The glossary provides definitions of terms and acronyms relevant to the dairy sector.
factory price “F.O.B.” is an abbreviation for “free on board”. It is a geographic pricing strategy whereby the buyer pays all freight from the F.O.B. location to the destination
Faecal coliform bacteriasee
the display of oestrus by a female animal when she is pregnant.
a somewhat loosely used term to indicate cheese made by dairy farmer, at or near place of milk production. Typically, cheese production volumes are small and target niche markets.
the amount added to or subtracted from the blend price for each 0.1 percent that the milk fat is above or below 3.5 percent. For example, if the blend price is $9.00/cwt and the fat differential is 10‹C. A dairyman with milk of 4.0 percent milk fat would receive $9.50/cwt.
A product containing less than 0.5 g of fat per reference amount and per labelled serving. The product must contain no added ingredient that is fat or understood to contain fat.
Fat–corrected Milk (FCM)
Estimated quantity of milk calculated on a 4.0 percent butterfat energy basis. It is a means of evaluating milk production records of different dairy animals and breeds on a common energy basis. The following formula is used: FCM=(0.4 * milk production)+(15 * pounds of fat produced).
Federation of cooperatives
an organization of cooperatives that provides for joint activities but allows each cooperative to manage its own affairs.
Feed Efficiency (Feed Conversion)
the units of feed consumed per unit of weight increase or unit of production (milk, meat, eggs).
A milk product obtained by fermentation of milk (…) by the action of suitable microorganisms and resulting in reduction of pH with or without coagulation (iso-electric precipitation). (Codex Alimentarius)
the cellulose portion of roughages (forages) that is low in TDN and hard to digest by monogastric animals.
of a condition marked by the presence of interstitial fibrous tissue, especially in the mammary gland resulting from mastitis.
a term designating the fullness of the digestive tract of an animal. Also used to identify a phase of packaging milk and/or milk products in which containers are filled with product.
milk from which milk fat has been removed and replaced with other fats or oils.
a mastitis screening test useful in determining somatic cells present in milk by filtering and measuring the amount of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) produced.
a term commonly used to indicate the first calf born to bovine females.
an artificial opening into an animal, e.g. The rumen.
Flat barn milking
a system of milking where the person milking is on the same level or floor as the dairy animal. May be used with pipeline or bucket milking systems.
Flavoured fermented milks
composite milk products (...) which contain a maximum of 50 % (m/m) of non-dairy ingredients (such as nutritive and non nutritive sweeteners, fruits and vegetables as well as juices, purees, pulps, preparations and preserves derived therefrom, cereals, honey, chocolate, nuts, coffee, spices and other harmless natural flavouring foods) and/or flavours. The non-dairy ingredients can be mixed in prior to/or after fermentation. (Codex Alimentarius)
A subclass of fluid (packaged milks) to which flavouring has been added, such as chocolate, strawberry and vanilla.
small, wingless, bloodsucking insects that have legs adapted for jumping and are often parasitic on warm-blooded animals.
milk commonly marketed as fresh liquid milks and creams. It is the most perishable form of milk and commands the highest price per unit volume. Also called market milk.
Fluid milk products
milk, flavoured milk, concentrated milk, filled milk, skim milk, fortified skim milk, low fat milk, buttermilk, milk drinks, and cream products.
a trematode worm infesting the liver and characterized by a flat body shaped like a simple tree leaf.
Time of the year, usually spring and early summer, of maximum milk production. During this period, manufacturing facilities are usually operating at full capacity because there is a considerable daily surplus above the market fluid needs.
coarse food for cattle or other livestock, such as corn stalks or straw.
roughage of high feeding value. Grasses and legumes cut at the proper stage of maturity and stored to preserve quality are forage. A crop that is high in fibre and grown especially to feed ruminant animals.
the two front quarters of the udder. Also called fore udder.
expressing streams of milk from the teat prior to machine milking to determine visual quality and to stimulate "letdown."
inflammation of foot and lower leg of ruminant animals caused by overeating grain or green grass.
any practice a herd owner or his or her agent may use that impairs or attempts to impair the reliability of any official dhi record.
Free stall barn
an on–farm structure that houses dairy cows. It consists of multiple individual stalls arranged in rows with the rows separated by alleys. Free stall barns are open–sided structures with only a roof supported by poles. Cows are free to wander and occupy any open stall when in the barn, as opposed to a stanchion barn, in which cows occupy designated stalls.
Free stall housing
housing system, in which animals are free to move around and rest in individual stalls (resting cubicles or "beds") in which bedding is infrequently added (see also bedded pack).
a feeding system that allows animals to eat at will.
female born twin to a bull calf (about 9 out of 10 of these will not conceive). A sterile heifer born twin with a bull.
a method of identification to aid in easily identifying livestock. Most commonly, liquid nitrogen is used to lower the temperature of a branding iron to permanently lighten the hair color where applied.
the evaporation of water from a frozen product with the aid of high vacuum. Also called lyophilization.
a cow that has recently given birth to a calf. Also refers to dairy products having original qualities unimpaired and those recently produced or processed.
commonly used to designate the act of calving (parturition); to give birth to a calf and concurrently initiate lactation.
animals having the same sire and dam, such as full brothers, full sisters, and/or a full brother-sister pair.