AGP - Reports/Publications
 

 

Reports and Publications

 

Reunión Regional sobre alternativas para la sustitución del uso de bromuro de metilo en la agricultura, Caracas, Venezuela 26 al 29 de mayo de 1998

El bromuro de metilo es un fumigante de amplio espectro de acción sobre diversas plagas, que se ha venido aplicando desde hace años en gran parte del mundo. Anualmente se utilizan unas 76 000 toneladas, del cual el 43% corresponde a EE.UU., un 24% en Europa, una cifra similar en Asia, mientras que el consumo entre América Latina y Africa no rebasa el 9 % del total. No obstante, varios países latinoamericanos son grandes productores y exportadores de algunos frutos a mercados de NorteAmérica y Europa, por lo que utilizan altas cantidades de bromuro de metilo, sea para tratamiento de suelo en las áreas de cultivo como a las producciones a la hora de su exportación. [more]

 

Taller "Solarización del Suelo": Escuela Agrícola Panamericana "El Zamorano", Honduras, 18-21 de septiembre 1995

La solarización del suelo es un método no convencional de control de plagas del suelo, el cual utiliza la radiación solar con el fin de aniquilar varios organismos nocivos en el suelo, tales como hongos, larvas de insectos, nemátodos y semillas de malezas. El método desarrollado en Israel y dado a conocer en los años de la década del 70, se ha venido aplicando cada vez más en el control de plagas de suelo en semilleros, viveros y otros cultivos de campo. El método como tal es
técnicamente efectivo, económicamente factible en determinadas áreas y condiciones, y ambientalmente compatible. [more]

 

Global Report on validated alternatives to the use of methyl bromide for soil fumigation. 2001.

Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a fumigant used to control arthropods, nematodes, pathogens and weed seeds in soil in several crops, such as tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, tobacco, strawberries, ornamentals and other crops. Some years ago it was discovered that this fumigant is a strong chemical depleting the Earth's ozone
layer. Its ozone depletion potential is 0.4, i.e. higher than the admissible threshold of 0.2. In addition, it is also known that bromine released by MeBr is 40 times more aggressive than chlorine in breaking down ozone on a per atom basis. [more]

 

Report on “Training of trainers for alternatives to the use of methyl bromide for soil fumigation in Brazil and Kenya”. 2001.

The phase out of Methyl Bromide (MeBr) is a priority for environment protection. This fumigant, widely used in agriculture, causes the destruction of the planet’s
protective layer of ozone in the stratosphere and harms also indirectly the environment and human health by increasing UVB radiation exposure and related health problems, including skin cancer, cataracts and suppression of the immune system . [more]

 

Manual for training of extension workers and farmers on alternatives to methyl bromide for soil fumigation. 2001.

Methyl bromide is a broad-spectrum fumigant used worldwide for the control of soilborne pests. When used as a soil fumigant, methyl bromide gas is usually applied to the soil before the crop is planted and the soil is then covered with plastic tarps. The treatment effectively kills various soil organisms, but once the tarps are removed, part of the gas will eventually enter the atmosphere. [more] [French] [Spanish]

 

Alternatives to replace methyl bromide for soil-borne pest control in East and Central Europe. 2008.

Elimination of production and consumption of Methyl Bromide (MB) would not only be important for protection of ozone layer, but it will contribute immensely to making present agriculture practices sustainable. Soil-borne pests and diseases present major challenges to the production of vegetables, legumes, ornamentals and other crops grown in open fields as well as under greenhouses. Historically, the fumigant MB was applied to soils as it could effectively control a wide range of pests. As it is a broad spectrum fumigant, little effort was put into the analysis (evaluation) of the species, role and nature of soil pest organisms present before treatment. [more]

 

Workshop on “Non-chemical alternatives to replace methyl bromide as a soil fumigant". Budapest, Hungary, 26-28 June 2008.

Soil-borne pests are a major constraint to the production of various economically important crops, especially vegetables and ornamentals. Soil disinfection is a normal practice to combat several soil-borne plant pathogens, weeds and arthropods pests, and is currently implemented before planting to avoid any damage to the crops once they are planted. Methyl bromide (MB) has been the main agent used for the control of soil-borne pests worldwide. However, the discovery of its ozone-depleting effect has prompted the parties of the Montreal Protocol to agree on a phase-out of its use and production. All country signatories to the Protocol have been identifying and validating new alternatives to replace MB. Significant progress has been made in this area: indeed, the Methyl Bromide Technical Option Committee (MBTOC) has asserted that every single crop can be produced successfully without its use. [more]

 

Core Themes