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Sustaining communities, wildlife and livestock: A guide to participatory land use planning

Sustaining communities, wildlife and livestock: A guide to participatory land use planning is a decision support tool designed is designed to help communities and policy-makers at local and national levels make informed choices regarding land use, business ventures, and public policy in pastoral areas, particularly the Maasai Steppe and other semi-arid parts of East Africa.

The tool is intended for practitioners working on participatory natural resource use and management. It will be useful for district and village officers, the private sector and government representatives, NGOs and development agencies involved in the processes of land-use planning and natural resource management.


Purposes of this decision support tool include:

  • To enable policy-makers and community members to better understand ow and why the physical landscape of East Africa is changing, particularly in pastoral areas of Tanzania and Kenya.
  • To provide how-to guidance on land-use planning, both at national and local levels.
  • To offer fresh ideas and possibilities for conservation-based businesses that work in livestock/wildlife areas, so that communities can make a better living in their traditional areas.
  • To help guide communities, and outside facilitators, through the processes of managing conflicts over land use; developing community-based nature conservancies (particularly Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania); and managing livestock health in areas rich in wildlife.
  • To offer a repository of lessons learned and methods developed under the project and beyond.

Main features

The guide features six modules offering suggestions, steps, and experience to other communities facing similar challenges of livelihood change and co-existence with wildlife.

Module 1, Land-use planning: an introduction for policy makers aims primarily to help regional and national policy-makers understand the dynamics of land-use change in pastoral/wildlife areas. It introduces the essentials of large-scale land-use planning, the importance of envisioning a more sustainable and equitable future, and how modeling can help people see how different scenarios for land use might develop.

Module 2, Mapping our community’s future: why and how to practice participatory land-use planning introduces how a community can dream and plan its own future. It features exercises to include all stakeholders in designing a better way to share land and reduce conflicts over resources.

Module 3, Wildlife can work for you: creating a conservation-based venture (CBV) gives communities concrete steps and examples of CBVs that can work for them.

Module 4, Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs): benefits, challenges and steps is designed mainly to inform community members and leaders on what to expect for both process and results.

Module 5, Conflict in community: managing conflicts in areas with livestock, farming and wildlife presents time-honoured principles of safeguarding relationships while managing conflicts in communities.

Module 6, Managing livestock diseases near wildlife sanctuaries in East Africa shares important facts and updates on diseases transmission between livestock and wildlife and gives tips on prevention that communities and policymakers can implement.