The glossary provides definitions of terms and acronyms relevant to the dairy sector.
traditional method of measuring the fat content of milk.
single-celled organisms living either independently or in close association with other living organisms; often referred to as microbes or micro organisms because of their microscopic size. Some bacteria are beneficial, but others cause infectious diseases.
an agent or substance capable of destroying bacteria.
a suspension of killed or attenuated bacteria (vaccine) used to increase disease resistance.
describes a substance that prevents the growth of bacteria but does not kill them.
the daily food allowance of an animal containing all the dietary requirements to meet the purpose for which it is being fed.
forage that has been compressed into a bale.
A form of packaging rather than a type of cheese. The barrel is a plastic–lined cardboard container that holds approximately 500 pounds of cheese. Barrel packaging is typically used for bulk cheese that will be further processed.
sterile, infertile, non-breeder, incapable, of producing
housing system in which animals are free to move around and rest in a common resting area in which bedding is frequently added, but infrequently removed (see also free stall housing).
a term used to designate the desirable physical conformation of a beef animal, as contrasted with a dairy animal which is trimmer (not beefy) and more angular.
the vocal sound made by a goat.
the price paid to producers for market milk when classified pricing is used. The blend price is an average of class prices weighted by the quantity of milk used in each class.
a quarter of an udder that does not secrete milk or one that has an obstruction in the teat which prevents the removal of milk. A non-functional mammary gland.
a disorder of ruminants usually characterized by an accumulation of gas in the rumen.
A form of packaging rather than a type of cheese. The block is approximately 40 pounds of cheese. Block packaging, like barrel packaging, is typically used for bulk cheese that will be further processed.
the liquid portion of blood in which the corpuscles of blood cells are suspended.
a term commonly used to describe the beauty and freshness of a cow in early lactation. A dairy cow in bloom has a smooth hair coat and presents evidence of milking ability (dairy character).
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
an indirect measure of the concentration of biodegradable substances in an aqueous solution. The degradation of organic matter uses up dissolved oxygen.
regurgitated food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed; a large pill for dosing animals.
animal bones that were steamed under pressure and then ground. It contains 1.5 to 2.5 percent nitrogen, 12 to 15 percent phosphorus, and 20 to 34 percent calcium. It is used as a fertilizer and as a mineral supplement for feeding farm animals.
pertaining to the ox or cow.
the seed coat of wheat and other cereal grains which is separated from flour and used as animal food.
animals having a common origin and characteristics that distinguish them from other groups within the same species.
the average milk production of cows for a given dairy breed.
Breeding value (genetic value)
the genetic ability or merit of an animal for a given trait, for example, secreting milk. One-half of this genetic ability is transmitted to offspring.
those native to Great Britain, such as Hereford, Angus, and Shorthorn.
an antibiotic that is active against a large number of microbial species.
a term sometimes used to indicate an udder that is pendulous and loosely attached.
a non-corrosive milk preservative in tablet or granular form (2-bromo-2-nitro propane-1,3 diol).
small, woody plants with fodder shoots used as feed by goats, sheep, and cattle.
Brucellosis (or Bang's disease)
infectious disease of animals and humans caused by Brucella bacteria.
BST (Bovine Somatotropin)
a complex, biologically active protein secreted by the pituitary gland. It stimulates body cell growth and milk production available as a synthetically produced product for use in cattle. Sometimes called "growth hormone" or BGH.
a sexually mature male goat.
Raw milk from a dairy farm, as stored in a bulk tank; in contrast with packaged milk. Other bulk products, such as condensed skim and cream, may also be transported in bulk form.
Bulk milk tank
a refrigerated stainless steel vessel in which milk is cooled quickly to 2 to 4° C and stored until picked up in a bulk tank truck.
a sexually mature uncastrated bovine male.
fatty product derived exclusively from milk and/or products obtained from milk, principally in the form of an emulsion of the type water-in-oil. (Codex Alimentarius)
there are two kinds of buttermilk. Natural buttermilk is the by-product of churning cream into butter. Cultured buttermilk is usually made from skim milk by adding a starter culture and incubating until lactic acid develops to about 0.8 percent. Salt is usually added to accentuate the flavour.