The glossary provides definitions of terms and acronyms relevant to the dairy sector.
a tag that generally is attached to the ear of a dairy animal for easy and accurate identification.
a tag that generally is attached to the ear of a dairy cow for easy and accurate identification.
Earthen storage basin
an earthen pond or basin for storing animal waste. Differs from an anaerobic treatment lagoon in that wastes are not stored for an extended period and microbial breakdown or treatment does not occur.
the projecting overhang at the lower edge of a roof.
a parasite, such as a flea, that lives on the outer surface of another animal.
Edible acid casein
The milk product obtained by separating, washing and drying the acid-precipitated coagulum of skimmed milk and/or of other products obtained from milk. (Codex Alimentarius)
The milk product obtained by action of edible casein or edible casein curd coagulum with neutralizing agents followed by drying. (Codex Alimentarius)
Edible rennet casein
The milk product obtained by separating, washing and drying the coagulum of skimmed milk and/or of other products obtained from milk. The coagulum is obtained through the reaction of rennet or other coagulating enzymes. (Codex Alimentarius)
the liquid outflow or discharge of a waste treatment process.
substance that dissociates in solution thereby becoming electrically charged. Many minerals are present in the body as electrolytes.
a wasted condition of the body; great losses of body weight or condition.
any cow or heifer that serves as a surrogate mother and carries the embryo of another cow throughout the development of the embryo and birth of the calf.
modern technology whereby multiple fertilized eggs (ova) are flushed from the donor's uterus, and are transferred to a recipient animal that serves as a surrogate mother. The fertilized ova may be frozen and stored indefinitely before they are thawed and transferred to recipients.
a parasite, such as a tapeworm, that lives within another animal.
a green chop (forage) preserved by fermentation in a silo, pit, or stack, usually in chopped form. Also called silage.
of or within the intestine.
inflammation of the intestine.
disease caused by bacterial toxins produced in the intestine.
a protein that accelerates a biochemical reaction at body temperature, without being used up in the process.
the rapid spreading of a disease so that many animals or people have it concurrently. See epizootic.
a single layer composed of closely arranged cells that form the covering of most internal surfaces and organs and the outer surface of an animal's body.
designating a widely diffused disease of animals spreading rapidly and affecting many individuals of a kind concurrently in any region, thus corresponding to an epidemic in man.
complete elimination of a disease from a region or country, especially one that is epidemic.
a plant sterol which, when activated by ultraviolet rays, becomes vitamin D2, also called provitamin d2 and ergosterin.
the act of belching or casting up gas from the stomach.
Escherichia coli (E. Coli)
a bacterial species that normally inhabits the intestine. Under certain conditions, it may become pathogenic, causing diarrhoea.
the part of a cow that extends upward just above and back of the udder where the hair turns upward in contrast to the normal downward direction of hair. Also called milk mirror.
Estimated Producing Ability (EPA)
an estimation of the amount of milk and/or components that an animal will yield above or below herd mates based on the animal's pedigree information and performance, if available. (also called estimated relative producing ability or ERPA).
Estimated Transmitting Ability (ETA)
an estimation of an animal's genetic transmitting ability based on pedigree information and the animal's performance, if available. (also called estimated average transmitting ability or EATA.)
the liquid food obtained by partial removal of water from milk. The MF and TMS contents are not less than 7.5 and 25.5 percent, respectively. It contains 25 IU vitamin D per ounce and is homogenized. The food is sealed in a container and is so processed by heat, either before or after sealing, as to prevent spoilage.
milk products which can be obtained by the partial removal of water from milk by heat, or by any other process which leads to a product of the same composition and characteristics. The fat and/or protein content of the milk may have been adjusted (...) by the addition and/or withdrawal of milk constituents in such a way as not to alter the whey protein to casein ratio of the milk being adjusted. (Codex Alimentarius)
conversion of a liquid into a gas (vapour).
the loss of heat due to evaporation at the surface of the skin or in the upper respiratory tract.
secreting outwardly, into, or through a duct.
scientist also referred to as extension dairy specialist. A land-grant university or college dairy scientist with responsibilities for educational outreach programs.
the process of exposure of tissues inside the streak canal of animals' teats. It is usually caused by prolonged milking and excessive milking vacuum or inadequate pulsation.