, 12 deltamethrine UL, 8 diflubenzuron OF, 1 fenitrothion UL, 45 fenitrothion + esfenvalerate, 1malathion UL), 86 Samples from Senegal (78 chlorpyrifos UL, 3 malathion UL, 4 fenitrothion UL and 1 diflubenzuron OF) and 16 samples from Niger (6 chlorpyrifos UL, 2 Tralomethrin UL, 3 deltamethrin UL, 5 Lamdacyhalothrine EC).
The quality control was done against FAO specifications and their recommended methods of analysis. More specifically, the samples were analysed to determine the content of the active ingredient, before and after an accelerated storage stability test (14 days at 540C) as well as the content of relevant impurities. The emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations were analyzed for their emulsion stability and re-emulsification.
Of which 258 samples analyzed, from 4 countries, 29% did not conform to FAO specifications. The non- compliance rate distribution by active ingredient is: 26% for chlorpyrifos, 33% for deltamethrin, 50% for diflubenzuron, 67% for fentrothion and 100 % for malathion. All samples of fenitrothion + esfenvalerate conformed to FAO specifications.
For these 4 countries, the CRA-W has recommended that the non –compliant products should not be used and should be eliminated under safe conditions. CRA-W further recommends that those products still in conformity with FAO specifications may be safely used up to the end of 2009, if kept under appropriate storage conditions.
For better management of the remaining stocks in Desert Locust affected countries, FAO has developed a Pesticide Stock Management System (PSMS), compiling relevant information, along the pesticide life-cycle, from the point of import or formulation to the management of empty containers, including quality control of current stocks.
-These results are produced under the Contract FAO/FO N0. TF/RAF/CPA192319-2006/TCO
-Acknowledgement: this contract was possible with contributions from the government of Nederland, Japan, US AID and African development Bank