Production efficiencies are gained through nutrient management practices that promote combined use of mineral, organic and biological resources in a reasoned way to balance efficient use of limited/finite resources and ensure ecosystem sustainability against nutrient mining and degradation of soil and water resources. For example, efficient fertilizer use requires that quantities are applied that correspond with the need of crops and that the application method minimizes losses to air and/or water. Options exist for incorporating fertilizer into the soil directly (rather than broadcasting). Equally, split-applications of N-fertilizer commensurate with the plant nutrient status during the growing season should be practiced. The plant nutrient status can be monitored, for example, by using leaf-colour charts.